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Six Sigma Concept

????????????

- ???????????????????????? Six Sigma
- ??????????? Six Sigma
- ?????????????????????? Six Sigma
- ?????????????????????????????????????? ???????? 6

???????????????????? Six Sigma--?????????

- ??????????????
- ???????????
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- ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????
- ??????????????????????????????????????????????????

- ????????????????????????????
- ?????????????????????? ?????? ????????????????????

? - ??????????????????????????
- ?????????????????????????????????????????

??????????

???????????????????? Six Sigma--????????

- ??????? Six Sigma
- ????????????????
- ??????????????????????????
- ????????????????????????????
- ??????????????????? ???????????????????????
- ??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????

?????????????????? - ????????????????????? ????????

??????????? Six Sigma

?????????????????????????

??????????????

????????????????????

??????????? Six Sigma

????????????????????

??????????????

?????????????????????????

Section 1 Six Sigma An Overview

What is Sigma?

???????? Sigma (s)

- Sigma (s) ???
- ??????????????? 18
- ???????????????????????????????????? (Standard

Deviation) - ?????????????????????????????

?????? ??? ???????????????? ??? ??????

m

??????????????????????? (s) ??????????????????????

??????????? (m)

USL

LSL

s

s

s

????????????????????? (LSL) ???????????????????

(USL) ???????????????????? (T)

????????? (m) ??????????????????? (s)

T

Where Does Industry Stand?

IRS - Tax Advice

(phone-in)

(140,000 PPM)

Restaurant Bills

Doctor Prescription Writing

Payroll Processing

Order Write-up

Journal Vouchers

Wire Transfers

Airline Baggage Handling

Purchased Material

Lot Reject Rate

Best-in-Class

Average

Domestic Airline Flight

Company

Fatality Rate

(0.43 PPM)

7

Sigma Scale of Measure

???????? Six Sigma (6s)

- Six Sigma (6s) ????
- ?????????? World Class Company
- ?????? ??????????????????????????

(Breakthrough) - ?????????????
- ?????????????????
- ??????????????????????????????????????
- ?????????????????????????????????????????????????

????? ?????? ?????? ???????????

- ?????????????????????????
- ??????????????????????????????????????????????????

???? - ??????????????????????? ??????????????????????

- ?????????? ??? ????????????????????????????

Six Sigma ?????????????????????

Sigma is a statistical unit of measure that

reflects process capability. The sigma scale of

measure is perfectly correlated to such

characteristics as defects-per-unit,

parts-per-million defective, and the probability

of a failure/error.

Six Sigma ?????????????????

Section 1 Six Sigma An Overview

?????????? Six Sigma

- Started on 1960s, a number of big companies

were toying with the idea of Zero Defect (ZD).

But the ideas didnt go very far and limited to

motivational slogans and pep talks. - On 1980s, giant companies spearheaded again the

comeback of ZD philosophy. They are now more

serious on producing defect free products. - For instant, Xerox with Leadership Through

Quality, Intel with PDQ2, HP with TQC, IBM

with Excellent in Execution etc.. - Motorola didnt want to miss the pack by

establishing 6-Sigma program on 1987. The idea

was first discovered by Mikel Harry, one of

Motorola's finest employees from Government

Electronics Group. - By giving itself 5 years time limit to achieved

from 3 to 6-Sigma, Motorola has spent merely 20

million dollar in its first year alone.

Motorola's investment paid off and proved that ZD

was achievable. - On the following years, Mikel Hurley left

Motorola and set up his own company known as Six

Sigma Academy, USA.

??????????????? Six Sigma

- Motorola
- Texas Instruments
- ABB
- Allied Signal
- General Electric
- Seagate Technology

- DuPont
- Sony
- Kodak
- Toshiba
- Lockheed Martin
- Other

Section 2 Six Sigma Process

Process Variation

Process

Inputs

Output

- All businesses consist of interconnected

processes - Variation exist in all processes
- Understanding and reducing process variability

in the key to improve customer satisfaction and

reducing losses

Focus of Six Sigma

To get results, should we focus our behavior on

the Y or X?

- X1 . . . XN
- Independent
- Input-Process
- Cause
- Problem
- Control

If we are so good at X, why do we constantly test

and inspect Y?

Focus on X rather than Y, as done historically

Process Output Variation

s

m measurement of location s measurement of

variability

Process Sigma Level

Definition The number of standard deviation

that can be fitted into the space between the

process center and the nearest specification

limits

6 Sigma Process

What does a 6 sigma process look like ?

m

Average Deviation from Mean

1s

p(d)

1 2 3 4 5 6

s

T

USL

Six Sigma - Practical Meaning

99.99966 Good (6 Sigma)

99 Good (3.8 Sigma)

20,000 lost articles of mail per hour Unsafe

drinking water for almost 15 minutes each

day 5,000 incorrect surgical operations per

week Two short or long landings at most major

airports each day 200,000 wrong drug

prescriptions each year No electricity for

almost seven hours each month

Seven articles lost per hour One unsafe minute

every seven months 1.7 incorrect operations per

week One short or long landing every five

years 68 wrong prescriptions per year One hour

without electricity every 34 years

6 Sigma - Aggressive Goal

Sigma is a statistical unit of measure that

reflects process capability. The sigma scale of

measure is perfectly correlated to such

characteristics as defects-per-unit,

parts-per-million defective, and the probability

of a failure/error.

??????????? Six Sigma

?????????????????????????

??????????????

????????????????????

Critical to...

- Price - Quality - Delivery

???????????????????????????????

- Product
- CTQ Critical to Quality
- CTD Critical to Delivery
- CTP Critical to Price

????????????????????

Delivery ?????????

Quality ??????

Price/Value ????/??????

Defects ??????????

Cost ??????

Cycle Time ????????????

- Processes
- CTP1 Critical to Process 1
- CTP2 Critical to Process 2
- CTP3 Critical to Process 3

?????????????????

??????? ??? Six Sigma

Whats the Strategy

Know whats important to the Customer Reduce

defects Center around target Reduce Variation

Section 3 The DMAIC Approach

??????????????????

- ????????? (Management)
- ????????? (Champion)
- ?????????? (Black Belt)
- ????????? (Green Belt)
- ??????????? (Member)
- ?????????????? (Process Owner)
- ???????? ?????????? (Master Black Belt)

??????????????????

- ????????????????? (Management)
- ?????????????????????????????????

???????????????????????????????

???????????????????????? - ??????????????????????????????? ??????

??????????????????

- ????????????????? (Champion)
- ??????????????????????????????
- ???????????????????????? ???????????????????

??????????????????

- ????????????????? (Green Belt)
- ???????????????????
- ?????????????????
- ??????????????????????????????
- ????????????????????? ??????????????

??????????????????

- ??????????????????? (Member)
- ???????????????????
- ???????????????????????????????
- ?????????????????????

??????????????????

- ?????????????????????? (Process Owner)
- ??????????????????????
- ???????????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????

- ???????????????? ?????????? (Master Black Belt)
- ????????????? ????????????????????????
- ??????????????????????????????????

??????????????????

- ?????????????????? (Black Belt)
- ???????????
- ???????????????????????????????????????????????
- ????????????????????????????????????????
- ??????
- ????????????????????????????????????
- ????????????????????????????????????????
- ?????
- ???????????????????????????????? (Breakthrough)
- ?????????????????????????

???????????????????? Critical Mass

- ??????????? (Member)

- ????????? (Green Belt)

- ?????????? (Black Belt)

- ???????? ?????????? (Master Black Belt)

???????????? Six Sigma

????????????????? (Practical Problem)

?????????????????? (Statistical Problem)

?????????????????? (Practical Solution)

?????????????????? (Statistical Solution)

???????????? Six Sigma

- ?????????????????

- ??????????????????????????????????????????????????

???? 85 ???????????????????????????????? 95 - ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????
- ??????????????????????????????????????

???????????? Six Sigma

- ??????????????????

- ??????????????? (Input X) ????????????????????????

??????????????????? (Output Y) ???? X

???????????????????? ???? ??????? ???????????

???????????? ???????????????? ??????? - ??????????? ???????????????????? ??????? Y f(x)

???????????? Six Sigma

- ????????????????

- ?????????????????????????????????????????????????

(X) ?????????? - ???????????????????????????????????????? (Y)

???????????? - Y A BTemp CPress. ... Z ???????

???????????? Six Sigma

- ??????????????????

- ?????????????????? (???? ???????? 125,

???????????????? ??? Pt, ???????)

??????????????????? ??????????????????????????????

??? ???????????????????????????

???????????? Six Sigma

- Measure

- Analyze

????????????????? (Practical Problem)

?????????????????? (Statistical Problem)

?????????????????? (Practical Solution)

?????????????????? (Statistical Solution)

- Control

- Improve

???????????????????? Phases of Breakthrough DMAIC

D

Define

M

Measure

A

Analyze

I

Improve

C

Control

Breakthrough !

???????????????????? Phases of Breakthrough DMAIC

D

???????????????

M

????? Baseline

A

????? y f(x)

I

??????????????????? y f(x)

C

??????????????

Breakthrough !

MAIC ??? ????????????????? Vital Few Concept

(Funnel)

30 - 50

Inputs Variables

MEASURE

Key Process Input

10 - 15

Variables ( KPIVs )

ANALYZE

8 - 10

KPIVs

4-8

Critical

KPIVs

IMPROVE

Key Leverage

3-6

CONTROL

KPIVs

Optimized Process

??????????????? DMAIC

- Define/Measure
- ?????????????????????????
- ??????????????????????? ????????????
- ?????????? X ??? Y
- ?????????????????
- ?????????????????????? (Baseline Capability)

- Analyze
- ????????????? X ??? Y ????????????????? ????

hypothesis, multi-vari, ANOVA ??? FMEA - ??????? ????? ????????????????????????????????????

?????????? Noise - ????????????????? DOE

- Control
- ???????????????????????????
- ??????????????????
- ??????????????????????
- ???????????????????????????

- Improve
- ????????????? X ??????????????????????? Y

???????????????????????????????? DOE - ?????????? X ????????
- ??????????????????????????????????????????????

Hidden Factory

Each defect must be detected, repaired and placed

back in the process. Each defect costs time and

money.

Manufacturing Variation Causes A "Hidden

Factory"Increased Cost - Lost Capacity

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