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Chapter 27 (LeUnes) Exercise Psychology

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Only 10% of sedentary adults are likely to begin a program of regular exercise within a year. ... self-set, flexible, and time based (rather than distance based) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 27 (LeUnes) Exercise Psychology


1
Chapter 27 (LeUnes) Exercise Psychology
  • Psychology of Sport
  • Nov 30, 2009
  • Class 38

2
Exercise Psychology
  • Uses principles from psychology to study human
    behavior in sport to enhance performance
  • exercise addiction
  • adherence to exercise
  • motivation
  • satisfaction

3
Physical Fitness
  • The ability to perform daily tasks with vigor and
    without undue fatigue, and with sufficient energy
    to engage in leisure-time pursuits, to meet
    unforeseen emergencies, and the vitality to
    perform at ones fullest capacity

4
Physical Fitness Terms
  • Physical activity any bodily movement produced
    by the contraction of the skeletal muscles that
    increases energy expenditure above the baseline
    level.
  • Exercise physical activity that is planned,
    structured, and repetitive with the purpose of
    developing, improving, or maintaining physical
    fitness.

5
Physical Fitness
  • Health-related Fitness
  • Cardiovascular endurance
  • Body composition
  • Flexibility
  • Muscular endurance
  • Muscular strength
  • Performance-related Fitness
  • Agility
  • Speed
  • Coordination
  • Power
  • Reaction time
  • Balance

6
Psychological Benefits
  • Stress Reduction
  • Alleviation of Depression
  • Socialization
  • Thrill of Competition
  • Enhancement of Creativity

7
Physical Education, Exercise Science and Sport
  • The Profession
  • An occupation requiring specialized training in
    an intellectual field of study that is dedicated
    to the betterment of society through service to
    others.

8
Some examples of professional organizations
9
Allied Fields
  • Health
  • Health Instruction
  • Health Services
  • Environmental Health
  • Recreation
  • Dance

These fields share many purposes with physical
education, exercise science, and sport, but the
content of the subject matter and methods to
reach their goals are different.
10
Exercise Behavior and Adherence
11
Why Study Exercise Behavior?
Despite the current societal emphasis on fitness,
a small percentage of children and adults
participate in regular physical activity
12
Why Exercise Behavior and Adherence Are Important
  • 50 of adults are completely sedentary.
  • 50 of youth (ages 12-21) do not participate in
    regular physical activity.
  • 25 of children and adults report doing no
    physical activity.
  • Only 15 of adults participate in vigorous and
    frequent activity.
  • Only 10 of sedentary adults are likely to begin
    a program of regular exercise within a year.

(continued)
13
Why Exercise Behavior and Adherence Are Important
  • Among boys and girls, physical activity declines
    steadily through adolescence.
  • Physical inactivity is more prevalent among
    women, African-Americans, and Hispanics, as well
    as among older and less affluent adults.
  • 50 of people starting an exercise program will
    drop out within six months.
  • Daily attendance in physical education classes
    dropped from 42 to 25 between 1990 and 1995.

14
Reasons to Exercise
Exercise combined with proper eating habits can
help people lose weight but weight loss should
be slow and steady, occurring as changes in
exercise and eating patterns take place.
15
Reasons to Exercise
Both the physiological and psychological benefits
of exercise can be cited to help persuade
sedentary people to initiate exercise. Maintenanc
e as well as initiation of physical activity is
critical.
16
Reasons for Not Exercising
  • Lack of time
  • Lack of energy
  • Lack of motivation

17
Reasons for Not Exercising
Exercise professionals should highlight the
benefits of exercise and provide a supportive
environment to involve sedentary people in
physical activity.
18
Reasons for Not Exercising
People often cite time constraints for not
exercising, but such constraints are more
perceived than real and often reveal a persons
priorities.
19
Individual Barriers to Physical Activity
  • Lack of time, energy, or motivation
  • Excessive cost
  • Illness or injury
  • Feeling uncomfortable
  • Lack of skill
  • Fear of injury

20
The Problem of Exercise Adherence
21
The Problem of Exercise Adherence
  • Help those who start exercising to overcome
    barriers to continuing the exercise program.
  • Help exercisers develop contingency plans to
    overcome factors leading to relapses (not
    exercising)

22
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior
Health Belief Model
(Becker and Maiman, 1975)
The likelihood of exercising depends on the
persons perception of the severity of health
risks and appraisal of the costs and benefits of
taking action.
23
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior Health
Belief Model
Overall inconsistent support for Health Belief
Model predictions of exercise behavior
24
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior Theory of
Planned Behavior
Exercise behavior is made up of
  • intentions,
  • subjective norms and attitudes, and
  • perceptions of ability to perform behavior.

(Ajzen and Madden, 1986)
25
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior Theory of
Planned Behavior
The theory of planned behavior is a useful theory
for predicting exercise behavior.
26
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior
Social Cognitive Theory
(Bandura, 1986, 1997)
Exercise behavior is influenced by both personal
and environmental factors, particularly
self-efficacy.
27
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior Social
Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive theory has produced some of the
most consistent results in predicting exercise
behavior.
28
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior Transtheoreti
cal Model
An individual progresses through five stages of
change
1. Precontemplation stage (does not exercise)
2. Contemplation stage (has fleeting thoughts of
exercising)
3. Preparation stage (exercises, but not
regularly enough)
(Prochaska, DiClemente, and Norcross, 1992)
29
Theories/Models of Exercise Behavior Transtheoreti
cal Model
An individual progresses through five stages of
change
4. Action stage (has been exercising regularly,
but for less than six months)
5. Maintenance stage (has been exercising
regularly for more than six months)
(Prochaska, DiClemente, and Norcross, 1992)
30
Factors Associated With Participation in
Supervised Exercise Programs
Many factors, from demographics to physical and
social environment, affect exercise participation.
31
Determinants of Exercise Adherence Highlights
  • Demographic variables (e.g., education, income,
    gender, socioeconomic status) have a strong
    association with physical activity.
  • Early involvement in sport and physical activity
    should be encouraged, because there is a positive
    relation between childhood exercise and adult
    physical activity patterns.
  • Barriers to exercise are similar for white and
    nonwhite populations.

32
Determinants of Exercise Adherence Highlights
  • Self-efficacy and self-motivation consistently
    predict physical activity.
  • Spousal support is critical to enhance adher-ence
    rates for people in exercise programs. Spouses
    should be involved in orientation sessions or in
    parallel exercise programs.
  • Exercise intensities should be kept at moderate
    levels to enhance the probability of long-term
    adherence to exercise programs.

33
Determinants of Exercise Adherence Highlights
  • Group exercising generally produces higher levels
    of adherence than exercising alone, but tailoring
    programs to fit individuals and the constraints
    they feel can help them adhere to the program.
  • Post-exercise participation predicts exercise
    behavior.

34
Determinants of Exercise Adherence Highlights
  • Exercise leaders influence the success of an
    exercise program. They should be knowledge-able,
    give lots of feedback and praise, help
    participants set flexible goals, and show concern
    for safety and psychological comfort.
  • A convenient location is an important predictor
    of exercise behavior.

35
Settings for Exercise Interventions
  • Schools
  • Work sites
  • Home
  • Community
  • Health care facilities

36
Guidelines for Improving Exercise Adherence
  • Match the intervention to the participants stage
    of change.
  • Provide cues for exercises (signs, posters,
    cartoons).
  • Make the exercises enjoyable.
  • Tailor the intensity, duration, and frequency of
    the exercises.

37
Guidelines for Improving Exercise Adherence
  • Promote exercising with a group or friend.
  • Have participants sign a contract or statement of
    intent to comply with the exercise program.
  • Offer a choice of activities.
  • Provide rewards for attendance and participation.
  • Give individualized feedback.

38
Guidelines for Improving Exercise Adherence
  • Find a convenient place for exercising.
  • Have participants reward themselves for achieving
    certain goals.
  • Encourage goals to be a self-set, flexible, and
    time based (rather than distance based).
  • Remind participants to focus on environmental
    cues (not bodily cues) when exercising.

39
Guidelines for Improving Exercise Adherence
  • Use small-group discussions.
  • Have participants complete a decision balance
    sheet before starting the exercise program.
  • Obtain social support from the participants
    spouse, family members, and peers.
  • Suggest keeping daily exercise logs.
  • Help participants choose purposeful physical
    activity.

40
Who says Physical Activity is Good?
  • National Reports
  • Physical Activity and Health A Report of the
    Surgeon General
  • Healthy People 2010
  • Promoting Better Health for Young People through
    Physical Activity and Sports

41
Our Physical Activity Challenge Improve
Participation of Populations with Low Rates of
Physical Activity
  • Current Participation Patterns
  • Women are generally less active than men at all
    ages.
  • African Americans and Hispanics are generally
    less active than whites.
  • People with low incomes are typically not as
    active as those with high incomes.
  • People with less education are generally not as
    active as those with higher levels of education.
  • Adults in the Northeast and South tend to be less
    active than adults in the North Central and
    Western States
  • People with disabilities are less physically
    active than people without disabilities.
  • Participation in physical activity declines with
    age. By age 75, one in 3 men and one in two women
    engage in no physical activity.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Healthy People 2010 Understanding and Improving
Health. Washington, DC U.S. Government Printing
Office, November, 2000.
42
Bottom line...
  • Exercise
  • Any age

43
Credits
  • http//www.d.umn.edu/mniereng/documents/chap1.ppt
    256,2, Goals for Physical Educators
  • http//course1.winona.edu/sjuaire/classes/per280ne
    w/website/1820WeinbergGP20Pt6Ch18.ppt
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