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April 25

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Title: April 25


1
ANZAC DAY
April 25
2
(No Transcript)
3
What is ANZAC?
ANZAC Australia and New Zealand Army Corps
4
What is ANZAC DAY?
  • On 25 April 1915 Australia and New Zealand were
    at war. Along with the Allies the ANZACs were
    fighting against the Central Powers.
  • In response to a request for help from Russia,
    which was being battered by the Turks in the
    Caucasus, the Allies decided to begin a campaign
    which they hoped would distract Turkey from their
    attack on Russia.
  • The plan was for the Allies to attack and take
    the Gallipoli Peninsula, on Turkey's Aegean
    coast, from which point the Allies believed they
    could take control of the Dardanelles - a 67
    kilometer (42 mile) strait which connects the
    Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara - and lay
    siege to Turkey's main city, Istanbul (then
    Constantinople).
  • As part of the larger British Empire contingent
    the ANZACs were brought in from training in Egypt
    to participate. The ANZACs comprised the 1st
    Australian Division and the composite New Zealand
    and Australian Division. On 25 April 1915, the
    ANZACs landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula.

5
WHAT WENT WRONG?
  • Instead of finding the flat beach they expected,
    they found they had been landed at an incorrect
    position and faced steep cliffs and constant
    barrages of enemy fire and shelling. Around
    20,000 soldiers landed on the beach over the next
    two days to face a well organized, well armed,
    large Turkish force determined to defend their
    country. Thousands of Australian and New Zealand
    men died in the hours and days that followed the
    landing at that beach. The beach would eventually
    come to be known as Anzac Cove.
  • What followed the landing at Gallipoli is a story
    of courage and endurance, of death, and despair,
    of poor leadership from London, and unsuccessful
    strategies. The ANZACs and the Turks dug in -
    literally - digging kilometers of trenches, and
    pinned down each other's forces with sniper fire
    and shelling. Pinned down with their backs to the
    water the ANZACs were unable to make much headway
    against the home-country force.
  • While political leaders argued weather the
    campaign should be continued, the Australian and
    New Zealand soldiers died in battle, from sniper
    fire and shelling, and those that lived suffered
    from a range of ailments due to their dreadful
    living conditions - typhus, lice, gangrene, lack
    of fresh water, poor quality food, and poor
    sanitary conditions all took their toll.  

6
The Withdrawal
  • Eventually it was decided that the Allied troops
    would be withdrawn from the Peninsula the
    attempt to control the Dardanelles had failed.
    The ANZACs were evacuated and returned to the
    Middle East and the Western Front where they were
    involved in other battles.
  • The Gallipoli campaign was an enormous failure, a
    failure bought at the cost of an enormous number
    of lives, and the failure led to the resignation
    of senior politicians in London. Thousands of
    Australian and New Zealand soldiers had died, and
    thousands of other Allied troops from France and
    Britain also died.
  • An ANZAC commemorative location has been built at
    Gallipoli in conjunction with both the Australian
    and New Zealand governments and with the
    approval of the Turkish government.

7
Simpson and his Donkey
  • Of the many examples of sheer courage, the most
    remembered must be that of
  • "Simpson and his Donkey".
  • Jack (John) Simpson Kirkpatrick, was born in
    1892 and learned all about donkeys on the sands
    of South Shields (England) as a boy. In Perth on
    23rd August 1914, Jack was accepted and chosen as
    a field ambulance stretcher bearer. He joined the
    3rd Field Ambulance at Blackboy Hill camp, 35 km
    east of Perth on the same day. During his
    twenty-four days of donkey trips, Simpson single
    handedly rescued around three hundred wounded
    soldiers by bringing them down Monash Valley on
    the backs of donkeys. On the morning of 19 May,
    42 000 Turkish soldiers launched an all-out
    attack against the 17 356 strong Anzac line, in
    attempt to drive the invaders back into the sea.
    The Turks were caught out in the open and lost 3
    000 men with 10 000 wounded in repeated attacks
    over open ground. The Anzacs lost only 168 men.
    Jack had just collected a casualty and was coming
    back down Monash Valley when he was hit and
    killed by a machine gun bullet in the back. He
    was buried amongst great gloom by the soldiers
    who had much admired his bravery, and his grave
    was marked with a simple wooden cross. He become
    one of Australias most famous, and best-loved
    military heroes.  

8
Simpson and his donkey
9
ANZAC BISCUTS (COOKIES)
  • There are a few theories on the origins of ANZAC
    biscuits, but it is certain that they came about
    during the First World War, around 1914/15.
  • Some say that they started as biscuits made by
    the Troops in the trenches with provisions they
    had at hand to relieve the boredom of their
    battle rations. And some say they came about due
    to resourceful of the women on the "home front"
    in an endeavour to make a treat for their loved
    ones that would survive the long journey by post
    to the war front.
  • There is even the suggestion that they originated
    from Scottish Oatmeal Cakes which is entirely
    possible. Whatever the origin, they have won the
    hearts of all Aussies the globe over as the
    pseudo National Biscuit.

10
ANZAC BISCUITS (COOKIES)
  • Recipe
  • Ingredients
  • 1 cup plain flour
  • 1 cup rolled oats (regular oatmeal) uncooked
  • 1 cup desiccated coconut
  • 1 cup brown sugar
  • 1/2 cup butter
  • 2 tbsp golden syrup (or honey)
  • 1 tsp bicarbonate of soda
  • 2 tbsp boiling water
  • Method
  • Combine the flour (sifted), oats, coconut and
    sugar in a bowl.
  • Melt the butter and Golden Syrup (or honey) in a
    saucepan over a low heat..
  • Mix the bicarbonate of soda with the water and
    add to the butter and Golden Syrup.
  • Pour the liquids into the dry ingredients and mix
    well.
  • Spoon dollops of mixture, about the size of a
    walnut shell, onto a greased tin leaving as much
    space again between dollops to allow for
    spreading.
  • Bake in a moderate oven, 180C / 350F, for 15-20
    minutes.
  • Cool on a wire rack and seal in airtight
    containers.
  • Tips

11
Early Commemorations
  • The date, 25 April, was officially named ANZAC
    Day in 1916 in that year it was marked by a wide
    variety of ceremonies and services in Australia,
    a march through London, and a sports day in the
    Australian camp in Egypt. In London, over 2,000
    Australian and New Zealand troops marched through
    the streets of the city. A London newspaper
    headline dubbed them "The knights of Gallipoli".
    Marches were held all over Australia in 1916.
    Wounded soldiers from Gallipoli attended the
    Sydney march in convoys of cars, attended by
    nurses. For the remaining years of the war, ANZAC
    Day was used as an occasion for patriotic rallies
    and recruiting campaigns, and parades of serving
    members of the AIF were held in most cities.
  • During the 1920s, ANZAC Day became established as
    a national day of commemoration for the 60,000
    Australians who died during the war. By the
    mid-1930s all the rituals we today associate with
    the day - dawn vigils, marches, memorial
    services, reunions, sly two-up games - were
    firmly established as part of ANZAC Day culture.
  • With the coming of the Second World War, ANZAC
    Day became a day on which to commemorate the
    lives of Australians lost in that war as well,
    and in subsequent years the meaning of the day
    has been further broadened to include Australians
    killed in all the military operations in which
    Australia has been involved.
  • ANZAC Day was first commemorated at the
    Australian War Memorial in 1942, but due to
    government orders preventing large public
    gatherings in case of Japanese air attack, it was
    a small affair and was neither a march nor a
    memorial service. ANZAC Day has been annually
    commemorated at the Australian War Memorial ever
    since.

12
What it means today
  • Australians recognise 25 April as an occasion of
    national commemoration. Commemorative services
    are held at dawn, the time of the original
    landing, across the nation. Later in the day
    ex-servicemen and women meet and join in marches
    through the major cities and many smaller
    centres. Almost every town has a commemorative
    service of some kind. It is a day when
    Australians reflect on the many different
    meanings of war.
  • Each year the commemorations follow a pattern
    that is familiar to each generation of
    Australians. A typical ANZAC Day service contains
    the following features introduction, hymn,
    prayer, an address, laying of wreaths,
    recitation, "The last post", a period of silence,
    "The rouse" or "The reveille", and the National
    Anthem. At the Australian War Memorial, following
    events such as the ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day
    services, families often place red poppies beside
    the names of relatives on the Memorial's Roll of
    Honor.

13
Two - up
  • Two-up is Australias national gambling game. It
    involves 2 or 3 coins being tossed into the air
    and surrounding players betting upon the result.
    ANZAC day is the only day it is legal to play two
    up within Australia.
  • To stage a game required a quiet spot, with a
    flat area big enough for an 18- or 20-foot radius
    circle clearly etched in the dirt. This was done
    with twine, with two loops, one at each end,
    using bayonets to mark the circle.

Australian Soldiers playing two-up, Ypres, 1917
14
Two up rules (abbreviated)
  • The boxer or manager of the game sat with his
    coins, kips, string and money tray in the place
    where he could view the whole ring clearly.
  • The ringie, who was usually a friend who
    volunteered, ran the centre of the ring.
  • When the game was about to commence, there would
    be a number of people around and outside the
    circle. The boxer would call and ask for a
    spinner.
  • The kip would then hold two or three pennies,
    depending on the game. (Some of the kips were
    smooth, with no ridges in the wood. It was
    illegal for anyone to use their fingers two toss
    the coins. Kips often had lips on the various
    kips for right or left handed spinners who were
    not adept at using the smooth kip.
  • It was the ringies job to ensure that the coins
    were tossed at least 10 feet into the air, and
    that they spun well and were not feathered in
    any way. If the coins didn't satisfy these
    specifications in his opinion, he would call
    foul toss and catch one of the coins.
  • The ringie would place the coins tail up on the
    kip. The call come in spinner was made from
    the box. The spinner then tossed the coins. All
    pennies (whether two or three) had to fall within
    the circle. If one fell outside or on the circle,
    it was declared void by the ringie. The spinner
    then had another turn.
  • While this was happening, side bets were allowed
    around the ring. There were two distinct types of
    betting
  • betting that the spinner would toss heads or
    tails
  • other tail betters would bet 3/1 that heads would
    not be tossed twice.
  • In all cases, the bets were held in front of the
    tail better, who covered them in every instance
    before the boxer called come in spinner.
  • The spinner had the right to continue spinning
    while ever he tossed heads.

15
Prayer for the fallen
  • They do not grow old,
  • as we that are left grow old,
  • age shall not weary them,
  • nor the years condemn.
  • At the going down of the sun,
  • and in the morning,
  • we will remember them.
  • Lest we forget.

16
Submitted by Aaron Kemp
  • I am an Australian exchange student (actually an
    exchange RA) at Washington State University. I
    come from the University of New England in
    Armidale New South Wales about 5 hours drive from
    Sydney.
  • This bulletin board is designed to commemorate
    ANZAC and some of the traditions and history that
    goes with it.
  • If you have any questions or feedback I would
    love to hear it. Email kempy_01_at_yahoo.com.au
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