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Social Change

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What is social change? Transformations over time of the ... antithesis. New thesis. New antithesis. Struggle of opposites. New struggle of opposites. resolution ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Change


1
Social Change
2
Social change
  • What is social change?
  • What causes it?
  • Social movements
  • Globalization

3
What is social change?
  • Transformations over time of the institutions and
    culture of society

4
What causes social change?
  • Does Giddens have a theory?
  • A theory is a systematic explanation of cause and
    effect
  • No real theory presented
  • Influences (pp. 618-622)
  • Physical environment (economy)
  • Political organization
  • Culture
  • Says we need general theories, but abandons them
    (except globalization as a trend)

5
What causes social change theories Giddens
neglects
  • Parsons (functionalism) evolutionarydifferentiat
    ion of institutions
  • Symbolic interactionists social construction,
    new scripts
  • Marx historical materialism

6
Dialectics
thesis
New thesis
New antithesis
antithesis
resolution
Struggle of opposites
New struggle of opposites
7
Dialectical materialism
  • (material) social forces of production as base
    (basis) of social life
  • Ideas, institutions erected in support of
    relations of production
  • Class struggle in relations of production becomes
    political
  • Struggle (revolution) leads to new stage of
    history historical materialism

8
Historical Materialism
Superstructure Ideas, ideology,
institutions Social reproduction
New superstructure
Class struggle
Revolution
Social forces of production Relations of
production Means of production
New forces of production
9
Postindustrial society
  • aka information society, service society,
    knowledge society because these sectors dominate
    the economy
  • Codified knowledge/information key resource
  • Knowledge workers become leading social group
  • But
  • Service work includes a lot of manual labor
  • Close integration of service and manufacture
  • Giddens this approach overemphasizes economic
    factors

10
Postmodernity
  • Modernity
  • Refers to the industrial period
  • Based on notion of progress i.e., history has
    a direction, things get better
  • Postmodernity means that idea has collapsed
  • Social reality is now pluralistic and diverse
  • Everything is in flux
  • Shafer and Divney Postmodernists overemphasize
    cultural factors, wrong about end of history

11
Globalization influences
  • Telecommunications
  • Fall of U.S.S.R, capitalist road in China
    brought virtually entire planet into market
    system
  • Transnational corporations dominate biggest 500
    TNCs bigger than most countries economies

12
Table 20.3
13
Globalization debate
  • Skeptics
  • Globalization is not new
  • Regionalization more significant
  • National governments still play important role
  • Shafer current events lend credence to the
    skeptics points

14
Globalization debate
  • Transformationalists
  • Globalization is changing societies, but
    governments hold onto some power
  • Globalization is multidirectional
  • New, nonterritorial social organizations
  • TNCs
  • NGOs
  • Social movements

15
Globalization debate
  • Hyperglobalizers
  • New global order being born
  • Market forces more powerful than national
    governments (Ohmae)
  • National governments in decline
  • International organizations grow in power
  • European Union
  • World Trade Organization

16
Fig. 20.3
17
Campaign for global justice
  • Grassroots social movement concerned about global
    inequality
  • Battle of Seattle, 1999
  • Continues today (Miami anti-FTAA protest)
  • Has its own media using WWW
  • http//indymedia.org

18
Epilogue social movements
  • Conscious, organized actions to influence social
    change
  • Piven and Cloward most effective when
    mass-based, non-bureaucratic
  • Maoism and the Great Proletarian Cultural
    Revolution
  • Revolution within a revolution
  • Among many other things, tried to invent new
    relations of production (non-wage labor)
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