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Probiotics and Allergy

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B. Th0. Th1. Th2. IgE. IL-4. IL-10. Il-6. Intestinal microflora ... IL-2. IL-12. TNF-a. IFN- ?. Allergy. Epithelium. Probiotics. Future directions/ perspectives ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Probiotics and Allergy


1
Probiotics and Allergy
  • Shalini Jain , Hariom Yadav and PR Sinha
  • Animal Biochemistry Division
  • National Dairy Research Institute
  • Karnal,Haryana

2
Definition
  • Allergy is an adverse immune reaction to a
    molecule called allergen (protein) in our
    environment, which is normally harmless to the
    non-allergic person.

3
Types of Allergy
  • Classified according to symptoms they produce
    i.e. skin, nose and lungs etc and causes
  • Skin allergy
  • Food allergy
  • Allergen inhalation
  • (Allergic rhinitis, Allergic asthma )
  • Allergy to medicine

4
Risk factors of Allergy
  • Family history of allergy - Allergies are
    hereditary which means there is a genetic
    component to most allergies and passed from
    parents to children.
  • Exposure to allergens at certain times when the
    body's defenses are lowered or weakened, such as
    after a viral infection or during pregnancy,
    seems to contribute to the development of
    allergies.

5
Allergen
  • An allergen - a substance causing allergic
    disease in sensitized host. These allergens enter
    into body by various means
  • Through the skin cosmetics, stinging insects
    and oak
  • Injections drugs
  • Oral ingestion Eggs, prawns, peanuts, fish,
    cows milk
  • Nose and lungs airborne pollen of weeds,
    grasses, dust mite droppings

6
Symptoms of Allergy
  • Skin allergy symptoms include itching, reddening,
    and flaking or peeling of the skin.
  • Allergic rhinitis is characterized by congestion,
    itching and discharge from the nose and itchy,
    watery eyes.
  • Asthma include coughing, chest tightness,
    shortness of breath and wheezing.
  • Food allergy include, dizziness, lightheadedness
    or fainting abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea or
    vomiting , anaphylaxis and hives.
  • A severe allergic reaction to food - called
    anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis include a feeling of
    warmth, flushing, tingling in the mouth or a red,
    itchy rash. Other symptoms may include feelings
    of light-headedness, shortness of breath, severe
    sneezing, anexiety, stomach or uterine cramps,
    and/or vomiting and diarrhea. In severe cases,
    patients may experience a drop in blood pressure.
    Anaphylaxis can be fatal.

7
Treatment
  • Avoidance or Environmental control - Avoiding
    foods that have caused allergic reactions,
    removing the pet from the home, dust should be
    removed from the surface of pillow covers and the
    bed frame by vacuuming them weekly. Smoking
    indoors should never be permitted.
  • Pharmacologic management/Allergy medication - In
    food allergy injection of adrenaline,
    antihistamines reduce the effects of an allergic
    reaction by blocking histamine, Decongestants
    reduce the nasal congestion, bronchodilators open
    the airways.
  • Allergen immunotherapy - Allergen immunotherapy
    is the process of administering gradually
    increasing doses of allergens to the patient.
  • Functional foods - Currently, there is huge
    interest in the use of foods which may exert a
    positive functional effect on our health. Two of
    these functional foods are known as probiotics
    and prebiotics, both of which have a positive
    effect on the good bacteria that reside in our
    digestive systems, also known as our gut
    microflora.
  • Yoga Yoga is an alternative therapy for allergy.

8
Probiotics
  • Probiotics are friendly bacteria which have
    been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on
    human health and available in different forms
    like dairy products- dahi, yogurt, capsules etc.
  • A probiotic may be defined as A preparation or
    product containing viable, defined
    micro-organisms in sufficient numbers, which
    alter the microflora of the host intestine and,
    consuming by that, exert beneficial health
    effects on the host (Schrezenmeier De Vrese
    2001). For example bifidus, lactobacillus.

9
Probiotics in Treatment of disease
  • Probiotics have been found to act as alternative
    medicine for a number of diseases
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Respiratory disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Allergy

10
Probiotics Role in Allergy
  • Lactobacillus GG have been reported to treat
    allergy (Majamaa et al 1997) when administered to
    breast feeding mothers of infants with atopic
    eczema/dermatitis due to allergy to milk.
  • Lactobacillus GG may be effective in treating
    allergic diseases if administered at birth and to
    pregnant mothers (Kalliomaki et al 2001).
  • Consumption of yogurt for a year reduced the
    symptoms of nasal allergies among volunteers who
    consumed yogurt than in control group (Trapp et
    al 1993).

11
How probiotics work to prevent allergy
  • To treat allergy, probiotic acts in
    different ways
  • Degradation/structural modification of enteral
    antigens.
  • Normalization of the properties of aberrant
    indigenous microbiota and of gut barrier
    functions.
  • Regulation of the secretion of inflammatory
    mediators, and promoting development of the
    immune system.
  • Prevents food allergy by promoting endogenous
    barrier mechanisms and alleviating intestinal
    inflammation.
  • Stimulating immune response and reduction of
    serum IgE levels.
  • Reduction of Th2 cytokine response.

12
Intestinal microflora
Probiotics
Epithelium
AP-Cell
Th0
IL-2 IL-12 TNF-a IFN- ?
IL-4 IL-10 Il-6
Th2
Th1
IL-2 IFN-a IFN-ß TNF-ß
Allergy
B
B
IgE
IgA
Virus
Tumors
13
Future directions/ perspectives
  • Future probiotics will have more thoroughly
    clarified mechanisms to either control specific
    physiological processes in the evolution of
    allergic disease or in their dietary management.
    The modern view on probiotic therapy is based on
    specific effects of clearly defined strains.

14
Conclusion
  • The term allergy encompasses a wide range of
    symptoms and conditions. Although allergies
    cannot be prevented, they can be treated and
    controlled. By making changes in the environment
    and to their diets patients can greatly limit
    exposure to certain allergens and reduce and
    control their symptoms. If environmental control
    does not work, medication, immunotherapy and
    alternative therapy can help control the disease.
    Probiotics will offer consumers an alternative to
    more invasive, medical means of treating allergy,
    and provide a dietary means of optimizing health
    and well-being.
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