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MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory

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Title: MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory


1
MCTS Guide to Configuring Microsoft Windows
Server 2008 Active Directory
  • Chapter 8 Introduction to Windows Networking

2
Objectives
  • Describe networks using Windows terminology
  • Configure and troubleshoot TCP/IP protocols
  • Describe IPv6 addressing

2
3
Windows Networking Terminology
  • Network media
  • Network Interface Card (NIC)
  • NIC driver
  • Hub or switch
  • Router
  • Network protocol
  • Client
  • Service
  • Network
  • Internetwork
  • Network connection
  • Network discovery

4
The Network and Sharing Center
  • Can create network connections, view the status
    of existing connections, and troubleshoot network
    problems
  • Additionally, you can enable and disable the
    discovery of other computers on the network, and
    configure folder sharing
  • Three sections
  • The network map
  • Sharing and Discovery
  • Tasks

5
The Network Map
  • The network map displays a graphical view of the
    network from your computers perspective
  • Upon connection to a network, Windows asks you to
    select the type of network you are connecting to
    Home, Work, or Public
  • Based on this choice, Windows designates your
    network as one of the following types
  • Public
  • Private
  • Domain

6
The Network Map (cont.)
  • Devices that run Windows Server 2003 or Windows
    XP cant be placed on the map, because they lack
    the necessary Link Layer Topology Discovery
    (LLTD) protocol
  • Other reasons that a device cant be placed
  • A computer running Vista connected to a network
    designated as public
  • LLTD is disabled
  • Network discovery is turned off
  • Firewall settings on the computer or network are
    preventing Windows from detecting the computer
  • The NIC drivers dont support LLTD

7
The Network Map (cont.)
8
The Sharing and Discovery Section
  • You can enable and disable the following
    functions in the Sharing and Discovery section
  • Network discovery
  • File sharing
  • Public folder sharing
  • Printer sharing
  • This section can also display information about
    whats currently being shared on the computer

9
The Tasks Section
  • The Tasks section has links to perform the
    following tasks
  • View computers and devices
  • Connect to a network
  • Set up a connection or network
  • Manage network connections
  • Diagnose and repair

10
TCP/IP Operation and Configuration
  • TCP/IP is the default network protocol installed
    on Windows computers. Windows Server 2008 and
    Vista are the first two to have IPv4 and IPv6
    installed by default
  • TCP/IP is a suite of protocols
  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

11
TCP/IP Communication
  • When a user opens a web page, a DNS request is
    sent to resolve the website name to an IP address
  • Once the client has the IP address of the
    website, it then determines whether the address
    is on the same network or a different network
  • If the client is on the same network, the client
    requests the MAC address of the Web server. If
    not, the client sends the request for the Web
    page to a router or default gateway
  • Routers then forward the request to other
    routers, until the request reaches a router
    connected to the Web servers network

12
IPv4 Address Configuration
  • IP addresses are 32-bit numbers divided into four
    8-bit values called octets, each octet can have a
    value from 0 to 255
  • Subnet masks are also 32-bit numbers, that serve
    to determine how many bits are allocated to a
    network ID, and how many are allocated to a host
    ID
  • When written in binary, 1s in the subnet mask
    that correspond to bits in the IP address mean
    the matching bit locations are part of the
    network ID
  • 192.168.1.0 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000
    000255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.000
    00000
  • Above shows 192.168.1 as the network ID, .0 as
    the host ID

13
Assigning IP Address Classes
  • Three classes of IP addresses can be assigned
    Class A, Class B, or Class C

14
IP Address Assignment Rules
  • Rules for IP address assignment
  • Every IP address configuration must have a subnet
    mask
  • All hosts on the same physical network must share
    the same network ID in their IP addresses
  • All host IDs on the same network must be unique
  • You cant assign an IP address in which all the
    host ID bits are binary 0
  • You cant assign an IP address in which all the
    host ID bits are binary 1
  • Computers assigned different network IDs can
    communicate only if a router is present to
    forward packets

15
Subnetting
  • Default subnet mask for an address class does not
    always apply
  • Bits can be borrowed from the host ID portion of
    an address class in order to create additional
    sub-networks
  • Example 172.31.0.0 subnetted to 255.255.255.0
  • Creates 256 new networks, with 254 host IDs
  • Rule for number of networks 2n
  • Rule for number of hosts 2n 2
  • An IP network is referred to as a broadcast
    domain
  • Creating multiple subnets can be beneficial in
    large environments to reduce the amount of
    traffic (broadcast traffic specifically)
    computers are exposed to

16
Configuring Multiple IP Addresses
  • Windows OSs allow assigning multiple IP addresses
    to a single network connection, via Advanced
    TCP/IP settings dialog box
  • Multiple IP addresses can be useful in these
    situations
  • The computer is hosting a service that must be
    accessed by using different addresses
  • The computer is connected to a physical network
    that hosts multiple IP networks

17
Configuring the Default Gateway
  • A default gateway is almost always used in IP
    configurations
  • The default gateway can not be in a network ID
    outside of the hosts network ID
  • Just as you can configure multiple IP addresses,
    multiple gateways can be configured
  • Windows attempts to select the gateway with the
    best metric automatically
  • Metric is a value assigned to the gateway based
    on the speed of the interface used to access the
    gateway

18
Using Multihomed Servers
  • A multihomed server has two or more NICs, each
    attached to a different IP network
  • Each NIC requires its own IP address for the
    network to which its connected
  • Reasons for this type of configuration
  • A server is accessed by internal clients and
    external clients
  • A server provides resources for computers on
    multiple subnets of the network
  • A server is configured as a router or VPN server
  • Multihomed servers can run into routing issues
    due to multiple default gateways being configured

19
Using the Route Command
  • Windows computers maintain a routing table that
    dictates where a packet should be sent, based on
    the packets destination address
  • Typing route print displays the routing table
  • Results are displayed in five columns
  • Network Destination
  • Netmask
  • Gateway
  • Interface
  • Metric
  • Route command can be used to change the routing
    table, and to fix issues caused by using a
    multihomed server

20
Using the Route Command (cont.)
21
IP Configuration Command-Line Tools
  • Other command line tools available to assist with
    IP configuration
  • Ping
  • Ipconfig
  • Arp
  • Tracert
  • Nslookup
  • Additional tools are available, but are generally
    used to verify correct IP configuration settings
    and connectivity

22
The Ping Command
  • Ping is used to test the connectivity between two
    computers, by sending an ICMP Echo Request packet
  • If the destination receives the ICMP Echo Request
    and can respond, itll reply with an ICMP Echo
    Reply packet
  • Example Reply from 192.168.100.201 bytes32
    timelt1ms TTL128
  • To see the options available for the ping
    command, type ping /? at the command prompt

23
The Ipconfig Command
  • Ipconfig is usually used to display a computers
    IP address settings, but it can perform other
    tasks based on the options given
  • /all
  • /release
  • /renew
  • /displaydns
  • /flushdns
  • /registerdns

24
The Arp Command
  • The Arp command displays or makes changes to the
    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache, which
    contains IP address MAC address pairs
  • Can add static ARP entries
  • Some options for ARP command
  • -a, -g displays current ARP entries
  • -d deletes ARP entries
  • -s adds a static ARP entry

25
The Tracert Command
  • Usually called trace route because it displays
    the route packets take between two computers
  • Works by sending out packets with a TTL value
    starting at 1 and increases the value until the
    destination is reached
  • Useful for troubleshooting the routing topology
    of a complex network and finding bottlenecks

26
The Nslookup Command
  • Used to test and troubleshoot DNS operation
  • Can be used in command mode or interactive mode
  • In command mode, you type nslookup host to
    query for the hosts address
  • In interactive mode, you can simply type host to
    get the hosts address
  • Typing a question mark at the interactive mode
    prompt gives a list of available options

27
Managing Protocols
  • Each network connection in Windows Server 2008
    has protocols and services associated with it
  • Services / protocols can be unbound (disabled) or
    bound (enabled) to a connection in the
    connections Properties dialog box, by selecting
    or deselecting the check box next to the service
    or protocol
  • List of services / protocols
  • Client for Microsoft Networks
  • QoS Packet Scheduler
  • File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
  • Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6)
  • Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)
  • Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper I/O Driver
  • Link-Layer Topology Discovery Responder

28
Managing Protocols (cont.)
29
Network Bindings
  • By default, every installed service and protocol
    is bound to every network connection
  • Protocol bindings can be rearranged by selecting
    the protocol to be moved, and then by clicking
    the up or down arrows in the Adapters and
    Bindings tab
  • Network connections are then prioritized in the
    order shown under this tab

30
Network Bindings (cont.)
31
Network Providers
  • A network provider is a software component that
    allows Windows applications to connect to
    resources on other computers
  • Different OSs may require different procedures,
    which requires different network providers
  • Network providers exist for Windows networks,
    virtual networks (VMware), Novell networks, Linux
    networks, and more
  • Performs actions such as making and breaking
    network connections

32
Network Providers (cont.)
33
Internet Protocol Version 6
  • Previous Windows OSs use a Dual-stack
    architecture, meaning that IPv4 and IPv6 use
    separate implementations of the protocols in the
    TCP/IP suite
  • Windows Server 2008 and Vista use dual-IP layer
    architecture, which means that the IP protocol is
    the only component of the TCP/IP suite thats
    different in IPv6

34
Internet Protocol Version 6 (cont.)
Dual-stack architecture
35
Internet Protocol Version 6 (cont.)
Dual-IP layer architecture
36
IPv6 Overview
  • Originally named IPng (IP next generation), IPv6
    was created in 1994 by the Internet Engineering
    Task Force (IETF)
  • IPv6 includes the following improvements
  • Large address space
  • Hierarchical address space
  • Autoconfiguration
  • Built-in Quality of Server (QoS) support
  • Built-in security

37
IPv6 Address Structure
  • Subnetting as done in IPv4 is no longer
    applicable
  • Uses 128 bits, instead of IPv4s 32 bits, for an
    address
  • IPv6 addresses are written as eight 16-bit
    hexadecimal numbers separated by colons
  • Fe8000018ff00248e5a60
  • Things to note about IPv6 addresses
  • One or more consecutive 0 values can be written
    as a double colon, but only one double colon can
    exist in an IPv6 address
  • Leading 0s are optional
  • Addresses that start with fe80 are called
    link-local addresses and are self-configuring

38
The IPv6 Host ID
  • Host ID of an IPv6 is typically 64 bits and uses
    the interfaces 48 bit MAC address for a large
    portion of the address, as well as a 16 bit value
    of FF-FE that is inserted after the first 24 bits
    of the MAC address
  • First two zeros in a MAC address are replaced
    with 02
  • This autoconfigured 64-bit host ID is referred to
    as an Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)-64
    interface ID
  • Windows Server 2008 and Vista dont use EUI-64 by
    default

39
Subnetting with IPv6
  • Subnetting will still exist in IPv6, but due to
    the large address space available, most address
    allocations will have a /48 prefix
  • This leaves 80 bits for assigning subnets and
    host IDs
  • 80 bits allows 16 subnet bits (since the
    interface ID requires 64 bits), allowing up to
    65,536 subnets

40
Subnetting with IPv6 (cont.)
Typical IPV6 address structure
41
Chapter Summary
  • The Network and Sharing Center can view the
    status of network connections and configure their
    properties
  • The network map is a visual representation of
    computers and connecting devices in your network
  • TCP/IPv4, the predominant networking protocol in
    use today, is actually a suite of protocols and
    services, such as DNS, DHCP, TCP, IPv4, ICMP, and
    ARP, among others
  • TCP/IP communication is a multi-step process that
    often involves the use of several different
    protocols in the TCP/IP suite

42
Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • An IP address is a 32-bit dotted decimal number
    divided into four octets. Every IP address must
    have a subnet mask to indicate which part of the
    address is the network ID and which part is the
    host ID. Three IP classes exist A, B, C
  • Subnetting uses a modified subnet mask to divide
    a large network into smaller, more manageable
    networks
  • You can configure multiple IP addresses and
    default gateways on a network connection

43
Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • Several command-line tools are available for
    checking status and troubleshooting IP
    configuration, including Ping, Ipconfig, Arp,
    Tracert, and Nslookup
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