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V. World War I

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Title: V. World War I


1
The World Wars
2
T/F
  • World War I was fought in Europe and Asia

3
T/F
  • Hitler ruled Germany during WWI

4
T/F
  • Soldiers fought in trenches during WWI

5
T/F
  • The United States was bombed at Pearl Harbor
    during WWII by the Germans

6
T/F
  • Machine guns and poisonous gasses are introduced
    as weapons during WWI

7
T/F
  • The United States and its allies won in both WWI
    and WWII

8
The World Wars
Timeline
Map 1 Europe Before the World Wars
Causes
Warfare
World War I
Art and Literature
Results
Map 2 Europe between the Wars
9

Hitlers Rise to Power
Hitlers Germany
Between the Wars
Causes Warfare Causes Warfare

World War II
In Europe
In Asia
Map 3 Europe after World War II
Results Results
Essential Questions
10
Map Europe Before the World Wars
11
  • Timeline The World Wars



12
V. World War I
13
Causes of World War I MAIN A
  • Militarism New technologies encouraged nations
    to develop and stockpile more weapons Led to WWI

14
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What is militarism?
  • Partner B How did this lead up to WWI?

15
Causes of World War I MAIN A
  • Alliances to keep balance of power nations
    teamed up for or against one another (Central
    Powers/Triple Alliance Allied Powers/Triple
    Entente) Led to WWI

Video
16
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What is a military alliance?
  • Partner B How did these alliances cause WWI?

17
Causes of World War I MAIN A
  • Imperialism nations competed to gain
    territories and resources. Germany took land from
  • France (Alsace and
  • Lorraine) creating conflict
  • between them.
  • Led to WWI

18
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What is imperialism?
  • Partner B How did imperialism lead up to WWI?

19
Causes of World War I MAIN A
  • National Rivalries a uniting and dividing force,
    nations became proud of their land and culture
    and were willing to fight for it.

20
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What does nationalism mean?
  • Partner B How did nationalism lead up to WWI?

21
Stop and Think
  • M Partner A explain to Partner B what the M
    stands for
  • A Partner B explain what the A stands for
  • I Partner A
  • N Partner B

22
Create a poster For each cause of WWI, explain
what it means and create a visual.
Militarism - explanation
Picture
Imperialism - explanation
Picture
Picture
Alliances - explanation
Nationalism - explanation
Picture
23
Just prior to World War I, the nations of Europe
believed that the balance of power could best be
maintained by
  • 1) a system of alliances
  • 2) an international court
  • 3) increases in tariff barriers
  • 4) open agreements, openly arrived at

24
Growing nationalism and militarism in Europe and
the creation of secret alliances were
  • 1) reasons for the rise of democracy
  • 2) causes of World War I
  • 3) requirements for economic development
  • 4) reasons for the collapse of communism

25
_______________________________A. Formation of
secret alliancesB. Conflict over colonies in
AfricaC. Military buildup of European armies and
naviesD. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
  • Which title would best complete this partial
    outline?
  • 1) Scramble for Africa
  • 2) Causes of World War I
  • 3) Results of World War II
  • 4) Reasons for the United Nations

26
What was a major cause of World War I?
  • 1) rebellions in colonial lands in Africa and
    Asia
  • 2) expansion of communism into western Europe
  • 3) militarism in the nations of Europe
  • 4) inability of the League of Nations to keep the
    peace

27
The term militarism can best be defined as
  • 1) Loyalty to a nation or ethnic group
  • 2) Buildup of armaments in preparation for war
  • 3) Avoidance of military involvement in civil
    wars
  • 4) Control of territories for economic and
    political gain

28
Causes of World War I MAIN A
  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
    kick
  • started the
  • alliances
  • immediate cause
  • of World War I
  • Spark

Article Activity
29
Archduke Newspaper Article
  • With a partner
  • Create a newspaper article describing the events
    of the day. Information that must be included
  • Who he was and why he was there
  • How the terrorist group tried to kill him
  • Who actually killed him and how
  • Along with the article, you must include three
    scenes in chronological order

30
For example
  • Archduke Shot!!!
  • Today, June 28th, the terrorist group The Black
    Hand shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand,
    the heir to the Austro-Hungarian thrown, and his
    pregnant wife Sophia. He had come to Sarajevo to
    inspect the Austro-Hungarian troops there. The
    terrorists saw this as a perfect opportunity to
    try and get rid of him. As his car traveled down
    the city streets of Sarajevo, two men were going
    to throw grenades but the streets were too
    crowded. A third terrorist was successful in
    throwing his grenade but it exploded under the
    car injuring several of the Archdukes
    attendants. Finally, on his way to visit his
    injured attendants at the hospital after lunch,
    his driver made a wrong turn and as he began to
    reverse, Gavrilo Princip fired two shots, one in
    the stomach of pregnant Sophia killing her and
    her unborn baby almost instantly. The second shot
    hit the Archduke in the neck, killing him a short
    time later. Princip will not receive the death
    penalty because he is too young, but he was
    sentenced to twenty years in prison.

Scene 1 First two terrorists attempting to
throw grenades
Scene 2 Third terrorist throwing his grenade
and exploding under the car
Scene 3 Archduke and wifey shot
The caskets of the husband and wife
31
  • Which statement is best supported by the data
    contained in the table?
  • 1) Austria-Hungary could not afford a large
    military expenditure in 1880.
  • 2) France spent the greatest amount of money on
    defense in 1900.
  • 3) Germany rapidly increased its military
    spending after 1890.
  • 4) Great Britain attempted to prepare for a long
    ground war.

32
What was the immediate cause of World War I in
Europe?
  • 1) start of the civil war in Russia
  • 2) sinking of the British liner, Lusitania
  • 3) assassination of the heir to the throne of the
    Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • 4) attack on Poland by the German army

33
Type of Warfare
  • Trench Soldiers fought, lived, and died in
    ditches, called trenches, on two fronts
  • Eastern Front Russia
  • Western Front - France

34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
Reading activity
37
Type of Warfare
  • New technologies New weapons (machine gun,
    grenades, flame thrower, tank, poison gas) -
    very effective against old style strategies.

38
(No Transcript)
39
New weapons activity
40
Trench warfare is a phrase that best describes
which event
  • 1. Imperialism 3. World War I
  • 2. World War II 4. The Holocaust

41
Type of Warfare
  • Women contributed to the war effort

42
U.S. Position
  • The United States remained neutral for the
    first years of the war. The sinking of the
    Lusitania drug the U.S. into the war.

43
The sinking of the Lusitania was significant
enough for the United States to enter WWI
  • True/False

44
Stop and Think!
  • Everyone Explain to your partner whether you
    think the statement was true or false. If true,
    what could the U.S. government do to rally
    support for their cause?

45
Art and Literature
  • Propaganda organized information meant to sway
    public opinion on a certain issue

46
Current Propaganda
  • Subway
  • McDonalds
  • Army

47
Who is represented by the Mad Brute? What is
the purpose of this poster?
48
Who are the three men supposed to represent? What
is the purpose of this poster?
49
Who is this man supposed to represent? What is
the purpose of this poster?
50
Art and Literature
  • All Quiet on the Western Front
  • Novel about life for soldiers during WWI
  • Put-down glory of war

51
Closure Propaganda Poster
  • Partner As will create a propaganda poster trying
    to gather U.S. support to enter the war.
  • Partner Bs will create a poster trying to gather
    German support to continue the war.

52
Results of World War I
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • 1) ended WWI 2) led to WWII
  • 3) Established League of Nations
  • Severely punished Germany
  • Land taken away in Europe its colonies in
    Africa and Asia too!
  • Pay compensation for damage caused by WWI
  • Military reduced to defense purposes only
  • Accept blame for WWI

53
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What officially ended WWI?
  • Partner B Who was punished the most?
  • Partner A Give one punishment
  • Partner B Give another punishment

54
Which idea was included in the provision of the
Treaty of Versailles to show the intent of the
Allies to punish the Central Powers for their
role in World War I?
  • 1) All nations shall maintain open covenants of
    peace.
  • 2) Freedom of the seas will be maintained.
  • 3) Germany will accept full responsibility for
    causing the war.
  • 4) Territorial settlements shall be made along
    clearly recognizable lines of nationality.

55
The Treaty of Versailles contributed to the
economic collapse of Germany after World War I by
  • 1) mandating economic reforms in Germany
  • 2) requiring that Germany pay for war damages
  • 3) placing a quota on goods exported from Germany
  • 4) devaluing German currency

56
The Treaty of Versailles punished Germany for its
role in World War I by
  • 1) forcing Germany to accept blame for the war
    and to pay reparations
  • 2) dividing Germany into four occupied zones
  • 3) supporting economic sanctions by the United
    Nations
  • 4) taking away German territory in the Balkans
    and Spain

57
What was a direct result of World War I?
  • 1) Nicholas II was named czar of Russia.
  • 2) Germany lost its colonies in Africa and Asia.
  • 3) Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a
    terrorist.
  • 4) The Ottoman Empire expanded.

58
The Treaty of Versailles angered many Germans
after World War I because the treaty
  • 1) divided Germany into Communist and
    non-Communist zones
  • 2) made Germany restore its emperor
  • 3) required all German-speaking Europeans to
    return to Germany
  • 4) forced Germany to pay large war reparations

59
Many historians believe that the harsh terms
found in the Treaty of Versailles helped lead to
  • 1) Italys unification
  • 2) Turkeys modernization
  • 3) revolutions in Russia
  • 4) World War II

60
League of Nations
  • Organization of nations created to keep peace in
    the world encouraged by President Woodrow
    Wilson but U.S.A. never joined turned out to be
    very ineffective.

61
One goal of the League of Nations was to
  • 1) Promote peaceful relations worldwide
  • 2) Stimulate the economy of Europe
  • 3) Bring World War I to an end
  • 4) Encourage a strong alliance system

62
President Woodrow Wilson's ideals were best
represented in the Treaty of Versailles in its
provisions calling for the
  • 1) division of German colonies among the Allies
  • 2) acceptance by Germany of full responsibility
    for World War I
  • 3) establishment of a general association of the
    world's nations the League of Nations
  • 4) payment of reparations to the Allies by
    Germany

63
New Map of Europe
  • Larger nations (that lost in WWI) were broken up
    into smaller nations

64
(No Transcript)
65
Map Europe Between the World Wars
66
  • The countries shown in dark gray on this map can
    best be described as
  • 1) Triple Alliance members before World War I
  • 2) European countries formed immediately after
    World War I
  • 3) Axis powers during World War II
  • 4) Common Market members after World War II

67
VI. Europe Between the World Wars
  • Hitlers Rise to Power - Reasons
  • Economic Environment Germanys economy in very
    bad shape after WWI
  • Treaty of Versailles Germany paid millions to
    other nations for WWI damages
  • World Economic Depression people lost savings,
    business failed, Germanys money became worthless

68
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A Give one reason why Germans economy
    was in bad shape
  • Partner B Give the other

69
Reasons why Hitler came to power in Germany
  • Weimer Republic government before Hitler weak
    and ineffective
  • Promise to improve economy
  • Stop paying for WWI
  • Jobs military and factory (military supplies)
  • Get Germanys pride back
  • Get land back
  • Develop a German cultural identity
  • Anti-Semitism (hatred of the Jews)
  • Anti-Communism

70
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A Give one reason Hitler was able to
    gain influence over the German people
  • Partner B Give another
  • Partner A Give another
  • Partner B Give another

71
Give One Get One
  • Write down as many things in 60 seconds as you
    can that you know about World War II.

72
Hitlers Germany
  • Totalitarian Government
  • A type of government that has
  • total control of all aspects of life,
  • ex. Hitler Nazi Germany,
  • Mussolini Fascist Italy,
  • Stalin Communist USSR
  • Fascism A type of government that is
    totalitarian and very nationalistic (a lot of
    national pride). Examples Germany, Italy, Spain
  • Nazis ideas totalitarian and nationalistic type
    of government
  • Promote the Aryan race
  • Nuremburg laws
  • Expansion of territory in Europe
  • Used propaganda extensively

73
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What is a totalitarian government?
  • Partner B Who are the three leaders of
    totalitarian governments provided and which
    countries did they lead?
  • Partner A What is fascism?
  • Partner B What were the Nazis ideas?

74
Which leader is most closely associated with the
rise of fascism in Italy prior to World War II?
  1. Ho Chi Minh
  2. Winston Churchill
  3. Mao Zedong
  4. Benito Mussolini

75
Which was the major reason for the rise of
dictatorships in Europe in the two decades
following World War I? 1. general illiteracy of
the working class 2. stresses caused by the
constant threat of renewed warfare 3.
destruction of homes and factories during World
War I 4. widespread economic disorder
76
Adolf Hitler was aided in his rise to power by
the 1. support of the French government 2.
support of the Communist Party in Germany 3.
economic problems of post-World War I Germany 4.
imperialist policy of the Weimar Republic
77
Totalitarian societies in the 20th century could
be most consistently identified by their 1.
unwillingness to allow free elections 2.
acceptance of a variety of political beliefs 3.
support for a state-controlled religion 4.
denial of public education to their citizens
78
". . . The key-stone of the Fascist doctrine is
its conception of the State, of its essence, its
functions, and its aims. For Fascism the State is
absolute, individuals and groups relative.
Individuals and groups are admissible in so far
as they come within the State. Instead of
directing the game and guiding the material and
moral progress of the community, the liberal
State restricts its activities to recording
results. The Fascist State is wide awake and has
a will of its own. For this reason it can be
described as 'ethical'. . . ." - Benito
Mussolini, Fascism Doctrine and Institutions,
Howard Fertig, 1932 Which statement expresses the
main idea of the passage? 1. The people have a
right to overthrow ineffective governments. 2.
The state is more important than the individuals
within it. 3. The state gets its authority from
the power of individuals. 4. The establishment
of an empire will cause division and chaos.
79
A map showing the growth of Nazi Germany by
September 1939. Once Hitler had firm control over
a renewed Germany and had found that the other
powers were willing to appease him, Hitler became
more aggressive. In 1936 he reclaimed the
demilitarized Rhineland, violating the treaties
of Versailles and Locarno in 1938 he invaded
Austria and annexed the Sudetenland in March
1939 he occupied the Czech lands, and in August
of that year he signed a non-aggression plan with
Russia which included a clause that divided
eastern Europe into German and Russian zones.
Then he conquered Poland in September 1939.
80
True/False
  • Only Jewish people were sent to camps

81
True/False
  • The Holocaust only occurred in Germany

82
True/False
  • Anti-Semitism is the hatred of Jews

83
True/False
  • The Nazis appealed mostly to middle class, the
    lower class, the unemployed, etc.

84
The Holocaust
  • Genocide mass killing of an entire culture of
    people

85
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What is genocide?
  • Partner B How is the Holocaust an example of
    genocide?

86
Armenian Massacre during WWI
87
Genocide in Darfur
88
The Holocaust
  • Hitlers Plan
  • Harass the Jews restrict their rights
  • The Nuremberg Laws (Dont have to write the
    white)
  • Excluded German Jews from citizenship
  • Prohibited German Jews from marrying or having
    sexual relations with persons of German or
    related blood
  • Deprived of most political rights
  • Jewish businesses were taken over by non-Jewish
    people
  • Everyone was required to carry an ID card, but
    theirs specified them as Jews
  • Gather them into Concentration Camps
  • Final Solution total extermination of the
    Jewish people

89
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What was the first step in Hitlers
    plan?
  • Partner B What was the purpose of the Nuremburg
    laws?
  • Partner A What was the purpose of the
    concentration camps?
  • Partner B What was the final solution?

90
REICH CITIZENSHIP LAW DECREE Only such persons as are of German or kindred stock and who have proved by their conduct that they are willing and fit loyally to serve the German people and Reich are citizens...Reich citizens shall be the sole possessors of complete political rights.
The passage is an excerpt from the Nuremburg Laws of 1935. The law in the excerpt was designed to protect the rights of German minorities extend citizenship to all people living in Germany put racist theories into public policy insure political freedom
91
REICH CITIZENSHIP LAW DECREE Only such persons as are of German or kindred stock and who have proved by their conduct that they are willing and fit loyally to serve the German people and Reich are citizens...Reich citizens shall be the sole possessors of complete political rights.
The passage is an excerpt from the Nuremburg Laws of 1935. The Nuremburg Laws were partly responsible for the occurrence of the Holocaust the extension of citizenship to minority groups members the creation of a classless society in Germany increased nationalism for minorities living in Germany
92
How does this demonstrate the significance of the
Holocaust?
93
The Holocaust
94
Web quest
95
VII. World War II in Europe - Causes
  • German aggression Germany attempted to get
    lands they lost in WWI (other lands as well)
  • Failure of League of Nations had no power to
    stop Germanys actions
  • Appeasement Britain and France allowed Germany
    to get what it wanted (lands) to prevent war
  • Rhineland
  • Austria
  • Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
  • Poland (started WWII)

96
Stop and Think
  • Partner A One cause of WWII
  • Partner B Another cause
  • Partner A The 3rd cause

97
  •                                                 
                           
  • Based on the information provided by the diagram,
    which
  • statement is a valid conclusion about the 1930s?
  • The United States led international peacekeeping
    efforts.
  • Aggression led to the start of World War II.
  • The actions of Italy, Germany, and Japan united
    Europe.
  • Economic and social upheaval led to the rise of
    democracy
  • in Asia.

98
The Japanese, the Germans, and the Italians
pursued a policy of expansionism before World War
II to gain 1. natural resources 2. warm-water
ports 3. manufacturing plants 4. freedom of the
seas
99
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and
Hitler's rebuilding of the German military in
1935 demonstrate the 1. success of defensive
alliances 2. fear of communist expansion 3.
support for the Treaty of Versailles 4. failure
of the League of Nations
100
The term appeasement is best defined as 1. an
attempt to avoid conflict by meeting the demands
of an aggressor 2. a period of peace and
prosperity, resulting in cultural achievement 3.
a declaration of war between two or more nations
4. an agreement removing economic barriers
between nations
101
Before September 1939, the European response to
Hitlers actions included
  1. Following a policy of appeasement
  2. Blockading the coast of Germany
  3. Forcing Germany to sign the Versailles Treaty
  4. Creating alliances under the United Nations
    Charter

102
One reason that Britain and France agreed to appease Hitler at the Munich Conference was to prevent the start of another world war stop the Nazis from invading the Soviet Union obey an order from the League of Nations obtain advanced German military weapons in exchange
103
When some European leaders agreed to Hitlers
demands concerning Czechoslovakia in 1938, they
were supporting a policy of 1. détente 2.
balance of power 3. collective security 4.
appeasement
104
Before World War II, Great Britain adopted a
policy of appeasement in order to 1. form an
alliance with Italy 2. promote democracy in
eastern Europe 3. avoid war with Germany 4.
demilitarize the frontiers of France and the
Soviet Union
105
Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia (1935)Germany Takes the Rhineland Back (1936)Germany and Russia Divide Poland (1939)These headlines might be used to illustrate the weakness of the United Nations Congress of Vienna Warsaw Pact League of Nations
106
Warfare
  • Mobile warfare modern technology created quick
    transportation (airplanes, motor vehicles,
    ships). Blitzkrieg sudden, fast and
    overwhelming attacks, tactic used by Germans

107
Warfare
  • Technologies
  • Airplanes dominant weapon of WWII
  • Tanks allowed quick and powerful movement
  • Rockets Germans invented and used them a bit
    not very effective in WWII
  • Radar used to find enemies airplanes

108
Key Events
  • Invasion of Poland brought Britain and France
    into the war against Germany (immediate cause of
    WWII)
  • Battle of Britain air war for control of Britain
  • D-Day allied invasion of European continent (in
    France), began to pushing Germans back into
    Germany

109
Which event is most closely associated with the
start of World War II in Europe? 1. invasion of
Poland by Nazi forces 2. signing of the Munich
Agreement 3. building of the Berlin Wall 4.
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
110
Results
  • Germany
  • Divided up by
  • allies into 4 zones
  • Nuremberg Trials
  • German officials
  • tried for Crimes Against Humanity

111
Results
  • Loss of old European colonies around the world
  • The United Nations created to replace the League
    of Nations and keep peace
  • Cold War heightened tensions between the US and
    the USSR

112
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and
Hitler's rebuilding of the German military in
1935 demonstrate the 1. success of defensive
alliances 2. fear of communist expansion 3.
support for the Treaty of Versailles 4. failure
of the League of Nations
113
Map Europe After the World Wars
114
VIII. World War II in Asia - Causes
Back
  • Japanese imperialism 1937, Japan took over
    areas of China (Japan needed raw materials)
    Failure of League of Nations

115
  •                                                 
                         What is the best title for
    this map?
  • Dominance of Manchukuo
  • Japanese Imperial Expansion
  • East Asian Trade Routes
  • Natural Resources of China and Japan

116
VIII. World War II in Asia - Causes
  • Pearl Harbor Japan attacked US on December 7th,
    1941 (to keep US from stopping imperialist plans)

117
The Destruction (Dont have to write)
  • 4 navy battleships sank and 4 more damaged
  • 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers, and 1 minelayer
    destroyed or damaged
  • 188 aircraft destroyed
  • 2,402 killed and 1,282 wounded

118
USS Arizona
  • 1,177 crewmen lost their lives on this ship alone

119
Yes or No
  • If you were a member of Congress at this time,
    would you have voted yes or no in declaring war
    on Japan?

120
Stop and Think!
  • Each partner explain why you either said yes or
    no.
  • Partner A How is Pearl Harbor similar to 9/11?
  • Partner B How are kamakazi pilots similar to
    more recent suicide bombers?

121
During The War
  • Japanese Abuses used cruel methods to keep
    control of lands
  • Rape of Nanking hundreds of thousands of
    innocent Chinese tortured and killed
  • Bataan Death March US prisoners of war tortured
    and killed on a long march to prison camps

Map
122
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What was the Rape of Nanking?
  • Partner B What was the Bataan Death March?
  • Partner A How are the Japanese soldiers at this
    time similar to those of Germany?
  • Partner B What do you think should be the
    consequence of Japanese soldiers involved in the
    Rape of Nanking and the Bataan Death March?

123
During The War
  • Island Hopping
  • Term used to describe US plan to defeat Japan
  • Control of an island let US control lots of
    territory
  • Atomic Bomb
  • US bombed two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and
    Nagasaki
  • Japan surrendered ending WWII

124
Results
  • Japan occupied by US Army for 7 years
  • US forced Japan to create a democratic style
    government (emperor allowed to stay but had no
    real power no divide connection
  • US provided economic help to rebuild Japan. Why?
    US wanted Japan on their side in coming Cold War

125
Stop and Think!
  • Partner A What was one result of WWII in Asia?
  • Partner B What was another?
  • Partner A What was another?
  • Partner B Do you think these are appropriate
    consequences for Japan?

126
Essential Questions
  • 1) How were the results of World War I directly
    related to the causes of World War II in Europe?
  • WW IThe severe punishment of Germany led toAn
    environment in Germany that allowed Hitler to
    rise to power
  • WW IIHitlers reasons to rebuild an army and take
    over lands

127
2. How did the memories of World War I lead some
European nations to allow German aggression?
  • They appeased Hitler in order to prevent another
    world war

128
3. How did Hitler use the social, economic and
political conditions in Germany after World War I
to help him rise to power?
  • He made promises to make German life better
  • The promises got him elected to power

129
4. How did the relationship between a government
and an individual citizen differ when comparing
Hitlers Germany and Western Democracies?
  • Western Democracy ? government exists at the
    consent of the people
  • Hitlers Germany ? people exist to support the
    government

130
5. In what way did each of the allies view their
contribution as essential to the war effort?
  • Britain fought alone at first stayed
    throughout the war
  • USSR fought Germany while Britain and the U.S.
    got ready to fight
  • United States their involvement turned the tide
    of the war in favor of the allies

131
Yes or No
  • A well organized essay has an introduction, body
    paragraphs, and a conclusion

132
Yes or No
  • A well written essay has run on sentences,
    sentence fragments, and misspelled words.

133
Yes or No
  • A well written essay includes examples and
    details that support the answer.

134
Yes or No
  • A well written essay uses abbreviations such as
    JK, W/, W/O, etc.

135
Yes or No
  • A well written essay included personal pronouns
    such as I, you, we, me.

136
Exemplars hyperlink!
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