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Evolution (Darwin and Darwinism)

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Evolution (Darwin and Darwinism) Apes - our closest relatives: Gibbon , orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee A timeline for some hominid species Major Features of Human ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Evolution (Darwin and Darwinism)


1
Evolution(Darwin and Darwinism)
2
The History of An IdeaDarwins TheoryA
Darwinian View of LifeHuman Evolution
3
The historical context of Darwins life and ideas
4
Fossils of trilobites, animals that lived in the
seas of long ago
5
Gradualism (Hutton) ex. Strata of sedimentary
rock at the Grand Canyon
6
Ideas that shaped Darwins worldview
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics - 1802
Essay on the Principle of Populations - 1798
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Thomas Robert Malthus
7
Formation of sedimentary rock and deposition of
fossils from different time periods
Cuvier (early 1800s) - paleontology the history
of life recorded in rock strata
8
Excavation of British Canal system and roadways
9
Ideas that shaped Darwins worldview Animal
husbandry
Polly
10
Charles Darwin in 1859, the year The Origin of
Species was published
11
The Voyage of HMS Beagle 1831-1836
12
Galapagos Islands
13
Galápagos finches
14
Diversification of finches on the Galápagos
Islands
15
The Origin of Species
  • Descent with Modification (evolution)
  • unity of life
  • all organisms related through a distant ancestor
  • Natural Selection and Adaptation
  • the mechanism of evolution
  • capacity for overproduction of offspring
  • a struggle for survival
  • variability in population favors some individuals
    over others

16
Descent with modification
17
Overproduction of offspring
18
A few of the color variations in a population of
Asian lady beetles
19
Camouflage as an example of evolutionary
adaptation
20
Artificial selection cattle breeders of ancient
Africa
21
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22
A Darwinian View of Life(Darwins main ideas)
  • Natural selection is differential success in
    reproduction
  • Natural selection occurs through an interaction
    between the environment and the inherent
    variability among the individuals making up a
    population
  • The product of natural selection is the
    adaptation of populations to their environment

23
Evidence for Evolution
  • Evidence that Species are Related
  • Geographic proximity of similar but distinct
    species.
  • Homologies structural, developmental, and
    genetic.

24
Structural homology
Humerus
Radius and ulna
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Turtle
Human
Horse
Bird
Bat
Seal
25
Developmental homology
Both the chick and the human have gill pouches
and tails
Gill pouch
Tail
Chick
Human
26
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27
Evidence for Evolution Darwins Predictions
  • Evidence that Species Change over Time
  • Law of succession
  • In a given geographic region, species are
    succeeded by similar species
  • Evidence of extinctions in the fossil record
  • Vestigial traits

28
The Law of Succession
Present-day sloth
Fossil sloth
29
Extinctions
Fossils of trilobites, animals that lived in the
seas hundreds of millions of years ago
30
Vestigial Traits
Capuchin monkey tail (used for balance,
locomotion)
Human coccyx
31
Vestigial Traits
Erect hair on chimp (insulation, emotional
display)
Human goosebumps
32
A phylogenetic tree of primates
33
Darwin as an ape - Public reception of Darwin
ideas
34
Apes - our closest relatives Gibbon , orangutan,
gorilla, chimpanzee
35
A timeline for some hominid species
36
Major Features of Human Evolution
  • Enlarged Brain Size
  • 450 cm3 (Homonoids 6 my) ? 1300 cm3 (Modern
    Humans)
  • Jaw Shape
  • Prognathic jaw (flattened face)
  • Bipedal Posture
  • Adaptation to non-arboreal lifestyle
  • Reduced Sexual Dimorphism
  • males 1.2 times female body size
  • Changes in Social Structure
  • pair bonding, increased parental care

37
Upright posture predates an enlarged brain in
human evolution
Lucy - 3.2 mya
38
Turkana boy - Homo habilis 1.7 mya
39
Two hypotheses for the origin of anatomically
modern humans
40
Clock analogy for some key events in evolutionary
history
  • Challenges to the understanding of evolution
  • Chance
  • Contingency
  • Deep time
  • Extinctions
  • Continuity of process

41
Conclusion of On the Origin of Species
  • There is grandeur in this view of life, with its
    several powers, having been originally breathed
    (by the Creator) into a few forms or into one
    and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on
    according to the fixed law of gravity, from so
    simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful
    and most wonderful have been, and are being,
    evolved.
  • - Charles Darwin, 1859

42
Questions?
  • 1) How does the idea that evolution is a
    continuous process, happening all around us all
    the time, rather than some remote process that
    happened long ago, influence the way you think
    about life on Earth? 
  • 2) Of the various challenges to a conceptual
    understanding of evolutionary theory (i.e. the
    role of random chance, contingency, vast
    stretches of time, Earths long history of
    extinctions, the process of natural selection,
    etc.) what gives you the most difficulty
    intellectually.
  • 3) Over the years, a variety of Creationistic
    alternatives to evolution have surfaced in the
    popular media. This has included scientific
    creationism in the 1980s and most recently
    intelligent design. Why is the general public
    often quick to embrace these ideas and why have
    they been quickly rejected by the scientific
    community?
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