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The Psychodynamic Approach

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This approach looks at emotions, focusing on what we feel & what motivates behaviour. ... approach e.g. a genetic tendency towards introversion and agoraphobia ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Psychodynamic Approach


1
The Psychodynamic Approach
2
What is the Psychodynamic Approach?
3
What is the Psychodynamic Approach?
  • This approach looks at emotions, focusing on what
    we feel what motivates behaviour.
  • All psychodynamic theories stem from
    psychoanalysis, the theory method of therapy
    developed by Freud.
  • These theories explain behaviour as an
    interaction between innate drives early
    experience.
  • Freud introduced the new notion that behaviour is
    driven by unconscious forces, i.e. we dont
    always understand why we do things

4
Outline of Psychodynamic Approach
The developmental approach Freud emphasised the
importance of early childhood experiences for
later personality emotional development.
The crucial importance of the unconscious Freud
believed that a large part of the mind isnt
accessible to the conscious that the
unconscious is the source of motivation
Instinctual drives motivate regulate behaviour
even in childhood The source of these drives is
psychic energy. According to Freud, the
personality is made up of 3 systems.
5
The ID
The SUPEREGO
The EGO
Present at birth source of all psychological
energies instincts.
The last part of the personality to develop.
Works according to the pleasure principle seeks
to reduce tension, avoidpain obtain pleasure.
During the 1st Year of life, some of the childs
id becomes part of the ego.
Voice of morality or the conscience. Learned from
parents society
The ego functions according to the reality
principle. It represents reality reason.
Two groups of instinct libido (life or sexual
instinct) thanatos (death or aggressive
instincts).
Conscious part of personality. Constructs defence
mechanisms to deal with the anxiety created by id
superego conflict
6
HUMOUR
REPRESSION
DENIAL
REGRESSION
Defence Mechanisms
PROJECTION
SUBLIMATION
TURNING AGAINST ONESELF
DISPLACEMENT
REACTION FORMATION
RATIONALISATION
7
Mechanism
Explanation
Example
Occurs when a threatening idea or emotion is
blocked out from consciousness
Someone with a strong fear of spiders may not be
able to recall the initial incident that led to
the fear of spiders.
Repression
Blocking external events from conscious awareness
(Im not angry at him)
Denial
May deny being an alcoholic
Someone who isnt able to have children may
redirect their love onto their pet
The redirection of an emtion towards a substitute
target.
Displacement
Special form of displacement where person becomes
their own substitute target
Turning against oneself
Depression is a result of anger that weve
refused to acknowledge
Reversion to a previous psychological phase when
ones faced with stress.
Child may start to suck their thumb or wet the
bed again.
Regression
Tendency to see ones own unacceptable desires in
others.
When someone goes on about the lack of morality
today..perhaps the lack of morality lies within
them?
Projection
8
Mechanism
Explanation
Example
Changing an unacceptable impulse into its
opposite.
Reaction formation
An 11 year old may say they think girls are
icky when they actually like them.
Another way of defending against fear
Maybe why jokes about sexual performance are
often told by men
Humour
Distortion of the facts helps make an event
less threatening
Im really enjoying the freedom of having no
boyfriend Dave was ugly anyway.
Rationalisation
Positive defence mechanism. Transformation of an
unacceptable impulse (eg sex anger) into a
socially acceptable or productive form.
Someone quite hostile may want to be a Rugby
player or businesswoman. Someone whos anxious
may make a good scientist or personnel officer.
Sublimation
9
STRENGTHS OF THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH
10
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11
WEAKNESSES
12
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13
Methods used
  • Case studies
  • Individuals are studied intensively
    retrospective accounts of early life are
    analysed. This information is collected using
    clinical interviews amongst other therapy
    techniques. These techniques are designed to help
    unconscious thoughts be revealed. Techniques
    include
  • Free association - Client is asked to tell
    therapist the first thing that comes into their
    head. This helps express thoughts feelings.
    Associations usually arise.
  • Dreams Analysis - Therapist tries to interpret
    the true meaning of dreams which conceal the
    conscious mind.
  • Word association - Client is read a list of words
    and has to reply immediately with whatever enters
    their head.

14
Projective Tests
15
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16
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17
  • PROJECTIVE TESTS
  • Rorshach Ink Blot Test
  • The client describes what they see in a picture
    of an ink blot. Descriptions are analysed to
    reveal their unconscious motives needs.
  • 2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • Client is shown a picture and asked to interpret
    it. This is thought to reveal their unconscious
    thoughts and feelings

18
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19
Tina is an extremely shy and nervous young woman.
She hates the thought of meeting new people and
the idea of having to speak to others fills her
with dread. Her shyness means she avoids going to
places where she might meet new people, she stays
in most of the time. 
  • Describe the psychodynamic approachs
    explanation of Tinas shyness

20
Tinas shyness explained by the psychodynamic
approach
  • The psychodynamic approach may explain Tinas
    shyness in terms of a conflict between the id and
    superego.
  • The id is based on the pleasure principle it
    attempts to seek immediate gratification of the
    libido.
  • The superego contains the voice of morality and
    the conscience.
  • The id may be less dominant than the superego
    resulting in Tina being unable to gratify the
    desires of the libido (sexual instincts) through
    interaction with others.
  • If the superego is dominant, Tina may wish to
    avoid the possible negative consequences of
    things that she says to others

21
b.) Assess the psychodynamic explanations of
Tinas shyness in terms of its strengths and
limitations (6 marks) 
  • The psychodynamic approach has been highly
    influential in psychology as it emphasises the
    importance of the unconscious and childhood
    experiences in later development.
  • Tinas experiences as a child could have resulted
    in her adult shyness as a result of conflict
    occurring during a specific phase of psychosexual
    development.

22
b.) Assess the psychodynamic explanations of
Tinas shyness in terms of its strengths and
limitations (6 marks) 
  • However, the psychodynamic approach is not
    falsifiable or testable.
  • It is heavily reliant upon subjective
    interpretations of Tinas behaviour. So one
    psychologist may interpret Tinas behaviour in a
    very different way to another, again resulting in
    the psychodynamic approach being difficult to
    disprove
  • Tinas behaviour could also be explained through
    a number of different psychological approaches,
    for example the cognitive or behavioural patterns
    of schema theory and reinforcement.

23
b.) Assess the psychodynamic explanations of
Tinas shyness in terms of its strengths and
limitations (6 marks)
  • Moreover, the approach can also be criticised for
    being reductionist as it reduces behaviour to
    instinctual drives and unconcsious conflicts in
    childhood.
  • There may be a number of other factors which have
    resulted in Tinas behaviour which are not
    accounted for by the psychodynamic approach e.g.
    a genetic tendency towards introversion and
    agoraphobia
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