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Writing Goals


Take the next 10-12 minutes to create 2 objectives for one of your goals. ... McKenzie JF, Smeltzer JL. Planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Writing Goals

Writing Goals Objectives Within Grant
Proposals Setting the Framework
  • Sarah M. Lee, PhD
  • Division of Adolescent and School Health
  • NASPE Winning Grants Conference
  • July 2005

Overview of Presentation
  • Definitions and descriptions of goals and
  • Key tips and opportunities for writing effective
  • Key tips and opportunities for writing SMART
  • Description of the connection between goals,
    objectives, and evaluation plans.

The Importance of Goals and Objectives
  • Goals and objectives provide a road map for
    program planning and implementation.
  • Funding organizations carefully examine goals and
  • Are they really worth more than the whole grant

Basic economicssometimes the parts are worth
more than the whole.
The Importance of Goals and Objectives
  • Well defined, described, and realistic goals and
    objectives are more likely to catch a funding
    organizations eye!
  • It could determine whether you are funded or not.
    Many funding organizations include this as a
    specific request. (e.g., Albertsons Milagro

Where did you get that?
What are Goals?
  • A goal is a broad, timeless statement of a
    long-range program purpose.
    (Deeds, 1992, p. 36)
  • According to McKenzie and Smeltzer (1997, p. 83),
    a GOAL is an expectation that
  • Is very encompassing and global
  • Is written to include all aspects or components
    of a program
  • Provides overall direction for a program

What are Goals?
  • Is more general in nature
  • Usually takes longer to complete (i.e., is in the
    long-range planning perspective)
  • Usually is not observed, but rather must be
    inferred because it includes words such as
    evaluate, know, improve, and understand
  • Is often not measurable in exact terms.

What are Goals?
  • Goals for your program should not be difficult to
    write and need not be complete sentences.
  • They should be concise and simple.
  • You may have one or multiple goals.
  • Consider two of the basic components to include
    in your goals
  • Who will be affected?
  • What will change as a result of the program?

Examples of Program Goals
  • To reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease
    in the employees of the Sarah Lee Company.
  • To reduce the cases of lung cancer caused by
    exposure to secondhand smoke in Ward County.
  • The participation in high quality physical
    education, by K-12 students, will be increased
    through the optimal use of school and community

What about your program goals?
  • Take the next 5-8 minutes to write TWO
    overarching goals for your program
  • Keep in mind the following broad, generally
    timeless, includes who will be affected and what
    will change as a result of the program

What are Objectives?
  • While a goal is a future event toward which a
    committed endeavor is directed objectives are
    the steps to be taken in pursuit of a goal.
    (McKenzie Smeltzer, 1997)
  • Objectives are more precise and represent smaller
    steps than program goalsthose smaller steps
    lead to the achievement of program goals.
  • Objectives outline, in measurable terms, the
    specific changes that will occur in your priority
    population (e.g., K-6 grade students) as a result
    of the program.

What are Objectives?
Great things are not done by impulse, but by a
series of small things brought together. --
Vincent Van Gogh
SMART Objectives
  • Specific objectives include who will be targeted
    and what will be accomplished.
  • Measurable objectives include how much change is
    expected specifically enough that achievement of
    the objective can be measured through counting or
    documenting change.
  • Achievable objectives can be realistically
    accomplished given your programs existing
    resources and constraints.

Adapted from www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/evaluation/
SMART Objectives
  • Realistic objectives address the scope of the
    health problem and propose reasonable
    programmatic steps.
  • Time-phased objectives provide a timeline
    indicating when the objective will be met.

Different Types of Objectives
  • Administrative Objectives activities presented
    and tasks completed (e.g., of sessions held
    participation rates)
  • Learning Objectives changes in awareness,
    knowledge, attitudes, skills (e.g., improved
    skill in tennis backhand stroke)

Different Types of Objectives
  • Behavioral Environmental Objectives behavior
    adoption, change in environment (e.g., walking
    trail healthier food offerings)
  • Program Objectives change in quality of life,
    health status, or risk, and social benefits
    (e.g., improved fitness levels)

Essential Criteria for Developing Objectives
  1. Can the objective be realized during the life of
    the program or w/in a reasonable time thereafter?
  2. Can the objective realistically be achieved?
  3. Does the program have enough resources (e.g.,
    staff time, space, money, facilities)?
  4. Are the objectives consistent with the policies
    and procedures of the sponsoring agency?
  5. Do the objectives violate any of the rights of
    those who are involved?

From McKenzie Smeltzer (1997). Planning,
Implementing and Evaluating Health Promotion
Examples of SMART Objectives
  • During the next six months, 300 community
    residents will participate in one of the health
    departments health promotion activities.
  • One year after the formal exercise classes have
    been completed, 40 of those who completed 80 of
    classes will still be involved in a regular
    aerobic exercise program.
  • By the year 2010, heart disease deaths will be
    reduced to no more than 100 per 100,000 in the
    residents of Ward County.
  • After viewing the video How to Exercise, those
    participating will be able to locate their pulse
    and count it for 60 seconds.

Quick Quiz What type of objectives do each of
these reflect?
What about your objectives?
  • Take the next 10-12 minutes to create 2
    objectives for one of your goals.
  • Remember SMART, essential criteria, etc.

How Goals Objectives Link to Evaluation
  • Conducting routine evaluations that provide
    information for program management and strengthen
    program effectiveness should be a part of all
    state and local education and public health
  • Describe your program stating the need, mission,
    goals, and objectives
  • Document what happened connecting evaluation
    activities to each goal and corresponding
    objectives reports back to funders as well as
    for future grant applications

How Goals Objectives Link to Evaluation
  • Improve your programthe variety of program
    evaluation options allow you to determine how
    well you met goals and objectives and where you
    may need to change aspects of your program to
    more readily achieve them.
  • In grant proposals, it should be very clear
    that you have thought well in advance about how
    you will measure your goals and objectives a
    clear link needs to be obvious.

Quick Review
  • Goals
  • The two basic components of goals
  • Objectives
  • SMART objectives
  • Different types of objectives
  • Linking Goals and Objectives to Evaluation
  • Why?
  • How?

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Framework for Program Evaluation in Public
    Health. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report
    199948(No. RR11).
  • DASH Evaluation website www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/
  • McKenzie JF, Smeltzer JL. Planning, implementing,
    and evaluating health promotion programs. 1997
    Needham Heights, MA Allyn Bacon.

Additional Resources
  • Non-profit Guides Non-profit guides are free
    web-based grant writing resources for non-profit
    organizations, charitable, educational, public
    organizations, and other community-minded groups.
  • The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance -
    Develop and Writing Grant Proposals
    Step-by-step guidance for writing and submitting
    a proposal to any federal agency.
  • SchoolGrants! a one stop site for PK-12 school
    grant opportunities and writing tips.
  • Grantseekers Resources- Grant writing Tips and
    Hints A brief overview of important tips in
    writing proposals, designing fundable projects,
    approaching a funder, and differences between
    fundraising and grant seeking.

  • Contact information
  • Sarah M. Lee
  • Phone 770-488-6126
  • Email skeuplee_at_cdc.gov
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