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Animal Science 233 Applied Animal Nutrition

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Title: Animal Science 233 Applied Animal Nutrition


1
Animal Science 233Applied Animal Nutrition
  • Nutrients/Nutrient Digestion and Absorption

2
Remember
  • Water
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Protein
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins

3
Review of Terminology
  • DIGESTION Breakdown of feed nutrients into
    suitable form for absorption
  • ABSORPTION Transfer of digested nutrients from
    GIT into circulating blood or lymph systems

4
WATER (H20)
5
Water (H2O)
  • Overlook when formulating rationsassumed animals
    have access to good quality water
  • EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
  • Cheapest most abundant nutrient
  • May lose 100 of body fat, 50 of body protein
    and live
  • Lose 10 of body water, dehydration occurs and
    may result in death

6
Water (H2O)
  • 65-85 of body weight at birth
  • 45-60 of body weight at maturity
  • Many tissues contain 70-90 water

7
Functions of Water
  • Transport of nutrients and excretions
  • Chemical reactions and solvent properties
  • Body temperature regulation
  • Aids in cell shape maintenance
  • Lubricates and cushions joints and organs

8
Sources of Water
  • Drinking water
  • Water in feed
  • Metabolic water

9
Sources of Water
  • 1. Drinking
  • Pigs 1.5-3 gal/hd/day
  • Sheep 1-3 gal/hd/day
  • Cattle 10-14 gal/hd/day
  • Horses 10-14 gal/hd/day
  • Poultry 2 parts water1 part feed

10
Sources of Water
  • 2. Water contained in feeds
  • Highly variable in feedstuffs
  • Grains 9-30 water
  • Forages
  • Hay lt5
  • Silage 65-75
  • Lush young grass gt90

11
Calculating Water Content of Feedstuffs
  • 100 lbs of silage (65 moisture) contains how
    much actual feed?
  • 100 lbs .65 65 lbs of water
  • 100 lbs 65 lbs 35 lbs of feed

12
Sources of Water
  • Metabolic Water
  • - Results from the oxidation of organic nutrients
    in the tissues
  • 1 g of carbohydrates .6 g of water
  • 1 g of protein .4 g of water
  • 1 g of fat 1 g of water
  • May account for 5-10 of total water intake

13
Sources of Water Loss
  • Urine
  • Feces
  • Lungs
  • Skin
  • Milk

14
Factors Affecting Water Intake
  • Temperature humidity
  • Dietary factors
  • High moisture feeds reduce drinking
  • Fiber, DM intake, salt, and protein increase
    drinking
  • Lactating vs dry
  • Water quality

15
Water Absorption
  • Readily absorbed
  • Monogastrics/Ruminants Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum,
    Large Intestine
  • Ruminants Rumen and Omasum

16
CARBOHYDRATES (CHO)
17
Carbohydrates (CHO)
  • Definition Hydrates of carbon formed by
    combining CO2 and H2O
  • photosynthesis

18
Carbohydrates (CHO)
  • Primary component found in livestock feeds
  • 70 of DM of forages
  • 80 of DM of grains
  • Serve as source of energy or bulk (fiber) in the
    diet
  • Not ESSENTIAL nutrients
  • Synthesized by animals

19
Types of CHO
  • Monosaccharides 1 sugar molecule
  • Glucose
  • Primary sugar body uses for fuel
  • Fructose
  • Found in honey (75), fruits, and cane sugar
  • Sweetest sugar
  • Present in low concentrations in animal
    feedstuffs

20
Monosaccharide (Glucose)
21
Types of CHO
  • Disaccharides 2 sugar molecules linked by a
    glycosidic bond
  • Lactose (galactose glucose)
  • Milk sugar
  • Sucrose (fructose glucose)
  • Table sugar
  • Present in higher concentrations in animal
    feedstuffs

22
Disaccharide (Sucrose)
23
Types of CHO
  • Oligosaccharides group of CHO consisting of
    2-10 sugar groups
  • Present in feed ingredients
  • Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin) present
    Jerusalem artichokes
  • Galactooligosaccharides present in soybeans

24
Types of CHO
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Not hydrolytically digested or digested by the
    action of mammalian enzymes
  • Fermented by beneficial bacteria present in GIT
  • Functional Feed Ingredient foodstuffs which,
    apart from their normal nutritional value, are
    said to help promote or sustain healthiness
  • PREBIOTIC

25
Soybean Oligosaccharides
26
Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin)
27
Types of CHO
  • Polysaccharides many sugar molecules linked by a
    glycosidic bond
  • Starch storage form in plants
  • Cellulose most abundant CHO in nature
  • Hemicellulose principle component of plant cell
    wall

28
Polysaccharides
29
Function of CHO
  • Source of energy
  • Source of heat
  • Building block for other nutrients

30
Sources of CHO
  • Cereal Grains
  • Most feedstuffs of plant origin are high in CHO
    content

31
CHO Digestion
  • Dietary CHO must be converted to be absorbed
  • Simple sugars (monosaccharides)
  • How?
  • Action of amylase enzyme
  • Salivary amylase (swine, poultry)
  • Intestinal amylase
  • Action of other disaccharidases
  • Produced by mucosal lining of duodenum

32
CHO Digestion
  • Mammals do not produce enzymes necessary to
    digest oligosaccharides and celluloses (fibrous
    feedstuffs)
  • Digestion occurs as result of bacterial
    fermentation
  • Where?
  • Rumen
  • Large Intestine (cecum and colon)

33
CHO Digestion
  • Fermentation yields
  • CO2
  • H2O
  • Heat (heat increment)
  • Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) or also referred to as
    Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)

34
VFA Production
  • Serve as 70 - 80 of energy requirement in
    ruminants
  • VFAs produced in rumen
  • Serve as 16 of Maintenance energy requirement
    in swine
  • VFAs produced in large intestine

35
VFAs
  • Acetate
  • ? with higher roughage levels
  • Produced by cellulolytic hemicellulolytic
    bacteria

36
VFAs
  • Propionate
  • ? with higher concentrate levels
  • ? Feed efficiency
  • Ionophores increase propionate production

37
VFAs
  • Butyrate
  • Energy source for rumen wall growth
  • Papillae growth
  • Energy source for colonic cell growth
  • monogastrics

38
VFAs
  • Lactate (not volatile)
  • Anaerobic conditions
  • ? rumen and blood pH
  • Inhibits most microbial growth
  • Acidosis situation

39
CHO Absorption
  • Once simple sugars are formed, they are absorbed
    rapidly by small intestine
  • Then monosaccharides diffuse into the portal vein
    which transports them to sites of metabolism

40
VFA Absorption
  • Absorbed through the rumen wall or large
    intestine mucosa
  • Provide energy source to the animal

41
LIPIDS
42
Lipids
  • Insoluble in water but soluble in organic
    solvents
  • Dense energy source
  • 1 g fat 9.45 kcal GE
  • 1 g protein 4.5 kcal GE
  • 1 g CHO 4.2 kcal GE
  • Thus, fat produces 2.25 times the energy than CHO

43
Lipids
  • Triglyceride primary storage form of lipids
  • Saturated fatty acids contain no double bonds
  • Unsaturated fatty acids contain 1 or more double
    bonds

44
Lipids
45
Lipids
  • Fats solid at room temp animal origin
  • saturated
  • Oils liquid at room temp plant origin
  • unsaturated

46
Functions of Lipids
  • Dietary energy supply
  • Source of insulation protection
  • Source of essential fatty acids (EFA)
  • Carrier for fat soluble vitamins

47
Lipids
  • Essential fatty acids (EFA) Those fatty acids
    that an animal requires, but which it cannot
    synthesize in adequate amounts to meet the
    animals need
  • Linoleic C182
  • Linolenic C183
  • Arachidonic C204

48
EFA
  • Physiological needs
  • Cell membrane structure
  • Synthesis of prostaglandins which control blood
    pressure and smooth muscle contractions
  • Deficiency
  • Scaly, flaky skin (Poor feather growth)
  • Poor growth

49
Sources of Lipids (EFA)
  • Most feeds contain low levels
  • gt 10
  • Unprocessed oil seeds (soybean, cottonseed,
    sunflower seed) contain up to 20 fat
  • Traditionally, if additional fat is needed it is
    added to the diet
  • Animal fats
  • Vegetable oils

50
Lipid Digestion
  • Occurs in the small intestine (duodenum)
  • Bile produced by liver emulsifies fat
  • Pancreatic lipase (enzyme) breaks apart fat for
    absorption

51
Lipid Absorption
  • Monoglycerides (MG)absorbed into SI mucosal
    cells
  • Free Fatty Acids (FFA)absorbed into SI mucosal
    cells or enter blood circulation directly

52
Lipid Absorption
  • Very efficient
  • Absorption rates range from 70-96
  • Generally, oils (unsaturated fats) are absorbed
    more completely that fats (saturated fats)

53
Ketosis
  • Disorder of metabolism
  • Insufficient energy intake in high producing
    animals (e.g. Dairy cattle in early lactation and
    sheep in late pregnancy)
  • Results in catabolism (breakdown) of body energy
    (fat) reserves

54
Ketosis
  • 2 C fragments (ketones) of fat catabolism
    (breakdown) build up
  • Toxic levels cause
  • Body weight loss
  • Abortion
  • Poor milk production

55
PROTEINS
56
Proteins
  • Principal constituent of organs and soft tissues
  • Highest concentration of any nutrient, except
    water, in the body of all living organisms and
    animals
  • Required for life

57
Proteins
  • DEFINITION Protein are long chains of amino
    acids (AA)
  • Formed by peptide linkages
  • Amino group carbon skeleton

58
Proteins
Amino Acid (AA)
Protein (2 AA joined by peptide bond between ?
carboxyl and ? amino group
59
Proteins
  • Dietary requirements highest in young, growing
    animals and declines at maturity
  • Large molecules that vary greatly in in size,
    shape, and function
  • MW 5000 to millions

60
Categories of Protein
  • 1. Essential Amino Acids (EAA)
  • required in the diet
  • cannot be synthesized at a rate sufficient to
    meet the nutritional requirements

61
Essential AA
  • PVT TIM HALL (KNOW!)
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Isoleucine
  • Methionine
  • Histidine
  • Arginine
  • Lysine
  • Leucine

62
Categories of Protein
  • 2. Nonessential AA
  • animal can produce enough to meet its
    requirements
  • 3. Semi-essential AA
  • Animal can not always produce enough to meet its
    requirements

63
Functions of Protein
  • Basic structural units
  • Collagen, blood, elastin
  • Body metabolism
  • Enzymes, hormones, immune system, hereditary
    transmission
  • Production
  • Meat, milk, skin/hair

64
Protein Deficiency
  • Reduced growth feed efficiency
  • Infertility
  • Reduced birth weights
  • Reduced milk production

65
Sources of Protein
  • Most common feedstuffs contain some protein (the
    quality is another issue)
  • KEY to combine feedstuffs into the diet so that
    AA requirements are met
  • e.g. Using a corn-soybean meal diet for pigs

66
Protein Digestion
  • Proteins must be broken down into AA for
    absorption in the GIT
  • Exception! Early in life (gt 48 h after birth)
    proteins from milk (immunoglobulins) can be
    absorbed intact across the intestinal epithelium

67
Protein Digestion/Absorption in Monogastrics
68
Monogastric Protein Digestion
  • Stomach HCl unfolds (denatures) proteins and
    activates pepsinogen secreted by stomach to
    pepsin
  • Pepsin begins protein digestion to peptides
    (short-chain proteins)
  • Small intestine enzymes (trypsin) break peptides
    into AA

69
Monogastric Protein Absorption
  • AA are absorbed in anterior part of the small
    intestine
  • Jejunum and ileum
  • AA are absorbed and transported to tissue via
    blood

70
Protein Digestion and Absorption in Ruminants
71
Ruminant Protein Digestion
  • In rumen, microbes break down protein to peptides
    and AA and then degraded further to ammonia,
    VFAs, and carbon dioxide
  • Ammonia and/or NPN (urea) CHO source form
    microbial proteins

72
Ruminant Protein Absorption
  • Protein can be absorbed through rumen wall as
    ammonia
  • Microbial proteins pass to the lower intestine
    where they are converted to AA and absorbed

73
Fates of Absorbed AA
  • 1. Tissue protein synthesis
  • 2. Synthesis of enzymes, hormones other
    metabolites
  • 3. Use for energy (inefficient energy source)

74
MINERALS
75
Minerals
  • Inorganic components of the diet
  • Can not be synthesized or decomposed by chemical
    reactions
  • Total mineral content is called ash
  • Makes up 3-5 of the body weight

76
Categories of Minerals
  • Macro Minerals Minerals normally present at
    greater levels in animal body or needed in large
    amounts in the diet (found in concentrations gt
    100 ppm)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Sodium (Na)
  • Chloride (Cl)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Sulfur (S)

77
Categories of Minerals
  • Micro (Trace) Minerals Minerals normally present
    at low levels in animal body or needed in small
    amounts in the diet (found in concentrations lt
    100 ppm)
  • Cobalt (Co)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Fluoride (Fl)
  • Iodine (I)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Zinc (Zn)

78
General Mineral Functions
  • Skeletal formation and maintenance (Ca, P, Mg,
    Cu, Mn)
  • Protein synthesis (P, S, Zn)
  • Oxygen transport (Fe, Cu)
  • Fluid balanceosmotic pressure (Na, Cl, K)
  • Acid-base balance regulation (Na, Cl, K)
  • Activators or components of enzyme systems (Ca,
    P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn)
  • Mineral-Vitamin relationships (Ca, P, Co, Se)

79
Macro Mineral Deficiencies
  • Ca and P
  • Inadequate bone mineralization
  • Rickets (young)
  • Osteomalacia (adult)
  • Phytate Pbound and unavailable to nonruminants
  • Mg
  • Grass tetany-convulsions, coma, death
  • Likely in grazing, lactating females in early
    spring or fall
  • Mg is there in the plant, just in bound form due
    to lack of sunlight

80
Macro Mineral Deficiencies
  • Fe
  • Anemia (insufficient hemoglobin)
  • Young pigs (rapid growth, low stores, low Fe in
    milk)

81
Trace Mineral Deficiencies
  • Mn
  • Poor growth
  • PoultryPerosisdeformed and enlarged hock joints
  • I
  • Goiterswollen thyroid

82
Trace Mineral Deficiencies
  • Cu
  • Fading hair coat color (depigmentation)
  • Low Cu utilization may result when excess Mo or
    Zn
  • Zn
  • Parakeratosis (dermatitis-thickening of skin)
  • Poor hair or feather development
  • Exacerbated by high Ca

83
Trace Mineral Deficiencies
  • Se
  • White muscle disease-nutritional muscular
    dystrophy
  • Muscle appears white due to Ca-P deposits
  • Due to low concentration of Se in soil

84
Mineral Toxicities
  • Usually not a problem ()
  • NaCl can be for swine and poultry
  • Levels above 8--causes nervous disorders
  • Cu a big problem for sheep and young animals
  • Mineral mixes for other species/age groups used
  • Se has a small margin between requirement (0.3
    ppm) toxicity (8 ppm)
  • Plants grown in regions of high soil Se

85
Sources of Minerals
  • Forages usually considered good sources of
    minerals
  • Largely dependant on soil conditions
  • Grains are fair source of P, but low in other
    minerals
  • Mineral premixes
  • Mineral blocks

86
Mineral Absorption
  • Minerals are converted to their ionic form and
    absorbed in the small intestine

87
Vitamins
  • Organic substances required by the animal in very
    small amounts
  • Necessary for metabolic activity but not part of
    body structure
  • Content varies greatly in the feed
  • Requirements depend on species
  • Monogastrics a lot b/c cannot synthesize
  • Ruminants few vitamins due to microbial
    synthesis

88
Types of Vitamins
  • Fat-soluble vitamins
  • Vit A (carotene) vision
  • Vit D Ca, P absorption
  • Vit E (tocopherol) antioxidant
  • Vit K (menadione) blood clotting
  • Short shelf life (3-4 months)
  • Need lipids for absorption
  • Destroyed by heat, minerals

89
Types of Vitamins
  • Water-soluble vitamins
  • Thiamine
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Pyridoxine
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Biotin
  • Choline
  • Folic acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C

B Complex Vitamins
90
Vitamin Functions
  • Reproduction
  • Fetal Development
  • Colostrum Production
  • Milk production
  • Wool
  • Egg
  • Racing

91
Vitamin Deficiencies
  • Vitamin A
  • Xerophtalmia night blindness
  • Poor growth, reproductive failure
  • Vitamin D
  • Rickets
  • Osteomalacia
  • Vitamin K
  • Poor blood clotting/hemorrhaging

92
Vitamin Deficiencies
  • Vitamin C
  • Scurvy slow wound healing, spongy gums, swollen
    joints, anemia
  • B Complex Vitamins
  • Reduced growth/poor appetite
  • Dermatitis
  • Muscular incoordination

93
Most likely deficient
  • In practical situations
  • Ruminants A, E, D (limited circumstances)
  • Swine riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid,
    choline, B12, A, D, and sometimes E
  • Poultry All vitamins except Vitamin C,
    inositol, and PABA

94
Vitamin Toxicity
  • Unlikely ()
  • Generally nontoxic
  • Exceptions
  • A, D, Niacin, Pyridoxine, Choline

95
Sources of Vitamins
  • A green, leafy forages, corn, fish oil
  • D fish oils, sun-cured hay
  • E seed germ oils, green forage or hay
  • K green forage, fish meal, synthetic menadione

96
Sources of Vitamins
  • B Vitamins green forages usually
  • Niacin present in grains, but unavailable to
    nonruminants
  • B12 protein feeds of animal origin, fermentation
    products
  • C citrus fruits, green, leafy forages,
    well-cured hay

97
Sources of Vitamins
  • Most nonruminants rations contain a vitamin
    premix
  • Consume basically no forages and B vitamins are
    poorly available from cereal grains

98
Vitamin Absorption
  • Most vitamins are absorbed in the upper portion
    of the small intestine
  • Water soluble vitamins are rapidly absorbed
  • Fat soluble vitamin absorption relies on fat
    absorption mechanisms
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