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The Civil War 1861-1865

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Title: The Civil War 1861-1865


1
The Civil War1861-1865

2
The war begins
  • Lincoln inaugurated March 1861
  • Unclear how he would respond to SC the other 6
    states
  • He assured southerners that he had no intention
    of interfering with slavery
  • He warned that no state had the right to secede

3
  • In your hands, my dissatisfied
    fellow-countrymen, and not in mine is the
    momentous issue of civil war. The government
    will not assail you. You can have no conflict
    without being yourselves the aggressors.
  • --Abraham Lincoln, Inauguration speech.

4
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5
Fort Sumter
  • 2 forts in the South were still occupied by
    Federal troops
  • One was Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC
  • Lincoln chose to send supplies to the fort
    allow SC to decide whether or not to allow it
  • Confederates began bombarding Ft. Sumter on April
    12, 1861

6
President Abraham Lincolns reaction
  • Acted as no other president had before him
  • Often acting without approval of Congress
  • Claim such action as necessary as indispensable
    to the public safety.

7
Lincoln
  • Called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the
    insurrection
  • 90 day enlistment period
  • Authorized spending for the war
  • Suspended the writ of habeas corpus
  • Congress was not in session when Lincoln did
    these things

8
The Souths Reaction
  • After Ft. Sumter 4 other southern states seceded
  • Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas
  • The capital was moved to Richmond, VA
  • 4 slaveholding states remained in the Union
  • Border states
  • Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Delaware

9
Border States
  • Keeping the border states in the Union was
    imperative to Lincoln
  • Loss of these states would have increased the
    population of the CS by 50
  • These states were strategically important for the
    war
  • Lincoln was reluctant to push for emancipation
    fearing alienation of these states

10
Civil War Names
  • The War Between the States
  • The War for Southern Independence
  • Mr. Lincolns War
  • The Southern Rebellion
  • The War of the Rebellion
  • The Second War for Independence
  • The War to Suppress Yankee Arrogance
  • The War Against Northern Aggression
  • The War of the Southern Planters
  • The War for the Union
  • The War for Southern Freedom
  • The Lost Cause

11
Civil War Nicknames
  • Confederate States of America
  • The South, CS, CSA, Rebels, Confederates, Johnny
    Reb, Secesh
  • SC, NC, GA, FL, MS, AL, TN, AK, VA, TX, LA
  • United States of America
  • The North, US, USA, Yankees, Billy Yank,
    Federals, Bluebellies

12
First Modern War
  • Rifled muskets
  • Telegraph
  • Ironclad ships
  • Submarines
  • Total warfare
  • Workable machine gun
  • Aerial reconnaissance
  • Field trenches
  • Photography of battle
  • Repeating rifles
  • Bugle call Taps
  • Income tax

13
Military Advantages
  • CS
  • Fight a defensive war
  • Move troops shorter distances
  • Long coast difficult to blockade
  • Experienced military leaders
  • US
  • Population 22 million vs. 5.5 million
  • 2.51 free males 4.41
  • 800,000 immigrants
  • Freed slaves
  • US Navy

14
Economic Advantages
  • CS
  • Hoped overseas demand for cotton would draw
    support from foreign powers, esp. the U.K.
  • US
  • Controlled most of the banking capital of the
    US
  • Wealth produced 31 (factory production 101)
  • 85 of all factories manufactured goods
  • Transportation (railroad mileage 71)
  • 70 of railroads
  • 65 of farmland

15
Political Advantages
  • The North
  • Well established strong central government
  • Strong leadership of Abraham Lincoln
  • The South
  • Hurt by its own ideology of states rights
  • Lacked a strong central government
  • Hoped that the North would turn on Lincoln get
    tired of the war

16
Strategies
  • Northern strategy
  • Capture Richmond
  • Occupy border states
  • Divide the CS in two by taking control of
    Mississippi River
  • Blockade southern ports cut off supply line to
    South
  • Anaconda Plan
  • Southern strategy
  • Capture Washington, D.C.
  • Control border states
  • Gain support of England
  • Theatres
  • Western theatre
  • Eastern theatre

17
Confederate States of America
18
C.S.A.
  • Constitution modeled after U.S. Constitution
  • One 6-year term for president v.p.
  • President had item veto power
  • Congress could not pass protective tariffs or
    fund internal improvements
  • Foreign slave trade was prohibited
  • Pres. Davis struggled to increase power of the
    presidency during the war state governors
    resisted
  • The CS faced serious shortage of money during the
    warissued more than 1 billion in paper money
  • Worth less than 2 cents by end of the war

19
Civil War Battles
  • South named battles after town or settlement
  • Battle of Manassas
  • North named battles after nearest water
  • Battle of Bull Run

20
Civil War Battles
  • First Bull Run (US) or First Manassas (CS),
    Virginia (July 1861)
  • First battle of the Civil War, July 1861
  • On to Richmond
  • Believed it would be a short war
  • US Gen. Irvin McDowell vs. CS Gen. Joseph
    Johnston
  • US troops initially winning
  • CS counterattack led by Thomas (Stonewall)
    Jackson sends US fleeing back to Washington, DC
  • Ended the illusion of a short war
  • Peninsula Campaign (March 1862)
  • Gen. George McClellan replaced Gen. McDowell
  • Pressured to make a move invaded Virginia
  • Stopped by Gen. Robert E. Lee was ordered back
    after 5 mos.
  • Replaced by Gen. John Pope

21
Battle of Mill Springs
  • Mill Springs, Kentucky, January 19, 1862
  • US Gen. George Thomas vs. CS Gen. George
    Crittenden
  • Confederates defeated forced out of Kentucky
  • CS General Felix Zollicoffer killed
  • Enabled US to carry war into Tennessee

22
Civil War Battles
  • Ft. Henry Ft. Donelson, Kentucky, February 1862
  • US Gen. U.S. Grant captured both forts
  • Unconditional Surrender Grant

23
Civil War Battles
  • Monitor vs. Merrimac (March 1862)
  • Clash of the Ironclads

24
  • Shiloh, Tennessee (April 6-7, 1862)
  • US Gen. Grant vs. CS Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston
    Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard
  • Gen. Johnston mortally wounded
  • US victory after reinforcements arrived under
    Gen. Buell
  • US casualties 13,000, CS casualties 11,000
  • Second Manassas or Second Bull Run, VA, (August
    1862)
  • CS Gen. Lee vs. US Gen. Pope
  • CS victory

25
  • Antietam, Maryland (September 22, 1862)
  • Lees first advance into northern territory
  • Hoped a victory in the North would gain
    recognition support from Britain
  • US Gen. McClellan was once again in command
  • Knew CS plans b/c a CS gen. had dropped them
  • Single bloodiest day in American military history
  • Over 22,000 killed or wounded
  • US claims victory after CS army retreats to VA
  • McClellan replaced by Lincoln for not pursuing
    Leebad case of the slows
  • Replaced by Gen. Ambrose Burnside
  • Lincoln uses victory to issue Emancipation
    Proclamation

26
Battle of FredericksburgDecember 1862
  • US Gen. Burnside vs. CS Gen. Lee
  • Burnside recklessly attacks entrenched CS army
  • 12,000 US casualties vs. 5,000 CS casualties
  • Robert E. Lee "It is well that war is so
    terrible, or we should grow too fond of it."

27
Perryville, KY (October 8, 1862)
  • CS Gen. Braxton Bragg vs. US Gen. Don Carlos
    Buell
  • CS offensive into Kentucky
  • US victory

28
Foreign Affairs
  • CS needed foreign support
  • Counting on Britain Frances dependence on
    King Cotton
  • British aristocracy wanted American democracy to
    fail
  • Why Cotton Diplomacy failed
  • Europe found other sources of cotton
  • Wool linen also used as alternatives
  • CS defeat at Antietam
  • Emancipation Proclamation

29
Trent Affair
  • CS diplomats James Mason John Slidell on a
    mission to Britain aboard British steamer the
    Trent
  • US warship stopped the Trent, removed Mason
    Trent, brought them to the US as POWs
  • Britain demanded their release threatened war
  • Lincoln acquiesced
  • They went to Britain their mission failed

30
Confederate raiders
  • CS purchased warships from Britain
  • CS commerce-raiders effective against US merchant
    ships
  • CSS Alabama captured 60 ships before being sunk
  • Britain paid the US 15.5 million after the war
    for damages caused

31
Slavery
32
Slavery
  • Lincoln was reluctant to free slaves during the
    war
  • Keep support of border states
  • Constitutional protections of slavery
  • Prejudices of northerners
  • Fear that premature action could be overturned in
    the next election

33
Confiscation Acts
  • May 1861, US Gen. Benjamin Butler refused to
    return slaves to southerners calling them
    contraband of war
  • Confiscation Act, 1861
  • Used legal basis of the power to seize enemy
    property used to wage war against the US
  • Thousands of contrabands fled to Union camps
  • Second Confiscation Act, July 1862
  • Freed slaves of persons engaged in rebellion
    against the US
  • Empowered the president to use freed slaves in
    the Union army in any capacity

34
Emancipation Proclamation
  • After Antietam, Lincoln warned that slaves in all
    states still in rebellion on 1/1/1863 would be
    then, thencefoward, and forever free.
  • Justified by calling it a military necessity
  • It listed each state in rebellion stated
  • I do order declare that all persons held as
    slaves within said designated states are,
    henceforward shall be, free that the Executive
    Government of the US, including the military
    naval authorities thereof, shall recognize
    maintain the freedom of said persons.

35
Consequences
  • No slaves were immediately freed
  • Only applied to states out of Union control
  • Slavery continued in border states
  • Committed US govt. to a policy of abolition
  • Enlarged purpose of the war
  • Fighting slavery as well as secession rebellion
  • Added weight to the Confiscation acts
  • Number of slaves fleeing to Union lines increased
  • Authorized the recruitment of freed slaves as
    Union soldiers

36
13th Amendment
  • This amendment to the Constitution was needed to
    free slaves in the border states due to phrases
    in the Constitution that seemed to legitimize
    slavery
  • Ratified in December 1865
  • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
    except as a punishment for crime whereof the
    party shall have been duly convicted, shall exit
    within the U.S., or any place subject to their
    jurisdiction.

37
Freedmen
  • After the Emancipation Proclamation about one
    quarter of slave population walked away sought
    the protection of the Union army
  • Almost 200,000 served in the Union army navy
  • Segregated into all black units
  • 54th Massachusetts
  • Glory

38
Chancellorsville, VA (April 1863)
  • CS Gen. Lee vs. US Gen. Joseph Hooker
  • Thomas Stonewall Jackson mortally wounded by
    his own men
  • CS victory
  • Lees greatest victory

39
Turning Point of the war
  • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (July 1-3, 1863)
  • CS Gen. Lee vs. US Gen. George Meade
  • Lees second invasion of the North
  • Hoped to force the North to call for peace or
    obtain foreign intervention
  • Largest battle of the Civil War
  • Casualties 23,000 Union, 28,000 Confederate
  • Last offensive for the CS army
  • US victory
  • Vicksburg, Mississippi (July 4, 1863)
  • US Gen. Grant laid siege
  • US victory, Union gains control of the
    Mississippi River

40
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
  • Lincoln moved Grant West in 1864
  • Given command of entire Union army
  • Grants plan was to outlast Lee in a war of
    attrition

41
Shermans March
  • US Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
  • Led 100,000 men from Chattanooga, TN across GA
    up into SC leaving a path of destruction
  • Destroyed everything in their pathcotton fields,
    barns, houses, etc.
  • Total war
  • Wanted to break the will of the people
  • Captured Atlanta in Sept. 64 in time to help
    Lincoln get reelected

42
Shermans March
  • Presented Lincoln with Savannah, GA 12/25/64
  • Set fire to Columbia, SC in Feb 1865
  • War is hell

43
Election of 1864
  • Democrats nominated
  • Gen. George McClellan
  • Platform peace
  • Unionist party (Republicans)
  • nominated Lincoln with loyal Democrat Sen. Andrew
    Johnson as running mate
  • Party changed name to attract War Democrats
  • Lincoln won electoral votes 212/21
  • McClellan did get 45 of popular vote

44
End of the war
  • Spring 1865
  • Effects of Union blockade Shermans march were
    taking their toll
  • Grant continued to outflank Lee
  • April 3, 1865 Richmond, VA fell
  • CS tried to negotiate for peace
  • Lincoln wanted restoration of Union Davis
    wanted independence

45
Appomattox Court House, VA
  • Lee surrendered to Grant
  • April 9, 1865
  • Grant gave Lee generous surrender terms

46
Lincolns Assassination
  • April 14, 1865 Lincoln assassinated by John
    Wilkes Booth
  • Lincoln was at Fords Theatre watching My
    American Cousin
  • A coconspirator attacked Sec. of State William
    Seward
  • The North was outraged

47
Effects of the War
48
Politics
  • Republicans had majorities in both houses but
    were divided
  • Moderates (Free-Soilers)
  • Radicalswho wanted immediate abolition
  • Most Democrats supported the war but criticized
    Lincolns conduct of it
  • Peace Democrats (Copperheads) opposed the war
    wanted peace
  • Congressman Clement Vallandigham, Ohio, briefly
    banished for his pro-Confederate speeches

49
Civil Liberties
  • Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in
    Maryland other states where pro-Confederate
    sentiment was high
  • People could be arrested without being charged
    with a crime indefinitely
  • About 13,000 people were arrested on suspicion of
    aiding the enemy
  • Democrats called Lincoln a tyrant
  • Ex Parte Milligan (1866) Supreme Court ruled the
    government had acted improperly in trying
    civilians in military courts

50
Conscription
  • US Conscription Act (March 1863) all men between
    20 45 liable for military service but could
    find a substitute or pay a 300 exemption fee
  • Strong opposition from poor laborers
  • July 1863 draft riots in New York City
  • Led mostly by Irish Americans against blacks
    wealthy whites
  • Federal troops had to restore order
  • Both North South had to use the draft

51
New York Draft Riots
52
Financing the war
  • North
  • Borrowed 2.6 billion through the sale of bonds
  • Raised tariffs (Morrill Tariff Act, 1861)
  • Excise taxes
  • First income tax
  • Issued over 430 million in paper currency
    (greenbacks)
  • Caused inflationprices rose about 80

53
Republican legislation
  • Morrill Tariff Act (1861) raised tariff rates to
    raise revenue protect US businesses
  • Homestead Act (1862) promoted settlement of the
    Plains offered 160 acres of land free to anyone
    who would farm it for 5 years
  • Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) encouraged states
    to use the sale of federal land grants to
    maintain agricultural technical colleges
  • National Banking System (1863)to manage revenue

54
Effects on women
  • Field of nursing was opened up to women for the
    first time
  • Clara Barton (right)
  • Responsibilities taken on by women during the war
    gave impetus to the suffrage movement

55
  • 4 million slaves freed
  • 620,000 people died
  • 15 billion in war costs property losses
  • Devastated the economy of the South
  • Transformed the US into a modern industrial
    society

56
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