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Interactions of Living Things

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Interactions of Living Things The Environment Ecology All organism, from the smallest bacteria to a blue whale, interact with their environment Ecology: the study of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interactions of Living Things


1
Interactions of Living Things
  • The Environment

2
Ecology
  • All organism, from the smallest bacteria to a
    blue whale, interact with their environment
  • Ecology the study of the interactions among
    organisms and their environment
  • Abiotic factors nonliving parts of the
    environment
  • Biotic factors living or once-living organisms
    in the environment

3
Abiotic Factors
  • Examples of abiotic factors water, sunlight,
    temperature, air, and soil
  • These factors are important in determining which
    organisms are able to live in a particular
    environment

4
Ecologist study biotic and abiotic factors in an
environment and the relationship among them.
Many times, ecologists must travel to specific
environments to examine the organisms that live
there.
5
Water
  • All living things need water to survive
  • The bodies of most organisms are 50 95 water
  • More than 95 of Earths surface water is found
    in the oceans
  • Saltwater environment in the oceans is home to a
    vast number of species
  • Freshwater environments support thousands of
    types of organisms

6
  • Saltwater accounts for 97 of the water on Earth.
    It is found in the seas and oceans.
  • Only 3 of Earths water in freshwater

7
Light
  • Light and temperature affect the environment
  • The availability of sunlight is a major factor in
    determining where green plants live
  • Algae live near the waters surface where
    sunlight can penetrate
  • Little sunlight reaches the forest floor, so very
    few plants grow close to the forest floor

8
Flowers that grow on the forest floor grow during
the spring when they receive the most sunlight.
9
Temperature
  • Temperature can determine which plants and
    animals can live in a region
  • Some areas of the world have a fairly consistent
    temp. year round, but others vary
  • Water environments throughout the world also have
    a widely varied temp.
  • Plant and animal species found in the freezing
    cold Arctic, in the extremely hot water, and
    every temp. in betwee,

10
Air
  • Although you cant see the air that surrounds
    you, it has an impact on the lives of most
    species
  • Composed of a mixture of gases
  • Polluted air can cause the species in an area to
    change, move, or die off
  • All species are affected by the weather in the
    area that they live

11
Air pollution can come from many different
sources. Air quality in an area affects the
health and survival of the species that live
there.
12
Soil
  • From one environment to another, soil can vary
    greatly
  • Soil type is determined by the amounts of sand,
    silt, and clay it contains
  • Different plants need different kinds of soil
  • Soil affects every organism in an environment

13
Soil provides a home for many species of animal.
14
Biotic Factors
  • Abiotic factors do not provide everything an
    organism needs for survival
  • Organisms depend on other organisms for food,
    shelter, protection, and reproduction
  • How organisms interact with one another and with
    abiotic factors can be described in an organized
    way

15
Levels of Organization
  • The living world is highly organized
  • Atoms molecules cells tissues organs
    organ systems organisms
  • Biotic and abiotic factors also can be arranged
    into levels of biological organization
  • Organism population community ecosystem
    biome biosphere

16
Organism An organism is one individual from a
population.
17
Populations
  • All the members of one species that live together
    make up a population
  • EX. All of the catfish living in a lake at the
    same time make up a population
  • Members of a population compete for food, water,
    mates, and space
  • The resources of the environment and the ways the
    organisms use these resources determine how large
    a population can become

18
Population All of the individuals of one
species that live in the same area at the same
time make up a population
19
Communities
  • Most populations of organisms do not live alone
  • They live and interact with populations of other
    types of organisms
  • Groups of populations that interact with each
    other in a given area form a community
  • Populations of organisms in a community depend on
    each other for food, shelter, and other needs

20
Community The populations of different species
that interact in some way are called a community.
21
Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem is made up of a biotic community and
    the abiotic factors that affect it
  • Ex. Coral reefs, forests, and ponds

22
Ecosystem All of the communities in an area and
the abiotic factors that affect them make up an
ecosystem.
23
Biomes
  • Scientist divide Earth into different regions
    called biomes
  • A biome is a large region with plant and animal
    groups that are well adapted to the soil and
    climate of the region
  • Many different ecosystems are found in a biome

24
Biome a biome is a large region with plants and
animals well adapted to the soil and climate of
the region.
25
This map shows some of the major biomes of the
world. What biome do you live in?
26
Biosphere
  • The part of Earth that supports life is the
    biosphere
  • Includes the top part of Earths crust, all the
    waters that cover Earths surface, the
    surrounding atmosphere, and all biomes
  • The biosphere is only a small part of Earth

27
Biosphere The level of biological organization
that is made up of all the ecosystems on Earth is
the biosphere.
28
Quiz
  • What is an ecosystem?
  • How are the terms ecology and environment
    related?
  • Explain how biotic factors change in an ecosystem
    that has flooded.

29
Answers
  • All of the communities in an area and the abiotic
    factors that affect them
  • Ecology is the study of the interactions among
    organisms and their environment
  • Organisms that do no live in water would die.
    Other water organisms might move into the
    ecosystem
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