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CHAPTER 9 EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES & THEIR EFFECTS CHAPTER OBJECTIVES The Nature of Attitudes and Job Satisfaction The Relationship between Performance and Satisfaction Job ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • The Nature of Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
  • The Relationship between Performance and
  • Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment
  • Some Positive and Negative Effects of Employee
  • Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
  • Benefits of Studying Employee Attitudes
  • Design and Use of Job Satisfaction Surveys

  • Attitudes are the feelings and benefits that
    largely determine how employees will perceive
    their environment.
  • People differ in their personal dispositions as
    they enter organizations.
  • Some people have positive affectivity
  • optimistic, upbeat, cheerful and courteous.
  • Some have negative affectivity
  • pessimistic, downbeat, irritable, abrasive.
  • Key employee attitudes are job satisfaction, job
    involvement, organizational commitment and
    positive work mood.

Job Satisfaction
  • Elements Job Satisfaction is a set of favorable
    or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which
    employees view their work. It is an affective
  • Attitudes consist of feelings, thoughts and
    intensions to act.
  • An employee may say
  • I enjoy having a variety of tasks to do
  • My work is quite complex
  • I plan to quit this job in three months

Job Satisfaction
  • Individual Focus
  • Job Satisfaction typically refers to the
    attitudes of a single employee.
  • When assessments of individual satisfaction are
    averaged across all members of a work unit, the
    general term used to describe overall group
    satisfaction is morale.
  • Group morale is especially important to monitor
    since individuals often take their social cues
    from their work associates and adapt their own
    attitudes to conform to those of the group.

Job Satisfaction
  • Overall or Multidimensional?
  • If job satisfaction is viewed only as an overall
    attitude, managers may miss seeing some key
    hidden exceptions as they assess an employees
    overall satisfaction.
  • Although an employees general job satisfaction
    may be high, he may be dissatisfied with his
    vacation schedule.
  • Job satisfaction studies focus on various parts
    that are believed to be important. Including
  • Pay
  • Ones supervisor
  • The nature of tasks performed
  • An employees coworkers or team
  • Immediate working conditions
  • Therefore job satisfaction is best viewed as
    being multidimensional.

Job Satisfaction
  • Stability of Job Satisfaction
  • Attitudes are acquired over a long period of
  • Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction emerges as an
    employee gains more and more information about
    the workplace.
  • Job satisfaction is dynamic, it can decline more
    quickly than it develops.
  • Employee needs may fluctuate suddenly.
  • Therefore managers need to pay attention to
    employee attitudes at all times.

Job Satisfaction
  • Environmental Impact
  • Job satisfaction is part of life satisfaction.
    The nature of a workers environment off the job
    indirectly influences his or her feelings on the
    job. Since a job is an important part of life for
    many workers, job satisfaction influences general
    life satisfaction. The result is that there is a
    spillover effect that occurs in both directions
    between job and life satisfaction.
  • Consequently, managers need to monitor
    employees attitudes toward other parts of life.

Job Satisfaction
Some related elements of life satisfaction
Job Satisfaction
  • Level of Job Satisfaction
  • Level of job satisfaction across groups is not
    constant, but it is related to a number of
    variables. The key variables revolve around age,
    occupational level and organizational size.
  • As workers grow older, they initially tend to be
    slightly more satisfied with their jobs. They
    lower their expectations to more realistic levels
    and adjust themselves better to their work
    situations. Later, their satisfaction may suffer
    as promotions are less frequently and they face
    the realities of retirement.
  • People with higher-level occupations tend to be
    more satisfied with their jobs since they are
    usually better paid, have better working
    conditions and hold jobs that make fuller use of
    their abilities.
  • Levels of job satisfaction are higher in smaller
    organizational units. Personal closeness,
    friendship, small-group teamwork are important

Job Involvement
  • Job Involvement is the degree to which employees
    immerse themselves in their jobs, invest time and
    energy in them, and view work as a central part
    of their overall lives.
  • Job-involved employees are likely to believe in
    the work ethic, enjoy participating in decision
    making and work long hours. They also will
    attempt to be high performers.

Organizational Commitment
  • Organizational commitment or employee loyalty, is
    the degree to which an employee identifies with
    the organization and wants to continue actively
    participating in it.
  • It is a measure of the employees willingness to
    remain with a firm in the future. It often
    reflects the employees belief in the mission and
    goals of the firm, willingness to expend effort
    in their accomplishment.
  • Commitment is usually stronger among long term
  • Committed employees have good attendance records,
    demonstrate a willing adherence to company
    policies and have lower turnover rates.

Work Moods
  • Employees have feelings about their jobs that are
    highly dynamic they can change within a day,
    hour or minute. These variable attitudes toward
    their jobs are called work moods.
  • Ranging from negative to positive and from weak
    to strong and intense.
  • I hate this task Im
    excited by this new challenge
  • When workers experience strongly positive work
    moods, it is often visible in terms of their
    energy, activity and enthusiasm.
  • Result in closer attention to customer service,
    lower absenteeism, greater creativity and
    interpersonal cooperation.
  • Directly affected by managerial actions such as
    sharing praise, creating an atmosphere filled
    with occasional fun, humor and levity, providing
    a workspace filled with pleasant surroundings and
    reasonable amount of social interactions.

  • Dissatisfied employees may engage in
    psychological withdrawal, physical withdrawal or
    even overt acts of aggression and retaliation for
    presumed wrongs.
  • Psychological withdrawal
    Daydreaming during the job
  • Physical withdrawal
    Unauthorized absences, early departures...
  • Satisfied employees may provide acts of customer
    service beyond the call of duty, have sparkling
    work records and actively pursue excellence in
    all areas of their jobs.
  • Satisfaction and dissatisfaction is related to
    the areas of performance, turnover, absences and
    tardiness, theft, violence and other behaviors
    which organizations are vitally concerned about

Employee Performance
  • High performance contributes to high job
    satisfaction. Level of satisfaction leads to
    either greater or lesser commitment which then
    affects effort and eventually affects performance
    again. The result is a continuously operating
    performance-satisfaction-effort loop.
    Perception of Satisfaction or
  • Economic
    equity in rewards Dissatisfaction
  • Sociological FAIR
  • Psychological UNFAIR
  • Greater or Lesser Effort
    Greater or Lesser
  • TURNOVER (Absenteeism, Tardiness, Theft,
    Violence, Poor organizational citizenship)

  • Higher job satisfaction is associated with lower
    employee turnover. The more-satisfied employees
    are less likely to go through a progressive
    process in which they think about quitting or
    announce their intention to quit.
  • Negative consequences of employee turnover
    (especially if the turnover rate is high).
  • It is hard to replace departed employee.
  • Direct and indirect replacement costs are
  • Employees may be demoralized from the loss of
    valued coworkers.
  • Both work and social patterns may be disrupted
    until replacements are found.

Absences and Tardiness
  • Some absences are caused by legitimate medical
    reasons, therefore a satisfied employee may have
    a valid absence. Dissatisfied employees do not
    necessarily plan to be absent, but they seem to
    find it easier to respond to the opportunities to
    do so, these voluntary absences often occur on
    Mondays and Fridays.
  • Another way in which employees may exhibit their
    dissatisfaction with job conditions is through
    tardiness. A tardy employee is one who comes to
    work but arrives beyond the designated starting
    time. It is short-period absenteeism ranging from
    a few minutes to several hours.
  • It is another way in which employees physically
    withdraw from active involvement in the
  • Disadvantages
  • Impede the timely completion of work.
  • Disrupt productive relationships with coworkers.

  • Unauthorized removal of company resources.
  • Stealing products.
  • Using company services without authorization.
  • Forging checks.
  • Causes of employee theft
  • They feel exploited.
  • Overworked
  • Frustrated by the impersonal treatment.
  • Tighter organizational controls or incentive
    systems do not solve theft problems, since they
    are directed at the symptoms and not at the
    underlying causes such as severe dissatisfaction.

  • One of the most extreme consequences of employee
    dissatisfaction is exhibited through violence, or
    various forms of verbal or physical aggression at
  • Including customers and strangers millions of
    people are victims of workplace violence.
  • Managers must increasingly be on the lookout for
    signs that employee dissatisfaction might turn
    into verbal or physical harm at work and they
    must make the appropriate preventive actions.

  • Management needs information on employee job
    satisfaction in order to make sound decisions,
    both in preventing and solving employee problems.
  • A typical method used is a job satisfaction
    survey. It is a procedure by which employees
    report their feelings toward their jobs and work
    environment. Individual responses are then
    combined and analyzed.
  • Benefits of Job Satisfaction Studies
  • Monitoring Attitudes
  • A survey tells how employees feel about their
    jobs, what part of their jobs these feelings are
    focused on, which departments are particularly
    affected, and whose feelings are involved.
  • Additional Benefits
  • Safety valve, emotional release, training needs
    can be identified, help managers plan and monitor
    new programs.

Ideal Survey Conditions
  • Top managment actively supports the survey.
  • Employees are fully involved in planning the
  • A clear objective exists for conducting the
  • The study is designed and administered in a
    manner consistent with standards for sound
  • Managment is capable of taking, and willing to
    take, follow-up action.
  • Both the results and action plans are
    communicated to employees.

Use of Existing Satisfaction Information
  • Managers might examine existing data for learning
    about current employee feelings.
  • Behavioral indicators of job satisfaction.

  • Types of Survey Questions
  • Closed-end questions
  • Present a choice of answers in such a way that
    employees simply select and mark the answers that
    best represent their own feelings.
  • Open-end questions
  • Present a variety of topics but let employees
    answer in their own words.
  • directed, focus on specific parts of job.
  • undirected, general comments about the job.
  • The typical survey form uses both approaches,
    but open-end questions may be more impressing for
  • Critical Issues
  • Reliability, the capacity of a survey instrument
    to produce consistent results.
  • Validity, collected data must be measured.

  • Using Survey Information
  • Analysis and use of the resulting data require
    skilled management judgment. It is the final
    important step in a job satisfaction survey. When
    the appropriate action is taken, results can be
  • Communicating the Result, is to communicate job
    satisfaction survey to managers so that they can
    understand it and prepare to use it. This
    document is known as a survey report.
  • Comparative Data, all the questions and job
    satisfaction categories can be compared with one
    another in a search for meaningful relationships.
  • Employee Comments, because they are more
    personal they often make greater impression on
    management than scores, statistics and charts do.
    It is a mistake to correct only the big problems
    shown in a survey while ignoring many minor
    conditions that will add up to big problems.

  • Feedback to Employee, when corrective action is
    taken as the result of a survey, details of what
    was learned and what was done should be shared
    with employees as soon as possible.
  • By this way, people who participated will feel
    that management listened to them and took action
    on the basis of their ideas. Also feel like their
    ideas are really wanted.
  • If a job satisfaction survey is made, management
    should be prepared to take action on the result.
    Since management asked employees for their ideas,
    employees are justified in believing that action
    will be taken on at least some of them.

  • If management desires to change employee
    attitudes in a more favorable direction, there
    are many routes to pursue and the potential gains
    can make it worthwhile to try.
  • Guidelines for changing employee attitudes
  • Make the reward system closely tied to individual
    or team performance.
  • Set challenging goals with employees so that
    those with achievement drives can experience the
    opportunity for satisfaction through their
  • Define clear role expectations so that employees
    struggling with ambiguity can overcome that
  • Refrain from attacking the employees attitude.
    Use active listening skills instead, because an
    undefended attitude is more receptive to change.
  • Provide frequent feedback to satisfy the need for
    information about performance levels.
  • Exhibit a caring, considerate orientation by
    showing concern for employee feelings.
  • Provide opportunities for employees to
    participate in decision making.
  • Show appreciation for appropriate effort and
    citizenship behaviors.
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