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The%20Civil%20War

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Title: The%20Civil%20War


1
  • Chapter 20 Girding for War


2
Why It Matters
  • Northern economy grew stronger
  • Southern economy destroyed.
  • War the first modern war.
  • Slavery abolished.
  • States rights crushed
  • Reconstruction

3
continued on next slide
4
(No Transcript)
5
The Menace of Secession
  • Abe slips into Washington becomes the butt of
    jokes
  • Lincolns inaugural
  • No State, upon its own mere motion, can lawfully
    get out of the Union, that resolves and
    ordinances to that effect are legally void, and
    that acts of violence, within any State or
    States, against the authority of the United
    States, are insurrectionary or revolutionary,
    according to circumstances.
  • While Lincoln expressly called for a peaceful
    resolution, this was the final straw for many in
    the South who saw the speech as a veiled threat.
  • No conflict unless South provokes
  • We can not separate physically
  • Endorses the 13th Amendment

6
Why the South Must Stay
  • Economic
  • Cotton hugely important
  • Inland waterways and commerce
  • Territories
  • Tariffs
  • Defense
  • US would have two long borders
  • The South would embrace the UK
  • Coastal forts
  • Political
  • Threat to Union
  • Washing DC in the South
  • Border states

7
Does a state have a right to secede from the
union?
  • The Politics of War

8
Yes
  • Declaration of Independence
  • South Carolina Exposition Protest
  • Based on a compact between the 13 states
  • Once the Constitution broken so was the compact
  • Constitution - Art. 1, Sec. 10
  • Powers denied to state - succession not mentioned
  • 10th Amendment all powers not given to the Feds
    reserved to the states

9
No!
  • Art. 1 Sec. 10
  • States can not engage in war
  • Article 6 Supremacy clause
  • Treason
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Constitution supreme law of the land
  • Article 1, sec. 3
  • No state shall, without consent of Congress enter
    into any agreement or compact with another state

10
  • Fort Sumter

Beauregard
Anderson
  • CS peacefully takes over US installations
  • Major Anderson seizes Sumter - US Commander
  • Lincoln told South Carolina of his intention to
    provision the fort and they took it as reinforce
  • Carolinians opened fire on April 12, 1861 the
    battle was over 34 hours later. Considered the
    official start of the war by many.
  • P.G.T. Beauregard commanded the CS troops
  • 50 CS Cannons, 3000 shells, no one killed!

11
Lincoln Expands the Conflict
  • Lincoln calls for 75,000 men for 90 days Seen
    by South as act of aggression.
    Constitutionally shaky ground.
  • Governor Jackson of Missouri, your requisition
    is illegal, unconstitutional, revolutionary,
    inhuman, diabolical, and cannot be complied
    with, and Governor Harris of Tennessee, will
    not furnish a single man for the purpose of
    coercion, but fifty thousand to defend our rights
    and those of our Southern brothers.
  • Typical war fever on both sides
  • May-June Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina
    and Virginia join Confederacy -
    Richmond becomes the capital. Just
    100 miles from DC
  • Short war seen on both sides

12
Border States
  • Slave states that shared a border with free
    states to the north.
  • Lincoln reportedly said that he hoped to have God
    on his side but he Kentucky
  • Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri
  • Men fight on both sides
  • Maryland - Garrisoned, by US troops
  • Kentucky- Admitted to CS Dec 1861
  • Missouri - Admitted to CS Nov 1861
  • Delaware, remains loyal
  • Lincoln declares he is not fighting to free the
    slaves
  • The five civilized Tribes side with the
    Confederacy

13
Lincoln to Remaining Southern states
  • We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be
    enemies. Though passion may have strained, it
    must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic
    chards of memory, stretching from every
    battlefield and patriot grave, to every living
    heart and headstone, all over this broad land,
    will yet swell the chorus of the union when again
    touched, as surely they will be, by the better
    angels of our nature.

14
  • South
  • Confederate States of America
  • Constitution
  • Guarantee slavery state rights
  • S.C., Fla., Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,
    Louisiana, TX
  • Capital - Montgomery, Ala.
  • Jefferson Davis - president

1st Va Militia
15
Balance of Forces
  • Lincoln offered Robert E. Lee to command the
    Unions troops.
  • Lee at first opposed the Confederacy
  • When Virginia seceded he chose to join with his
    family and neighbors and fight for Virginia
  • One-third of the Unions military officers chose
    to support the Confederacy. Not all Southern
    officers went South
  • The South had a stronger military tradition.

16
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • The Norths population was more than twice as
    large as the Souths population.
  • This gave the North an advantage in raising an
    army and in supporting the war.
  • One-third of the Souths population was enslaved.

17
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • The North had 90 percent of the countrys
    factories.
  • It produced 90 percent of the nations pig iron,
    which is used to make weapons and equipment.
  • Almost all of the countrys firearms and
    gunpowder were produced in the North.

18
(cont.)
(pages 351352)
Section 1-10
19
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • The South was able to produce large amounts of
    food.
  • After the war began, the South quickly set up
    armories and foundries to produce weapons,
    gunpowder, and ammunition
  • Southerners often made better soldiers
  • Shortages dogged the south
  • The South had few railroad lines for moving food
    and troops
  • The North had massive financial advantages over
    the South.
  • The North controlled the national treasury and
    was able to continue collecting money from
    tariffs.
  • The Federal blockade slowly becomes effective
  • ..\Chapter 20 Girding for War The North and the
    South, 1861-1865\TeacherTube Videos - The Rebel
    Yell Lives- Part I.flv

(page 439)
20
Dethroning King Cotton
  • Productive crops from 1857-1860 had left Britain
    with a surplus so when the North blockaded
    exports, Europe was still well supplied
  • When supplies in Britain began to run low, they
    simply depended on Northern confiscated imports
  • India and Egypt increase production
  • The real crops that swayed British support
    occurred with grains. Poor harvests in Europe
    forced the British to depend on Northern grain
    exports
  • Fear of losing these kept the British out of the
    war directly.

21
Balance of Forces
  • The Union opens up immigration
  • 800,000, mostly Irish and German
  • Lincoln has a problem finding good generals
  • Northern banks loaned the federal government
    money by buying government bonds.
  • Congress passed the Legal Tender Act in February
    1862. ?
  • This created a national currency and allowed the
    government to issue green-colored paper money
    known as greenbacks. ?
  • The Confederacys financial situation was not
    good to start, and it continued to worsen.

22
Foreign Diplomacy
  • The Trent Affair - late in 1861, the North
    commandeered a British steamer and forcibly took
    two confederate diplomats on their way to Britain
  • The British protested , Sends troops to Canada
    and Lincoln capitulated
  • Another crisis arose over the building of
    Confederate commerce-raiders in England
  • The most successful was the Alabama (seen below)

23
CSS Alabama
  • CSS Alabama commissioned on 24 August 1862. Under
    Captain Raphael Semmes
  • Alabama caused disorder and devastation across
    the globe for Union merchant shipping.
  • The Confederate cruiser claimed 65 prizes valued
    at nearly 6,000,000 (approximately 123,000,000
    in today's dollars
  • On June 19, 1864 Alabama sailed out of Cherbourg
    France to engage Kearsarge, in an hour long
    battle the Alabama was sunk
  • Americans blame the UK eye Canada
  • The U. S. Government pursued the against the
    British Government for the devastation caused,
    and following a court of arbitration, won heavy
    damages.

24
Foreign Flare-ups
  • William Seward
  • Britain does not deliver two ships to the
    Confederates
  • The Irish raise armies to invade Canada
  • Canada becomes more united
  • Napoleon III of France took advantage of the war
    by installing a puppet government in Mexico City
    in direct violation of the Monroe Doctrine
  • When the war ended, Secretary of State William
    Seward threatened to send troops and Napoleon
    retreated.
  • Napoleon III
  • Maximilians execution

25
Jefferson Davis
  • Resigned from the Senate when his home state of
    Mississippi seceded
  • Appointed then later elected President of the
    Confederate States of America
  • Reluctantly accepted the office
  • He was constantly at odds with the states which
    had seceded over States rights issues
  • At odds with state governments when he asked for
    volunteers, money and supplies
  • He was never really able to unify the Confederacy
    for its own defense.

26
Abraham Lincoln
  • Reared in a poor family on the western frontier,
    Lincoln was mostly self-educated. He became a
    country lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, and
    a one-term member of the United States House of
    Representatives
  • Lincoln's policies and personality were "blasted
    from all sides
  • Lincoln proclaimed a blockade
  • Increased the federal army
  • Appropriated 2 million to three men for military
    purposes
  • Allowed "supervised" voting in the border-states
  • Circa 1860

27
Limitations on Wartime Liberties
  • In the words of historian James G. Randall "No
    president has carried the power of presidential
    edict and executive order (independently of
    Congress) so far as Lincoln did.... It would
    not be easy to state what Lincoln conceived to be
    the limit of his powers.
  • He suspended writ of habeas corpus
  • Arrested elected officials, including an Ohio
    congressman
  • He defied the Supreme Court
  • Closed over 300 newspapers and arrested many
    editors
  • Lincoln declared martial law and authorized such
    forums to try civilians by military tribunal
  • Union Army conducted at least 4,271 trials by
    military commission

28
A Volunteer Army
  • In the beginning both sides relied on volunteers
    to fill the need for soldiers
  • It wasn't until 1863 that Congress passed a
    conscription law when volunteering began to slack
    in the North
  • The Confederacy had a tougher time and in both
    North and South the wealthy could buy their way
    out of enlistment.
  • LEFT A London News engraving titled Enlisting
    Irish and German Immigrants depicts a scene in
    New York with Union recruiters talking to recent
    arrivals. The sign in the background promises
    they will be paid a total of 600 for there
    service.

29
Soldiers needed
  • US Conscription Act of 1863
  • Age 20-45, quotas by state
  • 300 men
  • 200,000 Union deserters
  • New York City draft riots
  • Confederate draft
  • Large slave owners exempt
  • Ages 17 to 50

9th Mississippi Infantry
6th Maine Infantry
30
Economic Stresses of War
  • The North passed the Morrill Tariff Act,
    increasing tariff rates by about 5 to 10, but
    war soon drove those rates even higher.
  • The National Banking System was a landmark of the
    war for the North, created to establish a
    standard bank-note currency, and banks that
    joined the National Banking System could buy
    government bonds and issue sound paper money.
  • In the South, runaway inflation plagued the
    Confederates, and overall, in the South inflation
    went up to 9000, as opposed to just 80 in the
    North.

31
The Norths Economic Boon
  • The North actually emerged from the Civil War
    more prosperous than before, since new factories
    had been formed and a millionaire class was born
    for the first time in history.
  • Manufacturers of weapons and clothing made huge
    profits off of both sides. Innovations in
    machinery were enjoyed particularly in the North
    which managed to increase productivity even while
    most of its' work force was fighting the war
  • Age of shoddy

32
War Aims
  • Federals
  • Restore the Union
  • Confederates
  • Right to self government
  • Defend home and families
  • My paramount object in this struggle is to save
    the Union, and is not either to save or to
    destroy slavery. If I could save the Union
    without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I
    could save it by freeing all the slaves I would
    do it and if I could save it by freeing some and
    leaving others alone I would also do that. What I
    do about slavery, and the colored race, I do
    because I believe it helps to save the Union

33
A Crushed Cotton Kingdom
  • The South was ruined by the war, as
    transportation collapsed and supplies of
    everything became scarce, and by the end of the
    war, the South claimed only 12 of the national
    wealth as opposed to 30 before the war, and its
    per capita income was now 2/5 that of
    Northerners, as opposed to 2/3 of Northerners
    before the war
  • Capitalism lost out to industrial capitalism
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