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AP English Literature

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... revising the biblical promise of divine redemption in terms of a ... variety of literary ... 1_layers ap english literature a period of great change ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP English Literature


1
AP English Literature
  • THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
  • 1785-1830

2
A PERIOD OF GREAT CHANGE
  • FOR CENTURIES ENGLAND HAD BEEN AN AGRICULTURAL
    SOCIETY W/ A POWERFUL LANDHOLDING ARISTOCRACY.

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PERIOD OF CHANGE (cont.)
  • NOW THE COUNTRY WAS BEING TRANSFORMED INTO A
    MODERN INDUSTRIAL NATION OF LARGE-SCALE EMPLOYERS
    A GROWING, RESTLESS MIDDLE CLASS.

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THE POLITICAL CONTEXT
  • THE AMERICAN FRENCH REVOLU-TIONS
  • ECONOMIC INFLATION DEPRESSION
  • THREATS TO THE EXISTING SOCIAL ORDER FROM NEW,
    REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS

12
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • AT FIRST WIDELY SUPPORTED BY ENGLISH LIBERALS
    RADICALS, WHO ADVOCATED A DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC FOR
    ENGLAND THROUGH EITHER PEACEFUL EVOLUTION OR
    POPULAR REVOLUTION.

13
FRENCH REVOLUTION (cont.)
  • AS THE REVOLUTION BECAME IN-CREASINGLY BLOODY,
    HOWEVER (CULMINATING IN THE REIGN OF TERROR),
    ENGLISH SYMPATHY WANED.

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FRENCH REVOLUTION (cont.)
  • NAPOLEAN, THE CHAMPION OF THE REVOLUTION, HIMSELF
    BECAME A DICTATOR WHO WAS ULTIMATELY DEFEATED BY
    OTHER REACTION-ARY TYRANTS.

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CONDITIONS IN ENGLAND
  • A TIME OF HARSH POLITICAL RE-PRESSION, IN SPITE
    OF THE NEED FOR POLITICAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT
    BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLU-TION.

18
PHYSICAL SOCIAL CHANGES
  • MILL TOWNS GREW.
  • THE LANDSCAPE WAS INCREASINGLY SUBDIVIDED.
  • FACTORIES SPEWED SMOKE POL-LUTION OVER
    EVER-EXPANDING SLUMS.
  • THE POPULATION WAS INCREASING-LY DIVIDED INTO
    RICH POOR.

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22
LACK OF REFORM
  • ECONOMIC POLITICAL REFORMS WERE SLOW TO OCCUR
    BECAUSE OF THE PREVAILING LAISSEZ-FAIRE (LET
    ALONE) PHILOSOPHY.

23
Impact of Industrial Revolution on the Common
People
  • THE MOST IMPORTANTASPECT OF THE I.R. WAS THE
    APPLICATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRINCIPLES OF
    PRODUCTION TO HUMAN WORK
  • THE MACHINE BECAME A MODEL OF THE FACTORY
  • ASSEMBLY LINES AND MASS PRODUCTION RESULTED FROM
    THIS DEVELOPMENT
  • WORKING PEOPLE WERE PUT UNDER DANGEROUS AND
    DEHUMANIZING CONDITONS FOR LOW WAGES

24
LACK OF REFORM (cont.)
  • THE CONSEQUENCES WERE LOW WAGES FOR MOST WORKERS,
    HORRI-BLE WORKING CONDITIONS, LARGE-SCALE
    EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN CHILDREN IN CRUSHING
    OCCUPATIONS (SUCH AS COAL MIN-ING).

25
LACK OF REFORM (cont.)
  • IN THE FACE OF ECONOMIC DEPRES-SION
    TECHNOLOGICAL UNEM-PLOYMENT, WORKERS (WHO HAD NO
    VOTE) HAD TO RESORT TO PROTESTS RIOTS,
    INCURRING FURTHER RE-PRESSION.

26
LACK OF REFORM (cont.)
  • WHILE THE POOR OF ENGLAND SUFFERED, HOWEVER, THE
    LEISURE CLASS PROSPERED.

27
THE PLIGHT OF WOMEN
  • WOMEN OF ALL CLASSES WERE REGARDED AS INFERIOR TO
    MEN HAD ALMOST NO LEGAL RIGHTS.

28
PLIGHT OF WOMEN (cont.)
  • WOMEN WERE UNDEREDUCATED, HAD LIMITED VOCATIONAL
    OPPOR-TUNITIES, AND WERE SUBJECT TO A STRICT CODE
    OF SEXUAL CONDUCT.

29
PLIGHT OF WOMEN (cont.)
  • THOUGH THE CAUSE OF WOMENS RIGHTS WAS LARGELY
    IGNORED, REFORM OF MALE POLITICAL RIGHTS
    GRADUALLY MOVED FORWARD.

30
ROMANTICISM
  • A DIFFICULT TERM TO DEFINE BECAUSE OF THE VARIETY
    OF LITERARY ACHIEVEMENTS, AND WRITERS OF THE
    PERIOD WERE ONLY LATER LABELED ROMANTIC.

31
ROMANTICISM (cont.)
  • BUT MANY HAD A SENSE OF THE SPIRIT OF THE
    AGETHAT A GREAT RELEASE OF CREATIVE ENERGY WAS
    OCCURING AS AN ACCOMPANIMENT TO POLITICAL AND
    SOCIAL CHANGE.

32
ROMANTICISM (cont.)
  • THE ROMANTIC PERIOD WAS SEEN BY MANY AS AN AGE OF
    NEW BEGINNINGS AND UNLIMITED POSSIBILITIES.

33
ENLIGHTMENT VS. ROMANTICISM
  • ENLIGHTMENT ENSHIRNED REASON ROMANTICS
    CELEBRATED MADNESS
  • ENLIGHTMENT CRITICIZED ENTHUSIASM AND DISTRUSTED
    THE EMOTIONAL SIDE OF HUMANITY ROMANTICS CALLED
    ON HUMANS TO TRUST THEIR INSTINCTS AND FEELINGS
  • ENLIGHTENMENT BELIEVED SCIENCE WAS THE IDEAL OF
    HUMAN ACHIEVEMENT ROMANTICS EMPHASIZED POETRY

34
ENLIGHTMENT VS. ROMANTICISM
  • ENLIGHTENMENT EMPHASIZED PROGRESS ROMANTICS
    SOUGHT TO RETURN TO AN IDEALIZED PAST, WHILE ALSO
    REALIZING THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF SUCH A RETURN
  • THEREFORE
  • ROMANTICS REPLACED THE ENLIGHTENMENTS OPTIMISM
    WITH A SENSE OF TRAGEDY AND MELANCHOLIA

35
THE BIG SIX OF ENGLISH ROMANTICISM
  • WILLIAM BLAKE (1757-1827)
  • WILLIAM WORDSWORTH (1770-1850)
  • SAMUELTAYLOR COLERIDGE (1772-1834)
  • GEORGE GORDON, LORD BYRON (1788-1824)
  • PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY(1792-1822)
  • JOHN KEATS (17951821)

36
FATHERS OF ROMANTIC POETRY
  • WORDSWORTH AND COLERIDGE PUBLISHED THE LYRICAL
    BALLADS IN 1798
  • VOLUME CONTAINED TINTERN ABBEY (WORDSWORTH) AND
    RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER (COLERIDGE)

37
POETIC THEORY PRACTICE
  • WILLIAM WORDSWORTH (1770-1850) TRIED TO
    ARTICULATE THE SPIRIT OF THE NEW POETRY OF THE
    PERIOD IN THE PREFACE TO LYRICAL BALLADS (1800,
    1802).

38
ROMANTIC POETRY
  • THE ROMANTIC CONCEPTION OF POETRY WAS OF THE
    SPONTANEOUS OVERFLOW OF POWERFUL FEEL-INGS.

39
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • THE ESSENCE OF POETIC CONTENT WAS SEEN AS THE
    MIND, EMOTIONS, AND IMAGINATION OF THE POET (NOT
    THE OUTER WORLD).

40
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • THE FIRST-PERSON LYRIC POEM BE-CAME THE MAJOR
    LITERARY FORM OF THE ERA, WITH THE I OF THE
    POEM OFTEN REFERRING DIRECTLY TO THE POET.

41
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • IN KEEPING WITH THIS, POEMS ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT
    OF THE SELF BECAME A MAJOR POETIC FORM.

42
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • ROMANTIC POETS ALSO OFTEN SAW THEMSELVES AS
    PROPHETS IN A TIME OF CRISIS, REVISING THE
    BIBLICAL PROMISE OF DIVINE REDEMPTION IN TERMS OF
    A HEAVEN ON EARTH.

43
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • ROMANTICISM ALSO PLACES GREAT EMPHASIS ON THE
    CONCEPT OF POETIC SPONTANEITY FREEDOM.

44
POETIC SPONTANEITY (cont.)
  • IN THE ROMANTIC VIEW, THE INI-TIAL ACT OF POETIC
    COMPOSITION MUST ARISE FROM IMPULSE, BE FREE FROM
    RULES INHERITED FROM THE PAST, AND RELY ON
    INSTINCT, INTUITION, AND FEELING.

45
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • ROMANTIC POETS ALSO EMPHASIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF
    ACCURATELY OBSERVING AND DESCRIBING NATURE, WHICH
    SERVES AS A STIMULUS TO THINKING AND TO THE
    RESOLUTION OF PERSONAL PROBLEMS AND CRISES.

46
ROLE OF NATURE (cont.)
  • IN ROMANTIC POETRY THE LAND-SCAPE IS OFTEN GIVEN
    HUMAN QUALITIES OR SEEN AS A SYMBOL SYSTEM
    REVEALING THE NATURE OF THE DIVINE.

47
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • ROMANTIC POETS ALSO FREQUENT-LY GLORIFY THE
    COMMONPLACE.
  • IN THIS PERIOD, HUMBLE, RUSTIC SUBJECT MATTER AND
    PLAIN STYLE BECAME THE PRINCIPAL SUBJECT AND
    MEDIUM OF POETRY.

48
THE COMMONPLACE (cont.)
  • ROMANTIC POETS SOUGHT TO RE-FRESH READERS SENSE
    OF WONDER ABOUT THE ORDINARY THINGS OF LIFE, TO
    MAKE THE OLD SEEM NEW.

49
ROMANTIC POETRY (cont.)
  • IN SPITE OF THE ABOVE COMMENTS ABOUT GLORIFYING
    THE COMMON-PLACE, MANY ROMANTIC POEMS ALSO
    EXPLORE THE REALM OF MYSTERY AND MAGIC, THE
    STRANGE AND SUPERNATURAL.

50
THE STRANGE (cont.)
  • THESE KINDS OF POEMS OFTEN IN-CORPORATE MATERIAL
    FROM FOLK-LORE, SUPERSTITION, ETC. AND ARE SET IN
    FARAWAY PLACES OR THE DISTANT PAST.

51
THE STRANGE (cont.)
  • ROMANTIC POETS OFTEN SHOWED AN INTEREST IN
    UNUSUAL MODES OF EXPERIENCE, SUCH AS VISIONARY
    STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, HYPNO-TISM, DREAMS,
    DRUG-INDUCED STATES, AND SO FORTH.
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