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American Domestic Architecture

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American Domestic Architecture Fashions of American Homes Folk houses- designed without a conscious attempt to mimic current fashion. Built by their occupants or by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American Domestic Architecture


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American Domestic Architecture
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Fashions of American Homes
  • Folk houses- designed without a conscious attempt
    to mimic current fashion. Built by their
    occupants or by non-professional builders, with
    little concern for style
  • Styled homes- built with some attempt at being
    fashionable (most American homes are styled, with
    influence of shapes, materials, and features
    popular of the architectural style of the time)

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Architectural Style Ancient Classical
  • Developed in Europe, especially in England
    France, in the mid-18th century
  • Began making an impact on American design after
    the Revolution
  • Rooted in Classical concepts of proportion
    decoration but with a new perception of ancient
    Rome Greece as separate and distinct
    civilizations
  • Coincided with the emergence of archaeology as a
    serious science
  • A new understanding emerged of the Roman interest
    in ornamentation systems of proportion the
    Greek passion for geometry practical spatial
    function

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Ancient Classical Features
  • Symmetrical Facades
  • Low-pitched roofs
  • Free-standing columns
  • An entry or porch supported by columns (often
    two-story or colossal columns)
  • Columns most often in one of the classical orders

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Medieval Style
  • A Romantic movement that stretched from the 1830s
    to the turn of the century
  • Appealed directly to the imagination, evoking
    mystery, passion, nostalgia
  • Moody revivals of medieval European architecture
    came into snakes
  • Texture, color, asymmetry replaced geometry
    balance
  • A broad range of lively, unconventional,
    complex styles emerged

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Medieval Style-Postmedieval
  • A style that flourished in the northern colonies
  • Designed as safe havens, places to seek refuge
    from the frightening cold

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Medieval Style-Gothic Revival (1840-1880)
  • peaked from the 1750s to about 1900
  • One of the preferred styles for church
    architecture in the United States
  • The style is elaborate and decorative
  • Some decorative elements include gargoyles,
    pinnacles, and stained glass windows

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Medieval Style-Stick (1860-1890)
  • All about carpentry
  • Light and irregular feeling
  • Defining feature stickwork

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Medieval Style- Queen Anne (1880-1910)
  • Patterned masonry
  • Became popular as the industrial revolution grew
  • Excitement of new technology- precut
    architectural work transported across the country
  • Innovative, sometimes excessive homes
  • Asymmetrical facades, curved towers and porches,
    protruding bay windows, steeply pitched roofs,
    elaborate ornamentation

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Medieval Style-Romanesque (1880-1900)
  • Inspired by Queen Anne and Stick styles
  • Not really common- made of masonry (more
    expensive than other styles)
  • Round-topped arches
  • Masonry walls, with rough faces
  • Squared stonework
  • Asymmetrical
  • Round towers with conical roofs

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Medieval Style- Tudor
  • Popular in the 1920s and 1930s, mainstay in
    suburbs
  • Prominent front gable with exterior chimney,
    walls covered with brick, stone accents, diamond
    pane windows
  • Patterned brick or stone walls
  • Gable- triangular portion of a wall between
    sloping portions of a roof

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Renaissance Classical Style
  • An Academic Reaction to Victorian styles, led
    by the influential New York firm of McKim, Mead,
    White
  • Marked a return to formal, disciplined order a
    literal archaeological adaptation of historical
    styles
  • Reflected a renewed interest in historical
    European design (especially Classical
    Renaissance forms) a new interest in Americas
    own Colonial past

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Renaissance Classical features
  • Balanced, symmetrical
  • facades
  • Crowned doors and
  • windows,
  • dentils, quoins, and pilasters

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Renaissance Classical-Italianate (1840-1885)
  • Appeared in Midwest, East Coast, and San
    Francisco areas
  • Can be quite ornate despite their solid square
    shape
  • The chief characteristic is the brackets at the
    eave, arched doorways and windows, bay windows
    and flat roofs
  • Usually in a boxed or rectangular shape

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Renaissance Classical-Italian Renaissance
(1890-1935)
  • Italian- arch emphasis
  • While the Victorian Italianate was essentially a
    loose interpretation of Italian architecture,
    drawn primarily from pattern books, the Italian
    Renaissance revival took a much more academic
    approach
  • American "palaces"

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Renaissance Classical- Second Empire (1855-1885)
  • Named after the Second Empire in France
  • In Paris, architectural scheme developed to
    emphasize the linear, horizontal character of
    streets
  • Popular in Midwest and Northeast
  • Fashionable for public buildings, elaborate and
    costly
  • Roof- mansard

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Second Empire continued
  • Mansard roof covered with multicolored tiles or
    tinplates
  • Symmetrical 2 or 3-story square block
  • First floor windows are usually very tall
  • Quoins, cornices, and belt courses have great
    depth and are dramatized by different textures
    and colored materials
  • Windows are arched and pedimented, sometimes in
    pairs with molded surrounds

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Renaissance Classical-Beaux Arts
  • An eclectic Neoclassical style
  • Combining ancient Greek and Roman forms with
    Renaissance ideas
  • Columns, pilasters, balustrades and window
    balconies
  • the favored style for
  • court houses, museums,
  • railroad terminals and
  • government buildings

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Colonial Revival- 1890s
  • The reuse of Colonial design, typically in bank
    buildings, churches and suburban homes
  • Following on the heels of America's Centennial
    celebrations
  • Early American architecture - particularly
    Georgian style
  • New pride in America's past and a rapidly growing
    Interest in historic preservation
  • Among the leaders of the movement were the
    partners at McKim, Mead and White

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Colonial Revival- Features
  • Accentuated front door, with pediment supported
    by pilasters
  • Doors have fanlights or sidelights
  • Symmetrically balanced
  • windows and center door
  • Palladian window

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Modern Styles
  • During the early 1900s, a few progressive minds
    began to establish influential standards of
    design wholly independent of historical European
    references
  • Lack of applied ornamentation, external simplicity

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Modern- Prairie School(1900-1920)
  • Among the strongest voices against Classicism
    formal composition was that of Flank Lloyd Wright
    (18671959)
  • Influences included Japanese design, the
    contemporary English Arts Crafts movement,
    the Victorian concern for the relationship of a
    building to its natural environment
  • Prairie style evolved as a truly original
    American art form

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Prairie School features
  • Low-pitched roofs
  • Wide eave overhang
  • Massive square porch supports
  • Walls at right angles- no curves
  • Walls of light-colored brick or stucco and wood
  • Democracy needed something basically better than
    the box Frank Lloyd Wright

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Modern- Craftsman
  • Designs of brothers Charles S. (18681957)
    Henry M. Greene (18701954)
  • These California architects fascination with
    structural forms the natural beauty of wood
    stone resulted in buildings organically
    integrated with their sites
  • Designed for an affluent clientele, the Prairie
    Craftsman houses had a relatively short life,
    over by the 1920s
  • Their emphasis on comfort convenience their
    concepts of human scale sensible plans led to
    the idea of the affordable small house for the
    middle class
  • "A building is a machine for living" -- Le
    Corbusier

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Features- Craftsman
  • Low-pitched, gabled roof
  • wide overhang of eaves
  • decorative (false) beams or braces under gables
  • incised porch (beneath main roof
  • often with Frank Lloyd Wright design motifs
  • Often mixed materials throughout structure.

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International
  • Flat roof
  • Windows usually metal framed. They are often
    sliding windows casements set flush with outer
    walls
  • No decorative detailing at doors or windows
  • Smooth, unornamented wall surface
  • Asymmetrical façade
  • Less defined rooms that flow from one to another
    without doors
  • Visually weightless quality engendered by the use
    of cantilever construction
  • Glass, steel and reinforced concrete construction

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