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Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department Operations,

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department Operations,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department
    Operations,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 22 Introduction to Hazardous
Materials Firefighter I
2
Chapter 22 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to identify the responsibilities of both
    Awareness-Level and Operations-Level personnel at
    hazardous materials incidents, summarize types of
    clothing and protection necessary at hazardous
    materials incidents, and discuss various clues
    for detecting the presence of and identifying
    hazardous materials.

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Summarize Awareness-Level and
    Operations-Level responsibilities at hazardous
    materials incidents.
  • 2. Describe types of respiratory protection.
  • 3. Summarize respiratory equipment limitations.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Describe types of protective clothing.
  • 5. Discuss U.S. EPA levels of protective
    equipment.
  • 6. Describe NFPA 1994 PPE ensemble
    classifications.
  • 7. Describe the U.S. military mission-oriented
    protective posture (MOPP) ensembles.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 8. Discuss PPE selection factors.
  • 9. Discuss health and safety issues when wearing
    PPE.
  • 10. Explain proper procedures for inspection,
    testing, and maintenance of protective clothing
    and equipment.

(Continued)
6
Specific Objectives
  • 11. Describe health and physical hazards that
    may be present at haz mat incidents.
  • 12. Describe physical properties of hazardous
    materials.

(Continued)
7
Specific Objectives
  • 13. Explain how the General Hazardous Materials
    Behavior Model (GEBMO) can help firefighters
    understand the likely course of an incident.

(Continued)
8
Specific Objectives
  • 14. Explain locations or occupancies clues to the
    presence of hazardous materials.
  • 15. Explain container shapes clues to the
    presence of hazardous materials.

(Continued)
9
Specific Objectives
  • 16. Explain transportation placards, labels, and
    markings clues to the presence of hazardous
    materials.
  • 17. Explain other markings and colors
    (non-transportation) clues to the presence of
    hazardous materials.
  • 18. Explain how written resources can be used to
    assist firefighters in identifying hazardous
    materials.

(Continued)
10
Specific Objectives
  • 19. Explain how the senses can provide clues to
    the presence of hazardous materials.
  • 20. Explain how monitoring and detection devices
    can provide clues to the presence of hazardous
    materials.
  • 21. Summarize indicators of terrorist attacks.

(Continued)
11
Specific Objectives
  • 22. Discuss identifying illicit laboratories.
  • 23. Discuss secondary attacks.
  • 24. Obtain information about a hazardous
    material using the Emergency Response Guidebook
    (ERG). (Skill Sheet 22-I-1)

12
Awareness-Level Responsibilities
  • Recognize a hazardous materials incident or
    terrorist attack
  • Protect themselves from the hazards at the
    incident
  • Call for additional help
  • Secure the incident scene

13
Operations-Level Responsibilities
  • All of the requirements for Awareness Level, plus
    initiate defensive actions to protect
  • The public
  • The environment
  • Property

Courtesy of Rich Mahaney.
(Continued)
14
Operations Level Responsibilities
  • Some may be trained to perform additional
    functions at a haz mat incident depending on
    their assigned missions or functions

15
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
  • Must be National Institute for Occupational
    Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Mine Safety and
    Health Administration (MSHA) certified to be used
    at haz mat incidents
  • Must meet design and testing criteria of NFPA
    1981

(Continued)
16
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
  • Only positive-pressure open-circuit or
    closed-circuit SCBA is allowed in incidents where
    personnel are exposed to hazardous materials

17
Advantages of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA)
  • Independence
  • Maneuverability

18
Disadvantages of Self-Contained Breathing
Apparatus (SCBA)
  • Weight
  • Limited air-supply duration
  • Change in profile
  • Limited vision
  • Limited communications

19
SCBA Used in Emergency Response to Terrorist
Attacks
  • Certification program for SCBA used in emergency
    response to terrorist acts is being worked on by
    NIOSH, NIST, OSHA, and NFPA

20
Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs)
  • An atmosphere-supplying respirator user does not
    carry the breathing air source

(Continued)
21
Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs)
  • Components
  • Facepiece
  • Belt-or facepiece-mounted regulator
  • Voice communications system
  • Up to 300 feet (100 m) of air supply hose
  • Emergency escape pack or emergency breathing
    support system (EBSS)
  • Breathing air source

(Continued)
22
Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs)
  • Type C respirators
  • SARs used at haz mat incidents or terrorist
    events must provide positive pressure to the
    facepiece

23
Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs) Advantage
  • Reduce physical stress to the wearer by removing
    the weight of the SBCA

24
Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs) Disadvantages
  • Air supply line has potential for mechanical or
    heat damage
  • Length of airline restricts mobility
  • Restricted vision
  • Restricted communications

25
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
  • Contain an air-purifying filter, canister, or
    cartridge that removes specific contaminants
    found in ambient air

(Continued)
26
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
  • Types
  • Particulate-removing APRs
  • Vapor- and gas-removing APRs
  • Combination particulate-removing and vapor- and
    gas-removing APRs

(Continued)
27
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
  • May be powered (PAPRs) or non-powered
  • Do not supply oxygen or air from a separate
    source protect only against specific
    contaminants at or below certain concentration

(Continued)
28
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
  • May have either
  • Full facepieces
  • Half-facepieces

(Continued)
29
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
  • Do not protect against oxygen deficient or
    oxygen-enriched atmospheres
  • Must not be used in IDLH situations

30
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) Limitations
  • Limited life of filters and canisters
  • Require constant monitoring of the contaminated
    atmosphere
  • Require a normal oxygen content of the
    atmospheres before use

31
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) Precautions
  • Know what chemicals/air contaminants are in the
    air
  • Know how much of the chemicals/air contaminants
    are in the air

(Continued)
32
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) Precautions
  • Ensure that the oxygen level is between 19.5 and
    23.5 percent
  • Ensure that atmospheric hazards are below IDLH
    conditions

33
Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) Use at Haz Mat
  • APRs may be used after emergency operations are
    over and the hazards at the scene have been
    properly identified

34
Particulate-Removing Filters
  • Protect from particulates in the air
  • May be used with half or full facepiece masks
  • Eye protection must be provided when full
    facepiece mask is not worn
  • Divided into nine classes

(Continued)
35
Particulate-Removing Filters
  • Used to protect against toxic dusts, mists, metal
    fumes, asbestos, and some biological hazards
  • If used for medical emergences, must be 99.97
    percent efficient

(Continued)
36
Particulate-Removing Filters
  • Include particle masks (dust masks)

37
Vapor- and Gas-Removing Filters
  • Protect against specific vapors and gases
  • Use some kind of sorbent material
  • Designed to protect against related groups of
    chemicals such as organic vapors or acid gases

(Continued)
38
Vapor- and Gas-Removing Filters
  • May be color-coded to identify what
    contaminant(s) the canister or cartridge is
    designed to protect against

39
Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
  • Use a blower to pass contaminated air through a
    canister or filter
  • Offer a greater degree of safety than standard
    APRs

(Continued)
40
Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
  • May be of use at CBR incidents for personnel
    conducting decontamination operations and
    long-term operations
  • More comfortable to wear
  • Several types are available

(Continued)
41
Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
  • Only used where the atmospheric hazards are
    understood and at least 19.5 percent oxygen is
    present
  • Not safe to wear in atmospheres where potential
    respiratory hazards are unidentified
  • Should not be used during initial emergency
    operations

(Continued)
42
Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
  • Require continuous atmospheric monitoring to
    ensure the safety of the responder

43
Supplied-Air Hoods
  • Provide loose fitting, lightweight respiratory
    protection that can be worn with
  • Glasses
  • Facial hair
  • Beards

(Continued)
44
Supplied-Air Hoods
  • Used as an alternative to other respirators
    because they require no fit testing and are ready
    to use

45
Escape Respirators
  • Designed for escaping the hot zone
  • Can be self-contained or air-purifying
  • Generally designed for a short duration of
    protection and are commonly designed in a hood
    style

(Continued)
46
Escape Respirators
  • Have filter canisters that are usually not
    designed to be replaced
  • Some include cases that can be strapped onto the
    body and worn as part of an emergency PPE
    ensemble

47
Limitations of Equipment and Air Supply
  • Limited visibility
  • Decreased ability to communicate
  • Increased weight
  • Decreased mobility
  • Inadequate oxygen levels

(Continued)
48
Limitations of Equipment and Air Supply
  • Chemical specific
  • Open- and closed-circuit SBCA have maximum
    air-supply durations
  • Non-NIOSH certified SCBAs may offer only limited
    protection in environments containing chemical
    warfare agents

(Continued)
49
Physical, Medical, and Mental Limitations
  • Physical condition
  • Agility
  • Facial features
  • Neurological functioning

(Continued)
50
Physical, Medical, and Mental Limitations
  • Mental soundness
  • Muscular/skeletal condition
  • Cardiovascular conditioning
  • Respiratory functioning

51
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
  • Not a substitute for chemical protective
    clothing, but may provide limited protection
    against some hazardous materials

(Continued)
52
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
  • Limitations
  • Neither corrosive-resistant, nor vapor tight
  • Liquids can soak through, acids and bases can
    dissolve/deteriorate outer layers, gases and
    vapors can penetrate the garment
  • Gaps in clothing occur
  • Can be permeated by some hazardous materials

(Continued)
53
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
  • May be appropriate for use at haz mat incidents
    when certain conditions are met
  • Contact with splashes of extremely hazardous
    materials is unlikely
  • Hazards have been identified, and will not
    rapidly damage or permeate structural fire
    fighting protective clothing

(Continued)
54
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
  • May be appropriate for use at haz mat incidents
    when certain conditions are met (cont.)
  • Total atmospheric concentrations do not contain
    high levels of chemicals that are toxic to the
    skin
  • There is a chance of fire or there is a fire and
    this type of protection is appropriate
  • When it is the only PPE available

(Continued)
55
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
  • At terrorism events
  • Will provide protection against thermal damage in
    an explosive attack
  • Provides limited or no protection against
    projectiles, shrapnel, and other mechanical
    effects from a blast
  • Provides adequate protection against some types
    of radiological hazards, but not others

(Continued)
56
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
  • In cases where biological agents are strictly
    respiratory hazards, may provide adequate
    protection
  • Not sufficient in any case where skin contact is
    potentially hazardous

57
High-Temperature Protective Clothing
  • Designed to protect the wearer from short-term
    high-temperature exposures
  • Usually of limited use in dealing with chemical
    hazards

(Continued)
58
High-Temperature Protective Clothing
  • Two basic types of high-temperature clothing are
    available.
  • Proximity suits
  • Fire-entry suits

59
High-Temperature Protective Clothing Limitations
  • Contributes to heat stress
  • Bulky
  • Limits wearers vision, mobility, and
    communication
  • Requires frequent and extensive training
  • Expensive

60
Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
  • Shields or isolates individuals from the
    chemical, physical, and biological hazards that
    may be encountered during hazardous materials
    operations
  • Made from a variety of different materials

(Continued)
61
Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
  • Must include a list of chemicals for which the
    suit is effective
  • Designed to afford the wearer a known degree of
    protection from a known type, concentration, and
    length of exposure to a hazardous material

(Continued)
62
Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
  • Must be decontaminated before storage or disposal

63
Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC) Liquid-Splash
Protective Clothing
  • Primarily designed to protect users from chemical
    liquid splashes, but not against chemical vapors
    or gases
  • Encapsulating or nonencapsulating

(Continued)
64
Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC) Liquid-Splash
Protective Clothing
  • Limitations
  • Not resistant to heat or flame exposure
  • Does not protect against projectiles or shrapnel
  • May use an SCBA, an airline (SAR), or a
    full-face, air-purifying, canister-equipped
    respirator

65
Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
Vapor-Protective Clothing
  • Designed to protect the wearer against chemical
    vapors or gases and offers a greater level of
    protection than liquid-splash protective clothing

Courtesy of the Illinois Fire Service Institute
(Continued)
66
Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC)
Vapor-Protective Clothing
  • Must be worn with positive-pressure SCBA or
    combination SCBA/SAR
  • Limitations

67
U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment Level A
  • Provides the highest level of protection against
    vapors, gases, mists, and particles for the
    respiratory tract, eyes, and skin

Courtesy of Kenneth Baum.
68
U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment Level B
  • Requires a garment that includes an SCBA or a SAR
    and provides protection against splashes from a
    hazardous chemical
  • Worn when the highest level of respiratory
    protection is necessary but a lesser level of
    skin protection is needed

(Continued)
69
U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment Level B
  • Provides liquid-splash protection, but little or
    no protection against chemical vapors or gases to
    the skin
  • May be encapsulating or nonencapsulating

Courtesy of Kenneth Baum.
70
U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment Level C
  • Protection differs from Level B in the area of
    equipment needed for respiratory protection
  • Composed of a splash-protecting garment and an
    air-purifying device (APR or PAPR)
  • Includes any of the various types of APRs

(Continued)
71
U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment Level C
  • Should not use unless the specific material is
    known
  • Periodic air monitoring is required

Courtesy of Kenneth Baum.
72
U.S. EPA Levels of Protective Equipment Level D
  • Consists of typical work uniforms, street
    clothing, or coveralls
  • For nuisance contamination only
  • Worn only when no atmospheric hazards exist

73
NFPA 1994 PPE Ensemble Classifications
  • Class 1 Highest degree of protection
  • Class 2
  • Class 3

74
MOPP Ensembles
  • Protect against chemical, biological, and
    radiological hazards

(Continued)
75
MOPP Ensembles
  • Consist of an overgarment, mask, hood, overboots,
    and protective gloves
  • Provide six flexible levels of protection

76
PPE Selection Factors
  • First-arriving responders often rely upon
    information in the Emergency Response Guidebook
    (ERG)
  • PPE itself can create significant wearer hazards
  • The higher the level of PPE is, the greater the
    associated risks

77
Health and Safety Issues When Wearing PPE
  • Most types of PPE inhibit the body's ability to
    disperse heat
  • Wearing PPE usually increases firefighters' risks
    of developing heat-related disorders

(Continued)
78
Health and Safety Issues When Wearing PPE
  • When working in cold climates, considerations
    must be taken to protect responders from
    cold-related disorders

79
Heat Disorders
  • Wearing PPE or other special full-body protective
    clothing puts the wearer at considerable risk of
    developing heat stress.

(Continued)
80
Heat Disorders
  • First responders need to be aware of several heat
    disorders, including heat stroke (the most
    serious), heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat
    rashes, and heat fatigue.

81
Heat-Exposure Prevention
  • Firefighters wearing protective clothing need to
    be monitored for effects of heat exposure.
  • Fluid consumption
  • Body ventilation
  • Body cooling

(Continued)
82
Heat-Exposure Prevention
  • Rest areas
  • Work rotation
  • Proper liquids
  • Physical fitness

83
Cold Disorders
  • Cold temperatures caused by weather and/or other
    conditions such as exposure to cryogenic liquids
    must be considered when selecting PPE.
  • Prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures can
    result in health problems.

(Continued)
84
Cold Disorders
  • The four primary environmental conditions that
    cause cold-related stress are
  • Low temperatures
  • High/cool winds
  • Dampness
  • Cold water

(Continued)
85
Cold Disorders
  • Wind chill is a crucial factor to evaluate when
    working outside.
  • A dangerous situation of rapid heat loss may
    arise for any individual exposed to high winds
    and cold temperatures.

86
Medical Monitoring
  • Provide for responders who may be at risk because
    of environmental hazards as well as potential
    exposure to CBR materials

(Continued)
87
Medical Monitoring
  • Should be conducted before responders wearing
    chemical liquid-splash or vapor-protective
    clothing enter the warm and hot zones as well as
    after leaving these zones

(Continued)
88
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
  • Must be conducted in accordance with
    manufacturer's recommendations
  • Should include records of all inspection
    procedures

(Continued)
89
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
  • At a minimum, record
  • Item identification number
  • Date of inspection
  • Person making the inspection
  • Results of the inspection
  • Any unusual conditions noted

(Continued)
90
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
  • Inspected when purchased
  • Should be inspected after each use, daily or
    weekly, monthly, and annually
  • Follow guidelines

91
Health and Physical Hazards
  • Health hazards
  • Acute health effects are short-term effects that
    appear within hours or days
  • Chronic health effects are long-term effects that
    may take years to appear

(Continued)
92
Health and Physical Hazards
  • Thermal hazards
  • Radiological hazards
  • Asphyxiation hazards
  • Chemical hazards
  • Etiological/biological hazards

(Continued)
93
Health and Physical Hazards
  • Mechanical hazards

94
Physical Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Matter is found in three physical states

(Continued)
95
Physical Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Vapor pressure
  • Boiling point
  • Vapor density
  • Solubility/miscibility

(Continued)
96
Physical Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Specific gravity
  • Persistence
  • Reactivity

97
GEBMO
  • Stress
  • Breach
  • Release
  • Dispersion/engulf
  • Exposure/contact
  • Harm

98
Locations or Occupancies Clues
  • Hazardous materials are found everywhere
  • Preincident surveys
  • Community emergency response plans

(Continued)
99
Locations or Occupancies Clues
  • Certain occupancies are always highly probable
    locations

(Continued)
100
Locations or Occupancies Clues
  • Private property is not exempt
  • Certain occupancies are more likely to be
    targeted for terrorist attacks

101
Container Shapes Clues
  • Bulk-capacity fixed-facility containers
  • Bulk transportation containers
  • Intermediate bulk containers

Courtesy of Rich Mahaney.
(Continued)
102
Container Shapes Clues
  • Ton containers
  • Nonbulk packaging
  • Containers for radioactive materials

Courtesy of Rich Mahaney.
103
Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings
Clues
  • U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT),
    Transport Canada (TC), Ministry of Communications
    and Transport (Mexico)

(Continued)
104
Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings
Clues
  • Under the UN system, nine hazard classes are used
    to categorize hazardous materials
  • Placards are required on specific bulk quantities
  • U.S. DOT labels
  • Markings

(Continued)
105
Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings
Clues
  • Four-digit UN identification numbers

(Continued)
106
Transportation Placards, Labels, and Markings
Clues
  • Other North American highway vehicle
    identification markings
  • North American railroad tank car markings
  • International intermodal container/tank markings

107
Other Markings and Colors Clues
  • NFPA 704 system
  • Hazard communications labels and markings
  • Canadian Workplace Hazardous Materials
    Information System
  • Manufacturers labels and signal words

(Continued)
108
Other Markings and Colors Clues
  • Military markings
  • Pipeline identification
  • Pesticide labels

Courtesy of Rich Mahaney.
109
Written Resources
  • Written resources to assist firefighters
  • MSDSs, inventory records, and other facility
    documents
  • ERG and shipping papers
  • Shipping papers, MSDSs, contacting an emergency
    response center

(Continued)
110
Written Resources
  • Shipping papers
  • Material safety data sheets (MSDS)
  • The GHS for Hazard Classification and
    Communication
  • OSHA MSDS requirements
  • Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)

111
Senses
  • Vision Safest
  • While many products release odors well below
    dangerous levels, this may be too close for
    safetys sake
  • Warning properties of chemicals include visible
    gas clouds, pungent odors, and irritating fumes

(Continued)
112
Senses
  • Be aware of visual/physical chemical indicators
    that provide evidence of hazardous materials

113
Monitoring and Detection Devices
  • Useful in determining the presence of hazardous
    materials
  • Require actual contact with the hazardous
    material

(Continued)
114
Monitoring and Detection Devices
  • Outside the scope of action for most
    Operations-Level responders
  • Can help determine the scope of the incident

(Continued)
115
Monitoring and Detection Devices
  • No single device will detect all materials
  • Have advantages and disadvantages
  • Various types are available

(Continued)
116
Monitoring and Detection Devices
  • Responders assigned monitoring, detection, and
    sampling duties must be trained

117
Terrorist Attacks
  • Response to a terrorist incident is essentially
    the same as that for response to other haz mat
    incidents however, there are critical
    differences that must be understood by
    firefighters.

118
Indicators of Terrorist Attacks
  • Report of two or more medical emergencies in
    public locations
  • Unusually large number of people with similar
    signs and symptoms

(Continued)
119
Indicators of Terrorist Attacks
  • Reported explosion

120
Types of Terrorist Attacks
  • Chemical attack
  • Biological attack
  • Radiological attack
  • Nuclear attack
  • Explosive/incendiary attack

121
Identifying Illicit Laboratories
  • Produce or manufacture illegal or controlled
    substances
  • Can be found virtually anywhere
  • Drug labs

Courtesy of Joan Hepler.
(Continued)
122
Identifying Illicit Laboratories
  • Chemical agents labs
  • Explosives labs
  • Biological labs

123
Secondary Attacks
  • Always a possibility at terrorist attacks or
    illicit laboratories
  • Usually explosives
  • Often designed to impact an ongoing emergency
    response
  • May also be deployed as a diversionary tactic

(Continued)
124
Secondary Attacks
  • May be used to lure personnel to a specific area
    where a less obvious IED is hidden
  • Guidelines exist for protecting against possible
    secondary devices

(Continued)
125
Secondary Attacks
  • Responders should be very cautious of any item(s)
    that arouse curiosity.

126
Summary
  • Because hazardous materials could be involved in
    virtually any emergency, and because these
    materials may be highly toxic, it is critical
    that firefighters have at least a basic
    understanding of the potential threats and
    possible solutions.

(Continued)
127
Summary
  • Firefighters should be aware of the vast
    quantities of these materials that are shipped,
    stored, and used every day in North America. They
    should also be aware of the various placards,
    labels, and signs that are required.

(Continued)
128
Summary
  • Firefighters should be familiar with the various
    references that are available to assist them.
    Finally, they must know what specialized
    resources will be needed to mitigate a hazardous
    materials release and be prepared to assist.

129
Review Questions
  • 1. What are persons trained to the Awareness
    Level expected to do?
  • 2. What are persons trained to the Operations
    Level expected to do?
  • 3. What is a supplied-air respirator?

(Continued)
130
Review Questions
  • 4. What U.S. EPA level of protective equipment
    provides the highest level of protection?
  • 5. List three methods to prevent and/or reduce
    the effects of heat exposure while wearing
    protective clothing.

(Continued)
131
Review Questions
  • 6. Describe the four main routes through which
    hazardous materials can enter the body.
  • 7. What are the seven clues to the presence of
    hazardous materials?
  • 8. What are the three ways to use the ERG to
    locate the appropriate orange-bordered guide
    page?

(Continued)
132
Review Questions
  • 9. List four chemical attack indicators.
  • 10. What are the clues to the presence of meth
    labs?
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