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The Rise of Ancient Greece


The Rise of Ancient Greece Golden Age of Pericles : 460 BCE 429 BCE Athens: The Arts & Sciences DRAMA (tragedians): Aeschylus - Oresteia Sophocles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise of Ancient Greece

The Rise of Ancient Greece
I. Background Information
  • Mediterranean Empire
  • Mountainous terrain, Coastal plains
  • Isolated and Protected
  • Mild climate with rainy winters
  • Sea trade was the prevalent occupation

Archaic Greece 1650 BCE - 700 BCE
Minoan CivilizationPalace at Knossos
II. The Minoans
  • Located on Crete
  • King Minos palace was discovered
  • Hallways formed a labyrinth (maze)
  • Minoan information
  • Minoan women had a higher status than others
  • Minoans earned a living from the sea
  • By 2000 B.C. controlled the Eastern Med. Sea
  • Civilization peaked _at_ 1600 B.C.
  • Destroyed by either tidal waves or the Mycenaeans

Knossos Minoan Civilization
Minoan Civilization
The Mycenaean Civilization
The Mask of Agamemnon
III. The Mycenaeans
  • Originated in Central Asia moved _at_ 2000 B.C
  • Intermarried with the Hellenes
  • Built hilltop fortresses surrounded by walls
  • Served as administrative and business centers
  • Minoans began to trade with the Mycenaeans
  • Resulted in cultural diffusion
  • 1450s B.C. conquered the Minoans
  • 1100s B.C. inter turmoil led to
  • Invaded by the Dorian's (the Dark Ages)
  • Thousands fled to Ionia (the coast of Asia Minor)

Homer The Heroic Age
"Hellenic" (Classical) Greece 700 BCE - 324 BCE
IV. A New Start
  • 750 B.C. Ionians reintroduced culture, crafts,
    and skills (Phoenician alphabet)
  • The new civilization flourished between 750-300
  • Bards (story-tellers) kept culture alive
  • The Greeks began to record epic poems that had
    been passed down by bards
  • The Odyssey and Iliad taught in Greek schools
  • Be proud of Greek heritage
  • A love of nature
  • Importance of husband-wife relationship
  • Meet fate with dignity

V. Greek Religion
  • Polytheistic more than one god
  • Able to approach gods with dignity
  • Humanized the Gods
  • Jealous of one another
  • Quarreled and played tricks on each other
  • Gods lived on Mt. Olympus
  • Festivals to honor gods (Olympic Games)
  • Gods and Goddesses (over 50 total gods)
  • Mythography Olympians - Greek Gods and
    Goddesses in Myth and Art

  • Greek Art (emphasized the individual)
  • Murals were painted (nonexistent today)
  • Pottery artifacts (red and black)
  • Scenes from everyday life
  • Sculptors
  • Myron idealized (Discus Thrower)
  • Phidias in charge of the Parthenons sculptures
  • Praxiteles after the Golden Age
  • Favored life-like opposed to idealized
  • Emphasized grace rather than power

The Classical Greek Ideal
The Ancient OlympicsAthletes Trainers
VI. The Greek Polis
  • City-state basic political unit of Hellenic
  • Typical polis (city-state)
  • City and surrounding fields
  • Acropolis at the top of a hill (center of polis)
  • Agora at the bottom of the hill (public square)
  • Citizens were native born, landholding, freeman
  • Greek women had no political rights

VII. The Polis (continued)
  • Greek colonies and Trade
  • 700 B.C. not enough crop production
  • Colonies were set up in coastal regions (support)
  • Economic Growth trade throughout the region
  • 600s B.C. money system replaced barter system
  • Political and Social Change
  • 700s B.C. kings lost power to landholding
  • Aristocrats gave loans to farmers
  • Tyrants took control due to political unrest
  • Seized power single-handedly ruled
  • After 500 B.C. city-states became either
  • Oligarchy (Sparta) ruled by a few wealthy people
  • Democracy (Athens) government by the people

The Acropolis Today
The Parthenon
The Agora
VIII. Sparta
  • Descendents of the Dorians (Peloponnesus)
  • Invaded neighboring city-states
  • Helots (slaves) were acquired through invasion
  • Perioecis worked for the Spartans
  • Combined the helots/perioecis outnumbered the
    Spartans 201
  • 650 B.C. helots revolted against their masters
  • Military Society only way to maintain power
  • Life revolved around the military
  • Newborns were examined by officials
  • Began military training at the age of 7

VIII. Sparta (continued)
  • Spartan Women
  • Wanted women to be healthy and strong
  • Married later than other Greek women
  • Had more freedoms than other women
  • Spartan Government
  • Set up by Lycurgus in the 800s B.C.
  • Two kings ruled jointly an Assembly passed laws
  • Results of Militarism
  • Maintained control for 250 years
  • Lagged behind other city-states economically
  • Were exceptional Olympic athletes
  • Played key roles in defending Greece against

Helots ? Messenians enslaved by the
IX. Athens
  • Descendants of the Mycenaeans (Attica)
  • Named in honor of Athena
  • Forced to reform government in (600s B.C.)
  • Metics non-enslaved foreigners in Athens
  • Expanded citizenship to include more men
  • 507 B.C constitution stated that all free
    Athenian-born men were citizens
  • Athenian Education
  • Citizens educated their sons (Iliad/Odyssey)
  • Studied Math, Art, Music, Gymnastics
  • Served in the military for 2 years (age 18)

IX. Athens
  • Athenian Leaders
  • Draco
  • 612 B.C. Issued a code of harsh laws (draconian)
  • Solon
  • Cancelled land debts
  • Extended citizenship to foreign artisans
  • Peisistratus
  • Divided estates among landless
  • Cleisthenes
  • Est. a democracy for Athens
  • The Assembly increased its power
  • Ostracism was established

X. Persian Wars
  • Persians were led by Cyrus II
  • Greeks aided the Ionians angered Darius
  • Marathon 490 B.C.
  • Greeks were outnumbered 21 waited to attack
  • Surprise attack 6,400 Persians died 192 Greeks
  • Thermopylae 480 B.C.
  • Xerxes invaded from the north
  • Leonidas and the Spartans (200,000 to 300)
  • Salamis
  • Themistocles was able to lure the Persians into
    the Strait of Salamis and trap the Persians
  • Persians then retreated to Asia Minor

Persian Wars 499 BCE 480 BCE
XI. The Golden Age of Athens
  • 461-429 B.C art and science achievements
  • Led by Pericles rebuilt Athens
  • Built the Parthenon as a temple to Athena
  • Athenian Daily Life
  • Public buildings were lavish
  • Men worked in the morning afternoon activities
  • Exercise, the Assembly, Symposiums
  • Athenian Women
  • Stayed close to the home few privileges
  • Aspasia, a metic woman, gave advice to women
  • Was prosecuted for impiety (disloyalty to the

Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Socrates
  • Know thyself!
  • question everything (absolute truth)
  • only the pursuit of goodness brings happiness.
  • Plato
  • The Academy
  • The Republic ? philosopher-king
  • Aristotle
  • Studied at the Academy
  • Believed all government systems were workable
  • Preferred the power rest with the middle class
  • Tutored Alexander the Great

Golden Age of Pericles460 BCE 429 BCE
Athens The Arts Sciences
  • DRAMA (tragedians)
  • Aeschylus - Oresteia
  • Sophocles Oedipus Rex
  • Euripides Trojan Women
  • Pythagoras ? a² b² c²
  • Democritus ? all matter made up of small atoms.
  • Hippocrates ? Father of Medicine

Athens Great Historians
  • Herodotus The Father of History
  • Used the Persian Wars as his subject
  • Recorded his discoveries in Historia
  • Offered supernatural explanations
  • Wrote about outstanding individuals/events
  • Thucydides first scientific historian
  • Wrote about the Peloponnesian War
  • Was as accurate and impartial as possible
  • Visited battle sites firsthand accounts
  • Believed future generations could learn from the

Peloponnesian Wars
XII. The Peloponnesian War
  • Delian League formed to protect city-states
  • Started by Athens (treasury was at Delos)
  • Athens dominated other city-states
  • The anti-Athens Alliance led by Sparta
  • Spartans deal with Persians
  • Return Ionia in exchange for a fleet of warships
  • 430 B.C. plague strikes Athens
  • Athenian allies switch sides
  • 404 B.C. Athens surrendered to Sparta
  • Effects of the War
  • Decline in population rise in unemployment
  • 371 B.C. an alliance led by Thebes overthrew the
  • 350s B.C. Greeks were defeated by the Macedonians

"Hellenistic" Greece 324 BCE - 100 BCE
Macedonia Under Philip II
Philip II King of Macedonia
  • Spent three years in Thebes as a hostage
  • Gained appreciation of Greek culture and military
  • Three Goals as King
  • Develop a standing army
  • Unify Greek city-states under Macedonian rule
  • Conquer the Persian Empire
  • Philip II married Olympias of Epirus
  • Alexander was there only son

Macedonian Phalanx
Alexander the Great
XIII. Alexander the Great
  • Tutored by Aristotle
  • Imperial Goals
  • Punish Persia for its invasion of Greece
  • Unite Asia and Europe and combine cultures
  • 334 B.C.E led 35,000 men into Persia
  • Plan
  • Defeat weaker cities first
  • Stay close to the coastline
  • Acquire men and supplies with each victory
  • Expanded his empire (Asia Minor Egypt)
  • Was declared a pharaoh
  • Established Alexandria

Alexander the Great
  • Defeated Darius at Gaugamela
  • Declared himself ruler of all of the Persian
  • Walked into Babylon, capital of the Persian
    Empire in 330 B.C.E.
  • 327 B.C.E. Married a Bactrian Princess
  • Roxane
  • 326 B.C.E reached the Indus River
  • Was forced by his men to turn back
  • 323 B.C.E died of malaria in Babylon

Alexander the Greats Empire
The Hellenization of Asia
Pergamum A Hellenistic City
Economy of the Hellenistic World
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Cynics Diogenes
  • ignore social conventions avoid luxuries.
  • citizens of the world.
  • live a humble, simple life.
  • Epicurians Epicurus
  • avoid pain seek pleasure.
  • all excess leads to pain!
  • politics should be avoided.

Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Stoics Zeno
  • nature is the expansion of divine will.
  • concept of natural law.
  • get involved in politics, not for personal
    gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good
    of all.
  • true happiness is found in great achievements.

Hellenism The Arts Sciences
  • Scientists / Mathematicians
  • Euclid geometry
  • Archimedes pulley
  • Hellenistic Art
  • More realistic less ideal than Hellenic art.
  • Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!

Breakup of Alexanders Empire
  • Empire divided between 3 Generals
  • Ptolemy ruled Egypt, Libya, and Syria
  • The most prestigious domain
  • Later ruled by Cleopatra
  • Seleucus ruled part of Syria, Mesopotamia, Iran,
    and Afghanistan
  • Forced to withdraw to Syria
  • Antigonous ruled Macedonia and Greece
  • City-states declared independence
  • Conquered by the Romans in the 100s B.C.E

Breakup of Alexanders Empire