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World%20War%20II

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Title: World%20War%20II


1
World War II
  • Rise of Dictatorships
  • Europe and Asia

2
EuropeAfter World War I
After World War II
3
  • For many nations, WWI peace had brought not
    prosperity but revolution fueled by economic
    depression and struggle.
  • The postwar years brought the rise of powerful
    dictators driven by the belief in nationalism.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/9180688_at_N04/127716206
5/
4
  • Nationalism is the loyalty to ones country above
    all else and dreams of territorial expansion.

http//www.mikekemble.com/ww2/hitler.html
5
  • Germans saw nothing fair in the Versailles Treaty
    that blamed them for starting the war.
  • Nor did they find security in a settlement that
    stripped them of their overseas colonies and
    border territories.

Leaders of France, England, and the United
States deciding the fate of Germany during
the Treaty of Versailles.
http//judicial-inc.biz/Versaille_Treaty.htm
6
  • Germany was expected to pay off huge war debts
    (reparations) while dealing with widespread
    poverty.
  • By 1923, an inflating economy made a five-million
    German mark worth less than a penny. Here
    children build blocks with stacks of useless
    German marks.

German currency being sold as fuel for stoves and
furnaces.
7
  • The new democratic governments that emerged in
    Europe after WWI floundered. Without a democratic
    tradition, people turned to authoritarian leaders
    to solve their economic and social problems.
  • The new democracies collapsed, and dictators were
    able to seize power.

V. Lenin of Russia
http//www.alevieten.com/news/index.php?Archive78

8
  • In Russia, hopes for democracy gave way to civil
    war, resulting in the establishment of a
    communist state, officially called the Soviet
    Union.

http//ntap.k12.ca.us/whs/projects/history/stalin.
html
9
  • After Russian revolutionary leader V.I. Lenin
    died in 1924, Joseph Stalin took control of the
    country. Stalin focused on creating a communist
    state.

http//www.marxists.org/portugues/dicionario/verbe
tes/s/stalin.htm
10
  • Stalin made agricultural and industrial growth
    the prime economic goals of the Soviet Union.
  • Stalin abolished all privately owned farms and
    replaced them with collectives (large
    government-owned farms, each worked by hundreds
    of families.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/13998411_at_N02/15796389
68/
11
  • Stalin moved to transform the Soviet Union from a
    backward rural nation into a great industrial
    power.
  • All economic activity was placed under government
    management.
  • By 1937, the Soviet Union had become the worlds
    second-largest industrial power.

http//digital.library.mcgill.ca/russian/industr.h
tm
12
  • Stalin eliminated anyone who threatened his
    power.
  • Historians estimate that Stalin was responsible
    for the deaths of 8-13 million people. Millions
    more died in famines caused by the restructuring
    of Soviet society.

http//www.alevieten.com/news/index.php?Archive78

13
  • By 1939, Stalin had firmly established a
    totalitarian government.
  • In a totalitarian state, individuals have no
    rights, and the government suppresses all
    opposition, no private ownership.

http//www.bodyweb.it/forums/showthread.php?goton
ewpostampt108844
14
Fascism in Italy
  • While Stalin was consolidating his power in the
    Soviet Union, Benito Mussolini was establishing a
    totalitarian regime in Italy, where unemployment
    and inflation produced bitter strikes, some
    communist-led.

http//www.utrechtschaak.nl/forum_item.aspx?id147
amplstampall1
15
Benito Mussolini
  • Alarmed by these threats, the middle and upper
    classes demanded stronger leadership.
  • A powerful speaker, Mussolini knew how to appeal
    to Italys wounded national pride.
  • He played on the fears of economic collapse and
    communism. In this way, he won the support of
    many discontented Italians.

http//www.windoweb.it/guida/cultura/biografia_ben
ito_mussolini.htm
16
  • By 1921, Mussolini established the Fascist Party.
  • Fascism stressed nationalism and placed the
    interests of the state above those of
    individuals.
  • To strengthen the nation, Fascists argued, power
    must rest with a single strong leader and a small
    group of devoted party members.

http//www.windoweb.it/guida/cultura/biografia_ben
ito_mussolini.htm
17
  • In October 1922, Mussolini marched on Rome with
    thousands of his followers, whose black uniforms
    gave them the name Black Shirts.
  • When government officials, the army, and the
    police sided with the Fascists, the Italian king
    appointed Mussolini head of the government.

http//forum.maidenfans.com/index.php?topic13002.
msg151341
18
  • Calling himself IL Duce, or the leader,
    Mussolini extended Fascist control to every
    aspect of Italian life. Mussolini crushed all
    opposition by making Italy a totalitarian state.

http//ch.novopress.info/?p705
19
  • Italy wants peace, work, and calm. I will give
    these things with love if possible, with force if
    necessary.
  • - Benito Mussolini

http//putschisten.de/
20
  • In Germany, Adolf Hitler had followed a path to
    power similar to Mussolinis.
  • At the end of WWI, Hitler had been a jobless
    soldier drifting around Germany.
  • In 1919, he joined a struggling group called the
    National Socialist German Workers Party, better
    known as the NAZI Party.

Hitler in World War I
http//www.greatwar.nl/remarque/remarque-eng.html
21
  • Hitler proved to be a powerful speaker and
    organizer and quickly became the partys leader.
    Calling himself Der Fuehrer - the leader he
    promised to bring Germany out of chaos.

hitler-darshan.jpg
22
  • In Hitlers book Mein Kampf My Struggle, Hitler
    set forth the basic beliefs of Nazism that became
    the plan of action for the Nazi Party.

http//diberville.blogspot.com/2004_05_01_dibervil
le_archive.html
23
  • Nazism is the German brand of fascism, based on
    extreme nationalism.
  • Hitler, who had been born in Austria, dreamed of
    uniting all German-speaking people in a great
    German empire.

http//mix.fresqui.com/hitler
24
  • Hitler wanted to enforce racial purification at
    home. In his view, Germans, especially
    blue-eyed, blond-haired Aryans formed a
    master race that was destined to rule the
    world.
  • Inferior races, such as Jews, Slavs, and all
    nonwhites, were deemed fit only to serve the
    Aryans.

http//www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classe
s/133c/133cPrevYears/133c04/133c04l02NaziPast.htm
25
  • A third element of Nazism was national expansion.
  • Hitler believed that for Germany to thrive, it
    needed more lebensraum, or living space.
  • One of Hitlers aims in Mein Kampf, was to
    secure for the German people the land and soil to
    which they are entitled on this earth, even if
    this could be accomplished only by the might of
    a victorious sword.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/30258864_at_N00/41196606
2/
26
  • The Great Depression helped the Nazis come to
    power. Because of war debts (reparations) and
    dependence on American loans and investments,
    Germanys economy was hit hard.

http//library.thinkquest.org/C005121/data/germany
.htm
27
  • By 1932, some 6 million Germans were unemployed.
    Many men who were out of work joined Hitlers
    private army, the storm troopers (or Brown
    Shirts).
  • The German people were desperate and turned to
    Hitler as their last hope.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/7549569_at_N03/464340421
/
28
  • By mid 1932, the Nazis had become the strongest
    political party in Germany.
  • In January 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor
    (prime minister). Once in power, Hitler
    dismantled Germanys democratic Weimar Republic.

http//www.flashback.org/showthread.php?t914
29
  • In its place, Hitler established the Third Reich,
    or Third German Empire.
  • According to Hitler, the Third Reich would be a
    Thousand-Year Reich it would last for a
    thousand years.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/36521972891_at_N01/27728
473/
30
Time Magazines Man of the Year
31
Imperial Japan
  • Halfway around the world, nationalistic military
    leaders were trying to take control of the
    imperial government of Japan.
  • These leaders shared in common with Hitler a
    belief in the need for more living space for a
    growing population.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/rebeccaholder/1619720
37/
32
Invasion of China
  • Japanese militarists launched a surprise attack
    and seized control of the Chinese province of
    Manchuria in 1931.
  • Within several months, Japanese troops controlled
    the entire province, a large region about twice
    the size of Texas, that was rich in natural
    resources.

http//www.sinodefenceforum.com/showthread.php?t1
095
33
Hideki Tojo Invasion of China 1937
  • In July 1937, Hideki Tojo, Chief of Staff of
    Japans Army, launched the invasion into China.
  • As French, Dutch, and British colonies lay
    unprotected in Asia, Japanese leaders leaped at
    the opportunity to unite East Asia under Japanese
    control by seizing the colonial lands.

34
  • The watchful League of Nations had been
    established after WWI to prevent just such
    aggressive acts. The League condemned Japan, who
    in turn simply quit the League.

http//www.germanwarmachine.com/daybyday/1943/oct.
htm
35
Militarist Japan
  • Meanwhile, the success of the Manchurian invasion
    put the militarists firmly in control of Japans
    government.

http//www.germaniainternational.com/japan.html
36
Hitler ignores the Treaty of Versailles
  • The failure of the League of Nations to take
    action against Japan did not escape the notice of
    Europes dictators.
  • In 1933, Hitler pulled Germany out of the League.
  • In 1935, he began a military buildup in violation
    of the Treaty of Versailles.

http//www.history2u.com/book6_global_warfare.htm
37
Italy invades Africa
  • Meanwhile, Mussolini began building his new Roman
    Empire.
  • His first target was Ethiopia, one of Africas
    few remaining independent countries. By the fall
    of 1935, tens of thousands of Italian soldiers
    stood ready to advance on Ethiopia.

http//www.edunetconnect.com/cat/timemachine/50ea.
html
38
  • As in Germany, the League of Nations response
    was ineffective. In regards to Italy, the League
    initiated an ineffective economic boycott in
    response to Italys invasion of Ethiopia.
  • The League did nothing to stop Hitler.

http//www.workers.org.uk/features/feat_0107/corpo
rate.html
39
  • By 1936, Ethiopia had fallen. In desperation,
    Haile Selassie, the ousted Ethiopian emperor,
    appealed to the League for assistance. Nothing
    was done.
  • It is us today, - It will be you tomorrow.
  • - Haile Selassie

40
Spanish Civil War
  • In 1936, a group of Spanish army officers led by
    General Francisco Franco, rebelled against the
    Spanish republic.
  • Revolts broke out all over Spain, and the Spanish
    Civil War began.

http//www.telefonica.net/web2/fmurilla/fet.htm
41
  • While, the Western democracies remained neutral.
  • Hitler and Mussolini backed Francos forces with
    troops, weapons, tanks, and fighter planes.

Franco Hitler
http//www.flickr.com/photos/kresve/124314706/
42
Francisco Franco
  • The Spanish Civil War forged a close relationship
    between German and Italian dictators, who signed
    a formal alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.
  • After a loss of almost 500,000 lives. Francos
    victory in 1939 established him as Spains
    fascist dictator.

http//www.dw-world.de/popups/popup_lupe/0,,146896
6,00.html
43
  • In an effort to keep the U.S. out of future wars,
    beginning in 1935, Congress passed a series of
    Neutrality Acts.
  • The first two acts outlawed arm sales or loans to
    nations at war.

http//www.mtholyoke.edu/le20j/NeutralityAfterWar
.html
44
  • Despite congressional efforts to legislate
    neutrality, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
    found it impossible to remain neutral.
  • When Japan launched a new attack on China in July
    1937, Roosevelt found a way around the Neutrality
    Acts.

http//www.flickr.com/photos/pingnews/1440253387/
45
  • Because Japan had not formally declared war
    against China, the president claimed there was no
    need to enforce the Neutrality Acts.
  • The United States continued sending arms and
    supplies to China.

http//www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/northchina.htm
l
46
  • A few months later, Roosevelt spoke out strongly
    against isolationism in a speech delivered in
    Chicago. He called on peace-loving nations to
    Quarantine, or isolate, aggressor nations in
    order to stop the spread of war.

http//teachpol.tcnj.edu/Amer_pol_hist/fi/0000015b
.htm
47
  • At last, Roosevelt seemed ready to take a stand
    against aggression that is, until isolationist
    newspapers exploded in protest, accusing the
    president of leading the nation into war.
    Roosevelt backed off in the face of criticism.
  • For the moment the conflicts remained over
    there.

http//www.anchorrising.com/barnacles/cat_history.
html
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