Animal Diseases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Animal Diseases PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 440a30-MWIwY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Animal Diseases

Description:

Animal Diseases Modified by ... Became mildly ill with cow pox Then were immune Louis Pasteur Developed several vaccines following Jenner s lead Vaccines Live ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:606
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 67
Provided by: WestCentr45
Learn more at: http://www.gaaged.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Animal Diseases


1
Animal Diseases
  • Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Office
  • June, 2002

2
Disease
  • Broad definition not being at ease or
    uncomfortable
  • Producers have a vested interest to keep their
    animals healthy

3
Healthy Animals
  • Grow faster and produce more profit for their
    owners
  • Some diseases are mild, others may be severe and
    cause rapid death

4
Sick animals
  • Usually display outward signs of illness
  • Animal may be droopy, go off feed and water, be
    restless, have a dull haircoat

5
Infectious diseases
  • Caused by microorganisms that invade the animals
    body
  • Usually contagious diseases that the animal can
    pass to another animal

6
Bacteria
  • Live in a wide range of conditions
  • Live on and in the bodies of all animals
  • More numerous than the cells of the body

7
Bacteria
  • Many are beneficial
  • Those living in the stomachs of ruminant animals
    aid in digestion

8
Bacteria
  • Useful in production of foods such as cheese and
    sauerkraut
  • Many can be harmful
  • Invade the cells of an animals body

9
Parasitic bacteria
  • May harm the animal by feeding off the body cells
    or secreting a material known as a toxin

10
Toxin
  • Substance that causes harm to an organism
  • A poison

11
Harmful bacteria
  • When large numbers invade, the animal becomes ill
  • Type and form of the illness depends on the type
    of bacteria that invades the animal

12
Cocci
  • Round spherical shaped bacteria
  • Some forms of pneumonia and strep are caused by
    this bacteria

13
Bacillus
  • Rod shaped
  • Single, pairs, or arranged in chains
  • Cause some serious diseases in animals

14
Bacillus
  • Anthrax
  • Tetanus
  • Blackleg
  • Intestinal coliform
  • Salmonella and tuberculosis

15
Spirilla
  • Shaped like spirals or corkscrews
  • Very motile
  • Require moist atmosphere to live

16
Spirilla
  • Live very well in the reproductive tracts of
    animals
  • Leptospirosis
  • Vibrosis and spirochetosis

17
Most bacteria
  • Can be controlled by the use of antibiotics
  • Penicillin was one of the first
  • Produced from extracts of molds

18
Penicillin
  • Many forms are now produced
  • Very effective against bacterial infection.

19
Viruses
  • Very tiny particle of matter composed of a core
    of nucleic acid and a covering of protein that
    protects the virus

20
Viruses
  • Have characteristics of both living and nonliving
    material
  • Are on the borderline between living and non
    living

21
Viruses
  • Made up of some of the material found in cells
    but are not cells because they do not have a
    nucleus or other cell parts.

22
Viruses
  • Do not grow and cannot reproduce outside a living
    cell
  • Once inside a living cell, virus reproduces using
    energy and materials in the invaded cell

23
Viruses
  • Harm cells by causing them to burst during
    reproduction
  • And by using material that the cell needs to
    function properly

24
Virus
  • Viral diseases cause the animal to be sick by
    preventing certain cells in the body from
    functioning properly

25
Virus
  • More difficult to treat than bacterial diseases
  • Antibiotics are not effective against viral
    infections

26
Viral diseases
  • Foot and mouth disease
  • Influenza
  • Hog cholera
  • Pseudorabies

27
Viral diseases
  • Best means of dealing with them is prevention

28
Protozoa
  • Microorganism that causes disease
  • Single celled organisms that are often parasitic

29
Protozoa
  • Cause harm by feeding on cells or producing
    toxins
  • African sleeping sickness
  • Anaplasmosis

30
Protozoa
  • Coccidiosis
  • One of the most costly poultry diseases
  • Caused diarrhea and weight loss

31
Protozoa
  • Most can be controlled by drugs

32
The immune system
  • Several lines of defense in fighting disease
  • Physical barriers that keep pathogens out

33
The immune system
  • Nostrils are lined with hairs that attract
    particles that harbor germs before they can enter
    the body

34
The immune system
  • Mucous membranes secrete viscous water substance
    that traps and destroys bacteria and viruses

35
The immune system
  • Digestive and respiratory systems greatest
    avenue for entry
  • Some disease germs can live in the soil for many
    years

36
Soil borne disease
  • Animals come into contact with the ground when
    they graze
  • Many pathogens are breathed in by livestock

37
Germs
  • Swallowed by animals are destroyed by digestive
    enzymes
  • Inhaled germs are trapped in mucous membranes of
    respiratory tract

38
2nd line of defense
  • Blood cells
  • White and Red
  • Red carry oxygen and other nutrients to other
    body cells

39
White Blood Cells
  • Are produced in the bone marrow
  • Circulate throughout the body to get rid of worn
    out cells

40
Phagocytes
  • White blood cells that intercept and destroy
    pathogens
  • Also migrate to certain organs and remain there
    to intercept pathogens

41
White Blood Cells
  • Circulate through other body fluids and the
    mucous membranes

42
Phagocytes
  • Release chemicals that can induce the production
    of more white blood cells to help fight disease

43
Phagocytes
  • An elevated WBC count indicated that there are
    disease organisms present in the animals body
    and a large number of phagocytes have been
    produced to combat them

44
Lymphocytes
  • Lymph glands that produce certain WBCs
  • These cells react to foreign substances by
    releasing chemicals that kill the pathogen or
    inactivate the foreign substance

45
Antigens
  • Substances that cause the release of chemicals
  • May be viruses, bacteria, toxins, or other
    substances

46
Antibodies
  • The chemicals released by the lymphocytes

47
2nd Immune Response
  • Lymphocytes become memory cell and are ready to
    release the antibody if the antigen enters the
    body at a later time

48
2nd Immune Response
  • Response occurs much more quickly
  • Lasts longer than primary response

49
Immunity
  • Means than an animal is protected from catching a
    certain disease
  • Animals body is capable of producing enough
    antibodies fast enough to neutralize the disease

50
Immunity
  • Active or passive
  • Active animal is more or less permanently immune
  • Passive animal is only temporarily immune

51
Immunity
  • Animals are born with some immunity
  • Colostrum is rich in antibodies
  • Serve the new animal until its own immune system
    can take over

52
Immunity
  • As the animal is exposed to more antigens,
    antibodies build up within the animal.
  • Naturally acquired active immunity results from
    the animal actually contracting the disease and
    recovering

53
Artificial Active
  • Induced by injecting antigens into the animal
  • Causes phagocytes to react without making the
    animal seriously ill

54
Edward Jenner
  • Late 1700s
  • Began vaccination process
  • Smallpox and cow pox
  • Collected material from sores of people with
    cowpox

55
Edward Jenner
  • Injected healthy people with material
  • Became mildly ill with cow pox
  • Then were immune

56
Louis Pasteur
  • Developed several vaccines following Jenners lead

57
Vaccines
  • Live
  • Killed or weakened strain
  • Both stimulate production of antibodies
  • Killed less dangerous when compared to live
    vaccine

58
Noninfectious Disease
  • Not contagious
  • Genetic diseases
  • Caused by defects in the genes
  • Problem or disease can be passed from parent to
    offspring

59
Genetic Diseases
  • Cannot be spread through contact with other
    animals
  • Control of genetic diseases, using good selection
    practices
  • Avoid breeding animals that are known to have
    genetic defects in their line

60
Nutritional Diseases
  • Milk fever in dairy cattle
  • Cows lie down and are unable to stand
  • Insufficient amount of Ca in the bloodstream

61
Milk fever
  • Usually cured by injection of Ca salts
  • Effects are immediate and dramatic

62
Overeating
  • Founder horses, cattle and sheep
  • Eat too much grain
  • Causes feet to become inflamed and hooves to grow
    upward and outward

63
Poisoning
  • Moldy feed can contain toxins
  • Aflatoxins and ergot fungi that grow on grains
  • Grazing on poisonous plants

64
Disease prevention
  • Vaccination
  • Humans can carry disease from one farm to another
  • Many farms require plastic boots be worn over the
    shoes of visitors

65
Quarantine
  • Isolation of newly purchased animals
  • Government regulates quarantine for animals
    coming into the US

66
Quarantine
  • Many states have quarantine periods or require
    health papers for animals crossing state lines
  • Animals tested positive for Brucellosis (Bangs)
    are branded and sent to slaughter.
About PowerShow.com