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Human Identity, Human Identification and Human Security

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Human Identity, Human Identification and Human Security Jindrich Kodl, Ph.D. Milan Lokay, Ph.D. CZECH REPUBLIC – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Identity, Human Identification and Human Security


1
Human Identity, Human Identification and Human
Security
  • Jindrich Kodl, Ph.D.
  • Milan Lokay, Ph.D.
  • CZECH REPUBLIC

2
ABSTRACT
  • Many information systems involve data about
    people.
  • This presentation seeks to overcome that
    deficiency, by undertaking a survey of human
    identity, human identification and human
    security.
  • The techniques discussed include names, codes,
    knowledge-based and token-based id, and
    biometrics.

3
KEYWORDS
  • Identity,
  • Identification,
  • Security,
  • Biometrics,
  • Identification Bases and Schemes,
  • Personal Identification Number.

4
INTRODUCTION
  • The presentation focuses on the identification
    of human individuals. The following related
    matters illustrates this area, but are not the
    focal point of discussion
  • the identification of products and packaging
  • the identification of vehicles
  • the identification of animals

5
INTRODUCTION
  • forms of identification which show a category to
    which a person belongs, rather than specifying
    the individual

6
HUMAN IDENTITY
  • From our point of view, identity is used to mean
    "the condition of being a specified person", or
    "the condition of being oneself ... and not
    another".
  • It clusters with the terms 'personality',
    'individuality' and 'individualism', and, less
    fashionably, 'soul'.

7
HUMAN IDENTIFICATION
  • The term 'identification' means the act or
    process of
  • "establishing the identity of, or recognising",
  • "the treating of a thing as identical with
    another"
  • "the act or process of recognising or
    establishing as being a particular person",
  • but also
  • "the act or process of making, representing to
    be, or regarding or treating as the same or
    identical".

8
HUMAN IDENTIFICATION
  • In the context of information systems, the
    purpose of identification is more concrete it is
    used to link a stream of data with a person.
  • This presentation adopts as its operational
    definition
  • human identification is the association of data
    with a particular human being

9
HUMAN IDENTIFICATION
  • All identification mechanisms are fraught with
    difficulties, and hence the vast majority of
    transactions involve risk.
  • They also cost money.

10
ORGANISATIONAL NEEDS FOR FORMAL IDENTIFICATION
  • Identity and identification are vague and
    ambiguous.
  • They continue to be treated with considerable
    looseness by most legal systems. For social
    purposes, informal, contextual identification is
    sufficient.
  • There are also many circumstances in which
    informal identification, or even none at all,
    suffices for economic transactions

11
ORGANISATIONAL NEEDS FOR FORMAL IDENTIFICATION
  • When, for example, organisations have to have
    reliable identification of the individuals they
    deal with then have to ensure the protection of
    the individual.
  • More commonly, the purpose is to protect the
    organisation.

12
ORGANISATIONAL NEEDS FOR FORMAL IDENTIFICATION
  • The source of the issues discussed in this
    presenttion are the following questions
  •         when anonymity is unacceptable and
    identification necessary,
  •         what circumstances the restriction of a
    person to a single identity is appropriate.

13
BASES FOR FORMAL IDENTIFICATION
  • A variety of means is available for identifying
    a person, in order to associate data with them.
    These include
  • appearance - or how the person looks
  • social behaviour - or how the person interacts
    with others
  • names - or what the person is called by other
    people
  • codes - or what the person is called by an
    organisation

14
BASES FOR FORMAL IDENTIFICATION
  • knowledge - or what the person knows
  • tokens - or what the person has
  • bio-dynamics - or what the person does
  • natural physiography - or what the person is and
  • imposed physical characteristics - or what the
    person is now.

15
NAMES
  • Over a period of centuries, the demand of using
    of surnames began to be necessary. For people who
    did not own land, the primary sources of surnames
    were
  • locality or territory
  • offices, and later occupations and trades
  • parentage, predominantly in the male and
  • nicknames.

16
CODES
  • To cope with the vagaries of name-based
    identification, it is common for organisations to
    create coding schemes.
  • These are commonly based on a set of digits, but
    may incorporate alphabetic characters.

17
KNOWLEDGE - BASED IDENTIFICATION
  • Passwords are a very common application of
    knowledge-based identification.
  • Another is the Personal Identification Number
    (PIN) used in conjunction with Automatic Teller
    Machines and merchants' EFT/POS terminals.

18
BIOMETRICS
  • The term 'biometrics' is used to refer to any and
    all of a variety of identification techniques
    which are based on some physical and
    difficult-to-alienate characteristic.
  • They are sometimes referred to as 'positive
    identification', because they are claimed to
    provide greater confidence that the
    identification is accurate.

19
BIOMETRICS
  • Hence biometric techniques involve 'metrics' or
    measurements of some kind, rather than depending
    merely on informal or subliminal methods.
  • The natural physiological characteristics
    traditionally employed by the international
    passport system are fairly gross, and are seldom
    sufficient to reliably identify a person.

20
A TAXONOMY OF BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES
  • appearance
  • social behaviour
  • bio-dynamics
  • natural physiography
  • imposed physical characteristics

21
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HUMAN IDENTIFIER
  • universality of coverage
  • - every relevant person should have an
    identifier
  • uniqueness
  • - each relevant person should have only
    one identifier
  • - no two people should have the same
    identifier

22
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HUMAN IDENTIFIER
  • permanence
  • - the identifier should not change, nor be
    changeable
  • indispensability
  • - the identifier should be one or more natural
    characteristics, which each person has and
    retains. If artificial, the identifier should be
    enforcedly available at all times

23
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HUMAN IDENTIFIER
  • collectibility
  • - the identifier should be collectible by
    anyone on any occasion
  • storability
  • - the identifier should be storable in manual
    and in automated systems
  • exclusivity
  • - no other form of identification should be
    necessary or used

24
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HUMAN IDENTIFIER
  • precision
  • - every identifier should be sufficiently
    different from every other identifier that
    mistakes are unlikely
  • simplicity
  • - recording and transmission should be easy
    and not error-prone

25
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HUMAN IDENTIFIER
  • cost
  • - measuring and storing the identifier should
    not be unduly costly
  • convenience
  • - measuring and storing the identifier should
    not be unduly inconvenient or time-consuming
  • acceptability
  • - its use should conform to contemporary social
    standards

26
CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS
  • During the last decade, the march of
    identification, data-processing and communication
    technologies have excited a particularly
    enthusiastic surge of attempts by governments to
    introduce general-purpose, national schemes.

27
PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES - INHERENT OBJECTIONS TO
IDENTIFICATION
  • All forms of identification may attract
    opposition in different circumstances.
  • The greatest degree of public distrust, however,
    is generally associated with biometric
    identifiers.
  • Their use is in some cases invasive, and in all
    cases seems that way.

28
PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES - INHERENT OBJECTIONS TO
IDENTIFICATION
  • As the sophistication of identification
    technologies increases, the identification
    schemes operated by individual corporations and
    government agencies require regulation, in order
    to achieve appropriate balance between personal,
    corporate and social needs.

29
RISKS IN MULTI - PURPOSE IDENTIFICATION SCHEMES
  • Most people are cowed by the power of large
    institutions, and resent at least some aspects of
    the surveillance society.
  • The imposition of social control mechanisms,
    including the enforced use of intrusive
    identification, could stimulate an increased
    degree of conscious non-acceptance of authority.

30
CONCLUSIONS
  • Identification is an important design
    consideration in information systems, which deal
    with people.
  • The more effective biometrics-based
    identification schemes all involve serious social
    implications, and can be expected to excite
    considerable public suspicion and even hostility.

31
CONCLUSIONS
  • The highest-integrity schemes combine physically
    intrusive data-collection with a potentially
    ubiquitous instrument of power.
  • As a result, the kinds of multi-purpose
    identification schemes, or inhabitant
    registration systems, which would appear capable
    of exciting the greatest degree of concern are
    those based on DNA-printing and implanted chips.
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