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EE 319K Introduction to Embedded Systems

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EE 319K Introduction to Embedded Systems Lecture 15: Final Exam Review Bill Bard, Andreas Gerstlauer, Jon Valvano, Ramesh Yerraballi Bill Bard, Andreas Gerstlauer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EE 319K Introduction to Embedded Systems


1
EE 319KIntroduction to Embedded Systems
  • Lecture 15 Final Exam Review

2
Final Exam
  • Final exam will be similar in style to Exam 1
  • Approximately the same length and format as
    previous final exams
  • You will have three hours if you need it
  • Comprehensive, good things to study are
  • All the lecture notes worksheets posted
  • All lab work
  • Textbook (sections listed in syllabus)
  • All homework
  • Zyante book (specified in HW)

3
Final Exam
  • Any technical documents required will be provided
  • Closed book, closed notes
  • You will need a calculator (Valvano no
    calculator)
  • http//users.ece.utexas.edu/valvano/Volume1/Final
    Sp13a.pdf
  • http//users.ece.utexas.edu/valvano/Volume1/Final
    F12a.pdf
  • It will have short answer questions
  • Conversions, definitions
  • And longer questions involving assembly and C
  • Local variables, FSM, interrupts, ADC input, DAC
  • You should be able to do software problems in
    both assembly and C!

4
Final Exam Review
  • Definitions (matching or multiple choice)
  • volatile, nonvolatile, RAM, ROM, port, kibibyte,
    mebibyte
  • static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, white box,
    black box
  • structured program, call graph, data flow graph
  • basis, nibble, precision, decimal digits,
    promotion, demotion
  • fixed-point, overflow, ceiling and floor, drop
    out
  • desk check, intrusive, dump, stabilization,
    profile, heartbeat
  • bus, address bus, data bus, bus cycle
  • memory-mapped, I/O mapped, vector, device driver,
  • Von Neumann architecture, Harvard architecture,
    CISC, RISC
  • tristate, open collector, ALU, D flip flop,
    registers
  • negative logic, positive logic, Ohms Law, PVI,
    KVL, KCL
  • thread, real-time, latency, interrupt, vector,
    priority
  • private, public, local, global, call by value,
    call by reference
  • friendly, mask, toggle, baud rate, bandwidth,
    frame
  • Nyquist Theorem, monotonic, accuracy, jitter
  • ADC/DAC limits max, min, resolution, fs, number
    of samples

5
Final Exam Review
  • Number conversions - convert one format to
    another
  • decimal digits
  • signed decimal e.g., -56
  • unsigned decimal e.g., 200
  • binary e.g., 11001000
  • hexadecimal e.g., 0xC8
  • IEEE 754 floating point (not this semester)

6
Final Exam Review
  • Instruction detail and Cortex-M operation
  • 8-bit addition, subtraction yielding result, N,
    Z, V, C
  • operation of Thumbnail instructions (reference
    sheet)
  • components in address space
  • subroutine linkage
  • stack operations
  • Simple programs
  • create global variables
  • specify an I/O pin is an input
  • specify an I/O pin is an output
  • clear an I/O output pin to zero
  • set an I/O output pin to one
  • toggle an I/O output pin
  • check if an I/O input pin is high or low
  • add, sub, shift left, shift right, and, or, eor
  • subroutine linkage

7
Final Exam Review
  • Switch LED interfacing
  • GPIO Ports
  • friendly programming practices
  • LED and switch interfacing
  • bit-specific addressing
  • Phase-Lock-Loop
  • external crystal
  • system clock stability
  • SysTick Timer
  • initialization
  • operational parameters
  • period
  • busy-wait delay or periodic interrupt

8
Final Exam Review
  • System Design
  • Successive Refinement, modularity
  • Stepwise Refinement
  • Systematic Decomposition
  • Finite State Machines
  • Moore and Mealy machine characteristics
  • abstraction
  • programming structures
  • Local Variables
  • types of storage
  • stack, registers, binding, SP address, stack
    frame addressing
  • C programming
  • Variables, expressions, control, data structures
  • casting and indirection, pointers, arrays,
    structures
  • storage type qualifiers
  • const static volatile

9
Final Exam Review
  • I/O Synchronization
  • Purpose, types
  • blind cycle, busy/wait, interrupt, DMA
  • Semaphore, mailbox, FIFO
  • Device Driver
  • Performing I/O with an external device (like the
    LCD)
  • Interrupts
  • initialization rituals
  • software actions/what needs to be done
  • interrupt service routines
  • hardware operation
  • thread context switch/what needs to be done
  • debugging techniques
  • FIFO queues
  • operation
  • programming

But simpler
10
Final Exam Review
  • Digital To Analog Converter (DAC)
  • Types, operation
  • Sound Generation
  • Discrete time sinusoid
  • Periodic interrupts
  • Timing requirements
  • Analog To Digital Converter (ADC)
  • Operation, programming
  • Nyquist Theorem
  • UART
  • Operation, programming, start bit, stop bit
  • Real time and communication systems
  • Latency, jitter, throughput bandwidth

11
Practice Problems in Book
  • Hardware interfacing
  • 4.12, 4.13, 4.15, 4.17
  • Parallel Port initialization
  • 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.10, 4.11
  • Software
  • 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, Lab 4.3, Lab 4.5, Lab 4.6,
  • 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10

12
Practice Problems in Book
  • Pointers
  • 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 6.9,
  • Matrix (2-D array)
  • 6.10, 6.11,
  • FSM
  • 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15
  • Variables
  • 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4,
  • Parameters
  • 7.5, 7.15, 7.16, 7.18
  • Fixed point
  • 7.6, 7.7, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.22

13
Practice Problems in Book
  • Recursion
  • 7.21
  • UART
  • 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 11.10, 11.11
  • SysTick, interrupts
  • 9.1, 9.4, 9.7, 9.8, 9.10, 9.12, 9.15, 9.16
  • DAC
  • 10.1
  • Checkpoints 10.1-10.7
  • ADC
  • 10.2-10.11
  • Checkpoint 10.8
  • FIFO
  • Checkpoints 11.2-11.5

14
Comp Architecture/Embedded Systems
Digital Logic
Introduction to
Design
Microcontrollers
(EE 316 FS)
(EE 319K FS)
Embedded
Digital
Computer
Systems Lab
System Design
Architecture
Algorithms
(EE 460M FS)
(EE 445L FS)
(EE 460N FS)
(EE 360C FS)
Electives
Real-Time
Computer-Aided
Concurrent and
and Embedded
IC Design
Distributed
Systems
Systems
(EE 445M S)
(EE 460R FS)
(EE 360P S)
From small
To large systems
15
Comp Architecture/Embedded Systems
  • Required
  • EE 316 Digital Logic Design
  • EE 460N Computer Architecture
  • EE 445L Embedded Systems Lab
  • EE 360C Algorithms
  • M 325K Discrete Mathematics
  • Three of the following
  • EE 422C Software Design and Implementation II
  • EE 445M Embedded and Real-Time Systems Lab
  • EE 445S Real-Time Digital Signal Processing Lab
  • EE 460M Digital Systems Design Using VHDL
  • EE 360P Concurrent and Distributed Systems
  • EE 460R Computer-Aided Integrated Circuit Design
  • EE 362K Introduction to Automatic Control
  • CS 375 Compilers

16
Computer System Design
Understanding the operation and design of
computers
  • Applications,
  • Operating systems,
  • Compilers,
  • Instruction set,
  • Microarchitecture,
  • Logic design,
  • Circuit design

Good secondary cores Electronics and IC, Software
17
Weve Come a Long Way
  • Transistor count doubles every 18 months

18
Computer Architecture Area
  • Design of general-purpose computer systems
  • From personal (laptops, desktops) to cloud
    (servers)
  • Which courses are most relevant important?
  • EE 460N for computer architecture
  • What are important technical challenges today?
  • Size, speed, security, software/hardware, power
  • What industries/companies need these skills?
  • Any company making computer equipment
  • How do I prepare for graduate school?
  • Take EE 460N Comp. Arch. and EE 360C Algorithms
  • Get involved in undergraduate research
  • MS degree is essential for this area

19
Embedded Systems Area
  • Design of special-purpose computer systems
  • From toasters (µController) to airplanes
    (systems-on-chip)
  • Which courses are most relevant important?
  • EE445L digital-analog codesign, systems level
    design
  • EE445M real-time operating systems, device
    drivers, and autonomous robots
  • What are important technical challenges today?
  • Time-to-market maximizing use of Moores law
  • Size, power, profit margins
  • What industries/companies need these skills?
  • Any company making super high volume products
  • How do I prepare for graduate school?
  • Take EE 460N Comp. Arch. and EE 360C Algorithms
  • Get involved in undergraduate research

20
EE460N Computer Arch
  • What is Architecture, Tradeoffs
  • Instruction Set Architecture, LC-3b ISA
  • Assemblers Translating Assembly Language to ISA
  • Microarchitecture Detailed LC-3b implementation
  • Physical memory, unaligned access, interleaving,
    SRAM, DRAM
  • Virtual memory, page tables, TLB, VAX model,
    PowerPC model, contrast with segmentation
  • Cache memory
  • Interrupts/Exceptions
  • I/O
  • Performance Improvement. Metrics, Pipelining.
  • Branch prediction
  • Out-of-order execution
  • Vector processing
  • Integer arithmetic, Floating point, IEEE Standard
  • Measurement Methodology
  • Intro to Multiprocessing, Interconnection
    networks, Amdahl's Law, Consistency models
  • Cache coherency
  • Alternative Models of Concurrency SIMD, MIMD,
    VLIW, dataflow, etc.
  • State-of-the-art Microprocessor

21
EE460N - Labs
  • Write an assembler
  • Write an instruction set simulator
  • Write a cycle-level simulator
  • Interrupt support
  • Virtual memory
  • Pipeline

22
EE460M Digital Design Using VHDL
  • Review of Basic Logic Design Techniques (with
    emphasis on timing)
  • Design Flow, High Level Design
  • VHDL Descriptions of Digital Systems and
    Simulation
  • Synthesis
  • Design using Programmable Logic Devices
  • SM Charts
  • Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)
  • Advanced Topics in VHDL
  • Test Generation and Design for Testability
  • Rapid Prototyping using FPGAs

23
EE460M - Labs
  • VHDLs timing to model gate-level circuits
  • FSM simulation
  • VHDL Package Sorter
  • Traffic Meter Simulation
  • BCD conversion, Square Root
  • Microprocessor Design Implementation in FPGA
  • VGA Graphics and Keyboard Interface

24
EE445L Embedded Systems Lab
  • debugging with an oscilloscope and a logic
    analyzer
  • design of an alarm clock and I/O driver
  • design of a real-time data acquisition system
  • Motor control
  • design of a music player, DAC, data structure
    design
  • Power management and PCB layout
  • Wireless communication, layered protocol
  • board-level design, construction and testing of a
    complete embedded system

25
EE445L - Labs
  • Lab 1. ASCII to fixed-point output to OLED
  • Lab 2. Debugging, oscilloscope, logic analyzer,
    dump
  • Lab 3. Alarm clock, edge-triggered input
    interrupts
  • Lab 4. Stepper motor, interrupts, finite state
    machine
  • Lab 5. 12-bit DAC, SPI, Music player, audio amp
  • Lab 6. Introduction to PCB Layout, PCB Artist
  • Lab 7. Design and Layout of an Embedded System
  • Lab 8. Software Drivers for an Embedded System
  • Lab 9. Measurement, ADC, analog amp
  • Lab 10. ZigBee, UART, distributed systems
  • Lab 11. Evaluation of Embedded System

26
EE445M Real-time operating systems
  • Lab 1. I/O port drivers
  • Lab 2. Real-time operating system kernel
  • Lab 3. Blocking semaphores, priority
  • Lab 4. Microphone input, digital filters, FFT,
  • Lab 5. Solid state disk, SSI, address
    translation, layered software, file system
  • Lab 6. Distributed acquisition using Ethernet
  • Lab 7 Formula 0001 Racing Robot

Go watch the races in Spring
27
For more information
  • Bard, Bill (network communications)
  • Chase, Craig (software design)
  • Chiou, Derek (architecture)
  • Erez, Mattan (architecture)
  • Evans, Brian L. (DSP applications)
  • Gerstlauer, Andreas (embedded systems, IC)
  • John, Lizy (architecture)
  • Reddi, VJ (architecture)
  • Patt, Yale (architecture)
  • Tiwari, Mohit (architecture) new in fall
  • Valvano, Jonathan (embedded medical devices)
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