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Unpleasant reactions to food

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Unpleasant reactions to food Extension Learning objectives To understand there are many different reasons for unpleasant reactions to food. To know which foods may ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unpleasant reactions to food


1
Unpleasant reactions to food
Extension
2
Learning objectives
  • To understand there are many different reasons
    for unpleasant reactions to food.
  • To know which foods may cause a food intolerance
    and/or allergy.
  • To recognise the symptoms of food intolerance and
    /or allergy.
  • To understand the severity of peanut allergies.
  • To recognise the seriousness of anaphylaxis.
  • To understand the terms oral allergy syndrome and
    exercise induced food allergy.
  • To define the term food aversion.
  • To understand the cause and effects of lactose
    intolerance and coeliac disease.

3
Food intolerance
  • Most people can eat foods without any problems
    although they may have different likes or
    dislikes that influence what they choose.
  • However, some people react to certain foods and
    eating them may cause uncomfortable symptoms or,
    in rare cases, a severe illness.

4
Assistance with a food intolerance
  • It is important that people who think they
    suffer from a food intolerance do not change
    their diet dramatically so that it becomes
    unbalanced.
  • They should take advice from a dietitian or
    doctor to make sure that the medical condition is
    properly diagnosed. Care needs to be taken to
    ensure that their diet contains a wide variety of
    foods to provide all the nutrients they need,
    particularly the nutrient/s normally provided by
    the foods they cannot eat.
  • It is important to consume a balanced diet for
    good health.

5
The eatwell plate
  • The eatwell plate is the UK guide to help people
    achieve a balanced diet for good health.

6
Reasons for food intolerance
  • There are many different reasons for unpleasant
    reactions to food and these are generally
    referred to as food intolerances.
  • Most unpleasant reactions to food are not true
    food allergies.
  • A food allergy is one particular type of food
    intolerance. This is a reaction that involve the
    bodys immune system. Food intolerances may cause
    uncomfortable symptoms, but only true allergies
    involve the immune system.

7
Food allergies
  • A true allergy is a reaction by the immune
    system. The immune system is the bodys defence
    system, it protects against foreign particles
    like bacteria and viruses. Sometimes it may react
    to substances in foods, or in the environment.
  • This is an allergic reaction. Some people are
    allergic to particular components of food, for
    example the proteins in wheat or egg.
  • The symptoms of an allergic response may be very
    similar to those of a food intolerance.

8
Causes of allergic reactions
  • Any food may cause an allergy, however, the most
    common allergic reactions to food are from the
    following

mustard nuts (including Brazil nuts,
hazelnuts, almonds, and walnuts) peanuts
sesame seeds soya sulphur dioxide or
sulphites.
celery cereals containing gluten (wheat, rye
barley and oats fish, molluscs, and
crustaceans (including prawns and crabs)
lupins (seeds similar to legumes) milk and
milk products.
9
Children and food allergy
  • The most common food allergy reactions in
    childhood are
  • eggs
  • milk and milk products
  • nuts (including peanuts)
  • soya
  • wheat.
  • It is common for most children to grow out of
    food allergies early in their childhood.

10
Symptoms of food allergies
  • A food allergy usually occurs between a few
    minutes and a few hours after eating a particular
    food.
  • The symptoms of food allergies may be
  • coughing
  • dry, itchy throat and tongue
  • nausea and feeling bloated
  • wheezing and shortness of breath
  • swelling of the lips and throat
  • runny or blocked nose
  • sore, red and itchy eyes.

11
Peanut allergy
  • In extremely rare cases, a severe allergic
    reaction called anaphylaxis and can cause death.
  • An example of this is a serious
  • allergy to peanuts or other nuts.
  • Peanut allergy is becoming increasingly common,
    especially in children. Currently, the UK
    government recommends that, where there is a
    family history of allergy, pregnant mothers
    should not eat peanuts, and that peanuts are not
    given to infants.

12
Anaphylaxis
  • A severe allergic reaction can sometimes lead to
    anaphylaxis. When someone has an anaphylactic
    reaction, they may have symptoms in different
    parts of the body at the same time.
  • This can lead to death if it is not treated
    immediately. Treatment is usually an injection of
    adrenaline (epinephrine). Most people with severe
    allergies will have this with them at all
    occasions.

13
Anaphylaxis
  • The first symptoms can develop within minutes of
    eating the food. Other symptoms can take hours to
    develop.
  • Anaphylaxis is most commonly caused by food
    allergies, but can also be caused by other
    things, such as insect bites, and drug allergies.
  • Peanuts, milk, eggs and fish are the most common
    foods to cause anaphylaxis in the UK.

14
Oral allergy syndrome
  • Foods such as fruit and vegetables can cause
    reactions such as itching, or rashes in the lips
    and mouth.
  • This is called oral allergy syndrome and is a
    symptom of a food allergy.
  • When foods such a fruit and vegetables are
    cooked it often destroys the allergens that cause
    this kind of reaction, e.g. people who react to
    raw mango might be able to eat cooked mango.

15
Exercise - induced food allergy
  • This is a rare condition where an allergic
    reaction develops when a person undertakes
    physical activity within a few hours of eating a
    certain food.
  • A person may normally have a mild allergic
    reaction to a food, but can have a severe
    reaction if they eat it just before they
    participate in physical activity.
  • Scientists do not fully understand why some
    people react this way.

16
Trends in intolerances and allergies
  • Food intolerance is more common in children than
    in adults. Children often grow out of the
    problem.
  • The Food Standards Agency estimates that as many
    as 20 to 30 of people in the UK think they
    suffer from some kind of food intolerance.
  • However, surveys have shown that only about 1-
    2 of adults in the UK have a food allergy that
    can be detected by tests.

17
Food aversion
  • Some peoples symptoms only occur if they know
    that they are eating a particular food they do
    not occur if the food is disguised.
  • This is called food aversion.
  • It may be because they believe the food will
    cause symptoms, or because the food has been
    associated with illness in the past.

18
Lactose intolerance
  • One type of food intolerance is caused by the
    lack of an enzyme that is needed to digest a
    component of food. The most common example of
    this is lactose intolerance where sufferers are
    unable to digest lactose, the sugar found in
    milk.
  • This is because they have low levels of the
    enzyme lactase, which breaks down the lactose so
    that it can be absorbed.

19
Lactose intolerance
  • If lactase levels are low, undigested lactose
    passes into the large intestine where it causes
    pain and diarrhoea.
  • Lactose intolerance is common in some ethnic
    groups, particularly where adults do not
    traditionally drink milk.
  • People with lactose intolerance can usually
    drink small amounts of milk and eat cheese
    without problems.

20
Coeliac disease
  • Coeliac disease is an unpleasant reaction to
    gluten, a protein found in cereals such as wheat,
    rye and barley.
  • The gluten damages the small intestine so people
    with coeliac disease cannot absorb nutrients from
    food normally.
  • Sufferers have stomach pain and diarrhoea after
    eating foods that contain gluten.
  • Coeliac disease is usually first noticed in
    childhood.

21
Coeliac disease
  • The disease can affect growth or cause weight
    loss. People with coeliac disease must avoid
    foods that contain gluten throughout their life,
    for example, bread cakes, and biscuits. Many
    foods have small amounts of wheat or other
    cereals added, so people with coeliac disease
    must check food labels carefully.
  • Rice, maize and soya products do not contain
    gluten so are acceptable, and gluten-free
    versions of foods such as bread and pasta are
    available.
  • Coeliac disease affects about 1 in 300 people in
    the UK.

22
Review of the learning objectives
  • To understand there are many different reasons
    for unpleasant reactions to food.
  • To know which foods may cause a food intolerance
    and/or allergy.
  • To recognise the symptoms of food intolerance and
    /or allergy.
  • To understand the severity of peanut allergies.
  • To recognise the seriousness of anaphylaxis.
  • To understand the terms oral allergy syndrome and
    exercise induced food allergy.
  • To define the term food aversion.
  • To understand the cause and effects of lactose
    intolerance and coeliac disease.

23
For more information visit www.foodafactoflife.o
rg.uk
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