Pan-European standard (ETSI European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute)
simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991 1994 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations (Germany D1 and D2) seamless roaming within Europe possible
today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 184 countries in Asia Africa Europe Australia America)
more than 970.8 million subscribers (Dec 2003)
more than 73 of all digital mobile phones use GSM
over 10 billion SMS (Short Message Service) per month in Germany gt 360 billion/year worldwide
5 Performance characteristics of GSM (wrt. analog sys.)
mobile wireless communication support for voice and data services
international access chip-card enables use of access points of different providers
one number the network handles localization
better frequency efficiency smaller cells more customers per cell
High transmission quality
high audio quality and reliability for wireless uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g. from cars trains)
access control authentication via chip-card and PIN
6 Disadvantages of GSM
There is no perfect system!!
no end-to-end encryption of user data
no full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user no transparent B-channel (ISDN bearer ISDN channel that carries the main data)
reduced concentration while driving
abuse of private data possible
roaming profiles accessible
high complexity of the system
several incompatibilities within the GSM standards
7 GSM Mobile Services
several types of connections
voice connections data connections short message service
multi-service options (combination of basic services)
Three service domains
Bearer Services - data
Telematic Services - voice
Supplementary Services short message service (SMS)
bearer services MS GSM-PLMN transit network (PSTN ISDN) source/ destination network TE TE MT R S (U S R) Um tele services 8 Bearer Services
Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points
Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3)
Different data rates for voice and data (original standard)
data service (circuit switched)
synchronous 2.4 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s
asynchronous 300 - 1200 bit/s
data service (packet switched)
synchronous 2.4 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s
asynchronous 300 - 9600 bit/s
Today data rates of approx. 50 kbit/s possible will be covered later!
9 Tele Services I
Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones
All these basic services have to obey cellular functions security measurements etc.
mobile telephonyprimary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz
Emergency numbercommon number throughout Europe (112) mandatory for all service providers free of charge connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible)
Multinumberingseveral ISDN phone numbers per user possible
10 Tele Services II
group 3 fax
voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile terminals)
electronic mail (MHS Message Handling System implemented in the fixed network)
Short Message Service (SMS)alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal using the signaling channel thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and SMS
11 Supplementary services
Services in addition to the basic services cannot be offered stand-alone
Similar to ISDN services besides lower bandwidth due to the radio link
May differ between different service providers countries and protocol versions
identification forwarding of caller number
suppression of number forwarding
conferencing with up to 7 participants
locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls)
12 Architecture of the GSM system
GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network)
several providers setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within each country
MS (mobile station)
BS (base station)
MSC (mobile switching center)
LR (location register)
RSS (radio subsystem) covers all radio aspects
NSS (network and switching subsystem) call forwarding handover switching
OSS (operation subsystem) management of the network
13 GSM overview OMC EIR AUC fixed network HLR GMSC NSS with OSS VLR MSC MSC VLR BSC BSC RSS 14 GSM elements and interfaces radio cell BSS MS MS Um radio cell MS RSS BTS BTS Abis BSC BSC A MSC MSC NSS VLR VLR signaling HLR ISDN PSTN GMSC PDN IWF O EIR OSS OMC AUC 15 GSM system architecture radiosubsystem network and switching subsystem fixedpartner networks MS MS ISDNPSTN Um MSC Abis BTS BSC EIR BTS SS7 HLR VLR BTS BSC ISDNPSTN BTS MSC A IWF BSS PSPDNCSPDN 16 System architecture radio subsystem radiosubsystem network and switchingsubsystem MS MS
MS (Mobile Station)
BSS (Base Station Subsystem)consisting of
BTS (Base Transceiver Station)sender and receiver
BSC (Base Station Controller)controlling several transceivers
Um radio interface
Abis standardized open interface with 16 kbit/s user channels
A standardized open interface with 64 kbit/s user channels
Um Abis BTS MSC BSC BTS A BTS MSC BSC BTS BSS 17 System architecture network and switching subsystem networksubsystem fixed partnernetworks
The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up to the switching centers
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) radio components including sender receiver antenna - if directed antennas are used one BTS can cover several cells
Base Station Controller (BSC) switching between BTSs controlling BTSs managing of network resources mapping of radio channels (Um) onto terrestrial channels (A interface)
BSS BSC sum(BTS) interconnection
Mobile Stations (MS)
19 GSM cellular network segmentation of the area into cells possible radio coverage of the cell idealized shape of the cell
use of several carrier frequencies
not the same frequency in adjoining cells
cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to 35 km depending on user density geography transceiver power etc.
hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap shapes depend on geography)
if a mobile user changes cells handover of the connection to the neighbor cell
20 Example coverage of GSM networks (www.gsmworld.com) Vodafone (GSM-900/1800) T-Mobile (GSM-900/1800) Berlin e-plus (GSM-1800) O2 (GSM-1800) 21 Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller
Tasks of a BSS are distributed over BSC and BTS
BTS comprises radio specific functions
BSC is the switching center for radio channels
22 Mobile station
Terminal for the use of GSM services
A mobile station (MS) comprises several functional groups
MT (Mobile Terminal)
offers common functions used by all services the MS offers
corresponds to the network termination (NT) of an ISDN access
end-point of the radio interface (Um)
TA (Terminal Adapter)
terminal adaptation hides radio specific characteristics
TE (Terminal Equipment)
peripheral device of the MS offers services to a user
does not contain GSM specific functions
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)
personalization of the mobile terminal stores user parameters
23 Network and switching subsystem
NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM
switching mobility management interconnection to other networks system control
Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC)controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC
Databases (important scalability high capacity low delay)
Home Location Register (HLR)central master database containing user data permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs)
Visitor Location Register (VLR)local database for a subset of user data including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR
24 Mobile Services Switching Center
The MSC (mobile switching center) plays a central role in GSM
additional functions for mobility support
management of network resources
interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC)
integration of several databases
Functions of a MSC
specific functions for paging and call forwarding
termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7)
mobility specific signaling
location registration and forwarding of location information
provision of new services (fax data calls)
support of short message service (SMS)
generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information
25 Operation subsystem
The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation management and maintenance of all GSM subsystems
Authentication Center (AUC)
generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR
authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
registers GSM mobile stations and user rights
stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized
Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)
different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem
26 GSM - TDMA/FDMA 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink frequency 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink time GSM TDMA frame GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space guard space tail user data Training S S user data tail 3 bits 57 bits 26 bits 57 bits 1 1 3 27 GSM - TDMA/FDMA
GSM time-slot (normal burst)
Tail are all set to 0 and can be used to enhance the receiver performance.
The training sequence is used to adapt the parameters and select the strongest signal.
A flag S indicates whether the data field contains user or network control data.
A normal burst for data transmission
A frequency correction burst allows the MS to correct the local oscillator to avoid interference
A synchronization burst with an extended training sequence synchronizes the MS with BTS in time.
An access burst is used for the initial connection setup.
A dummy burst is used if no data is available for a slot.
28 GSM Logical channels and frame hierarchy
GSM specifies two basic groups of logical channels
Traffic channels (TCH) GSM uses a TCH to transmit user data.
Control channels (CCH) CCHs are used to control medium access allocation of traffic channels or mobility management.
Broadcast control channel (BCCH)A BTS uses this channel to signal information such as the cell identifier options and frequencies to all MSs within a cell.
Common control channel (CCCH) All information regarding connection setup between MS and BS is exchanged via the CCCH.
Dedicated control channel (DCCH) Before a MS established a TCH with the BTS it uses DCCH for signaling.
Intra-cell A new frequency needs to be arranged by BSC because of interference.
Inter-cell intra-BSC handover The mobile station moves from one cell to another. The BSC performs a handover.
Inter-BSC intra-MSC handover The handover is controlled by the MSC.
Inter MSC handover Both MSCs perform the handover together.
35 4 types of handover 1 2 3 4 MS MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS BTS BSC BSC BSC MSC MSC 36 Handover decision receive level BTSold receive level BTSold HO_MARGIN MS MS BTSold BTSnew 37 Handover procedure MSC BTSold BSCnew BSCold MS BTSnew measurement report measurement result HO decision HO required HO request resource allocation ch. activation ch. activation ack HO request ack HO command HO command HO command HO access Link establishment HO complete HO complete clear command clear command clear complete clear complete 38 Security in GSM
user SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) secret PIN (personal identification number)
SIM network challenge response method
voice and signaling encrypted on the wireless link (after successful authentication)
temporary identity TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity)
newly assigned at each new location update (LUP)
3 algorithms specified in GSM
A3 for authentication (secret open interface)
A5 for encryption (standardized)
A8 for key generation (secret open interface)
A3 and A8 available via the Internet
network providers can use stronger mechanisms
39 GSM - authentication SIM mobile network RAND RAND Ki RAND Ki 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit AC A3 A3 SIM SRES 32 bit SRES 32 bit SRES SRES SRES MSC SRES 32 bit Ki individual subscriber authentication key SRES signed response 40 GSM - key generation and encryption MS with SIM mobile network (BTS) RAND RAND Ki RAND Ki AC SIM 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit A8 A8 cipher key Kc 64 bit Kc 64 bit SRES encrypteddata data data BSS MS A5 A5 41 Data services in GSM I
Data transmission standardized with only 9.6 kbit/s
advanced coding allows 144 kbit/s
not enough for Internet and multimedia applications
HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit Switched Data)
mainly software update on MS and MSC to split a traffic stream into several streams.
bundling of several time-slots to get higher AIUR (Air Interface User Rate)(e.g. 57.6 kbit/s using 4 slots 14.4 each)
advantage ready to use constant quality simple
disadvantage channels blocked for voice transmission
42 Data services in GSM II
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
using free slots only if data packets ready to send (e.g. 50 kbit/s using 4 slots temporarily)
standardization 1998 introduction 2001
advantage one step towards UMTS more flexible
disadvantage more investment needed (new hardware)
GPRS network elements
GSN (GPRS Support Nodes) GGSN and SGSN
GGSN (Gateway GSN)
interworking unit between GPRS and PDN (Packet Data Network)
SGSN (Serving GSN)
supports the MS (location billing security)
GR (GPRS Register)
43 GPRS user data rates in kbit/s 44 Examples for GPRS device classes 45 GPRS quality of service 46 GPRS architecture and interfaces 47 GPRS protocol architecture MS BSS SGSN GGSN Um Gb Gn Gi apps. IP/X.25 IP/X.25 GTP SNDCP SNDCP GTP LLC UDP/TCP LLC UDP/TCP RLC BSSGP RLC BSSGP IP IP MAC MAC FR FR L1/L2 L1/L2 radio radio 48 DECT
DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone) standardized by ETSI (ETS 300.175-x) for cordless telephones
standard describes air interface between base-station and mobile phone
DECT has been renamed for international marketing reasons into Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication
frequency 1880-1990 MHz
channels 120 full duplex
duplex mechanism TDD (Time Division Duplex) with 10 ms frame length
multiplexing scheme FDMA with 10 carrier frequencies TDMA with 2x 12 slots
modulation digital Gaußian Minimum Shift Key (GMSK)
power 10 mW average (max. 250 mW)
range approx. 50 m in buildings 300 m open space
49 DECT system architecture reference model D3 D4 VDB D2 local network FT PT PA HDB PT PA D1 global network FT local network 50 DECT layers I
generation of the physical channel structure with a guaranteed throughput
controlling of radio transmission
channel assignment on request of the MAC layer
detection of incoming signals
collecting status information for the management plane
maintaining basic services activating/deactivatin g physical channels
multiplexing of logical channels
e.g. C signaling I user data P paging Q broadcast
error control/error correction
51 DECT layers II
Data link control layer
creation and keeping up reliable connections between the mobile terminal and basestation
mobility management identity management authentication management of the location register
53 DECT reference model U-Plane C-Plane
close to the OSI reference model
management plane over all layers
several services in C(ontrol)- and U(ser)-plane
signaling interworking application processes network layer OSI layer 3 management data link control data link control OSI layer 2 medium access control physical layer OSI layer 1 54 DECT time multiplex frame 1 frame 10 ms 12 down slots 12 up slots slot 420 bit 52 µs guard time (60 bit) in 0.4167 ms guard 0 419 sync D field 0 31 0 387 A network control B user data X transmission quality A field B field X field 0 63 0 319 0 3 protected mode 25.6 kbit/s simplex bearer unprotected mode DATA 32 kbit/s 55 Enhancements of the standard
Several DECT Application Profiles in addition to the DECT specification
GAP (Generic Access Profile) standardized by ETSI in 1997
assures interoperability between DECT equipment of different manufacturers (minimal requirements for voice communication)
enhanced management capabilities through the fixed network Cordless Terminal Mobility (CTM)
DECT/GSM Interworking Profile (GIP) connection to GSM
ISDN Interworking Profiles (IAP IIP) connection to ISDN
Radio Local Loop Access Profile (RAP) public telephone service
CTM Access Profile (CAP) support for user mobility
56 TETRA - Terrestrial Trunked Radio
Trunked radio systems
many different radio carriers
assign single carrier for a short period to one user/group of users
taxi service fleet management rescue teams
interfaces to public networks voice and data services
very reliable fast call setup local operation
TETRA - ETSI standard
formerly Trans European Trunked Radio
offers VoiceData and Packet Data Optimized service
point-to-point and point-to-multipoint
ad-hoc and infrastructure networks
several frequencies 380-400 MHz 410-430 MHz
group call broadcast sub-second group-call setup
57 TDMA structure of the voicedata system hyperframe 0 1 2 57 58 59 ... 61.2 s multiframe 0 1 2 15 16 17 ... 1.02 s CF frame Control Frame 0 1 2 3 56.67 ms 0 slot 509 14.17 ms 58 UMTS and IMT-2000
Proposals for IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications)
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) from ETSI
UTRA (was UMTS now Universal Terrestrial Radio Access)
enhancements of GSM
EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) GSM up to 384 kbit/s
CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic) intelligent network support
VHE (virtual Home Environment)
fits into GMM (Global Multimedia Mobility) initiative from ETSI
GMM provides an architecture to integrate mobile and fixed terminals different access networks and several core transport networks.
requirements for UMTS and UTRA
min. 144 kbit/s rural (goal 384 kbit/s)
min. 384 kbit/s suburban (goal 512 kbit/s)
up to 2 Mbit/s urban
59 Frequencies for IMT-2000 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 MHz ITU allocation (WRC 1992) IMT-2000 MSS IMT-2000 MSS UTRA FDD UTRA FDD T D D T D D MSS MSS DE CT GSM 1800 Europe IMT-2000 MSS IMT-2000 MSS GSM 1800 China cdma2000 W-CDMA MSS MSS cdma2000 W-CDMA PHS Japan MSS MSS PCS rsv. North America MHz 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 60 UMTS and IMT-2000
IMT-DS The direct spread technology comprises wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) systems. It consists of UTRA-FDD in Europe and FOMA (Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access in Japan developed by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project).
IMT-TC The time code technology uses time-division CDMA (TD-CDMA). It consists of UTRA-TDD in Europe and TD-synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA) in China developed by 3GPP.
IMT-MC The multi-carrier technology comprises cdma2000 developed by 3GPP2.
IMT-SC The single carrier technology comprises the enhancement of the US TDMA UWC-136. It applies EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) developed by 3GPP/UWCC.
IMT-FT The frequency time technology comprises an enhanced version of DECT developed by ETSI.
61 IMT-2000 family Interface for Internetworking IMT-2000 Core Network ITU-T (Telecomm.) GSM (MAP) ANSI-41 (IS-634) IP-Network Initial UMTS (R99 w/ FDD) IMT-DS (Direct Spread) UTRA FDD (W-CDMA) 3GPP IMT-TC (Time Code) UTRA TDD (TD-CDMA) TD-SCDMA 3G PP IMT-MC (Multi Carrier) cdma2000 3GPP2 IMT-SC (Single Carrier) UWC-136 (EDGE) UWCC/3GPP IMT-FT (Freq. Time) DECT ETSI IMT-2000 Radio Access ITU-R (Radiocomm.) The main driving forces are 3GPP (European and Japanese) and 3GPP2 (Qualcomm and CDMA). 62 Licensing Example UMTS in Germany 18. August 2000
Uplink 1920-1980 MHz
Downlink 2110-2170 MHz
duplex spacing 190 MHz
12 channels each 5 MHz
5 MHz channels
Coverage 25 of the population until 12/2003 50 until 12/2005
Sum 50.81 billion 63 UMTS releases and standardization
UMTS releases and standardization
Release 99 It describes the new radio access technologies UTRA-FDD and UTRA-TDD and standardizes the use of a GSM/GPRS network as core. This enables a cost effective migration from GSM to UMTS. It is currently deployed.
Release 4 It introduces quality of service in the fixed network plus several execution environment.
Release 5 It specifies a different core network. The GSM/GPRS based network will be replaced by an almost all-IP-core.
Release 6 3GPP is currently working on release 6 (release 7).
64 UMTS architecture (Release 99 used here!)
UTRAN (UTRA Network)
Cell level mobility
Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)
Encapsulation of all radio specific tasks
UE (User Equipment)
CN (Core Network)
Inter system handover
Location management if there is no dedicated connection between UE and UTRAN
Iu Uu UTRAN UE CN 65 UMTS domains and interfaces
User Equipment Domain
Assigned to a single user in order to access UMTS services
Shared among all users
Offers UMTS services to all accepted users
Home Network Domain Zu Cu Uu Iu Yu USIM Domain MobileEquipment Domain Access Network Domain Serving Network Domain Transit Network Domain Core Network Domain User Equipment Domain Infrastructure Domain 66 UMTS domains and interfaces
Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM)
Functions for encryption and authentication of users
Located on a SIM inserted into a mobile device
Mobile Equipment Domain
Functions for radio transmission
User interface for establishing/maintaining end-to-end connections
Access Network Domain
Access network dependent functions
Core Network Domain
Access network independent functions
Serving Network Domain
Network currently responsible for communication
Home Network Domain
Location and access network independent functions
67 UMTS radio interface - Spreading and scrambling of user data
Constant chipping rate of 3.84 Mchip/s
Different user data rates supported via different spreading factors ( of chips/bit)
higher data rate less chips per bit and vice versa
User separation via unique quasi orthogonal (their cross-correlation should be almost zero) scrambling codes
users are not separated via orthogonal spreading codes
much simpler management of codes each station can use the same orthogonal spreading codes
precise synchronization not necessary as the scrambling codes stay quasi-orthogonal
The FDD mode for UTRA uses wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) with direct sequence spreading.
Uplink and downlink use different frequencies. Uplink (1920 1980 MHz) and downlink (2110 2170 MHz).
Time slots are not used for user separation but to support periodic functions. Each time slot is 38400 chips/s x 10 ms x 1/15 2560 chips (2/3 ms).
The occupied bandwidth per W-CDMA channel is 4.4 to 5 MHz.
In Germany the FDD spectrum was sold over 50 billion Euros.
The provide higher data rates the infrastructure should be improved Twice as many base stations as GSM (500 m cell diameters)
70 Typical UTRA-FDD uplink data rates
Dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH)
conveys user or signaling data
Dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH)
Conveys control data for the physical layer and uses the constant spreading factor 256.
Dedicated physical channel (DPCH)
The downlink time multiplexes control and user data.
Physical random access channel (PRACH)
Used for coordinating medium access on the uplink.
71 UMTS FDD frame structure
1920-1980 MHz uplink
2110-2170 MHz downlink
chipping rate 3.840 Mchip/s
complex power control (1500 power control cycles/s)
Uplink 4-256 Downlink4-512
Radio frame 0 1 2 12 13 14 ... 10 ms Time slot Pilot FBI TPC TFCI 666.7 µs uplink DPCCH 2560 chips 10 bits Data uplink DPDCH 666.7 µs 2560 chips 102k bits (k 0...6) Data1 TPC TFCI Pilot Data2 downlink DPCH 666.7 µs FBI Feedback Information TPC Transmit Power Control TFCI Transport Format Combination Indicator DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPCH Dedicated Physical Channel DPCCH DPDCH DPDCH DPCCH 2560 chips 102k bits (k 0...7) Slot structure NOT for user separation but synchronisation for periodic functions! 72 UE in UTRA-FDD (W-CDMA)
A UE has to perform the following steps during the search for a cell after power on
Primary synchronization A UE has to synchronize with the help of a 256 chip primary synchronization code.
Secondary synchronization This defines the group of scrambling codes.
Identification of the scrambling code the UE tries all scrambling codes within the group of codes to find the right code with the help of a correlator.
After these three steps the UE can receive all further data over a broadcast channel.
73 UTRA-TDD (TD-CDMA)
Separates up and downlink in time using a frame structure similar to FDD.
15 slots with 2560 chips per slot for a radio frame with a duration of 10 ms.
The chipping rate is 3.84 Mchips/s.
TDD frame can be symmetrical or asymmetrical.
The switching points is used to indicate the switching between up and downlink.
At least one slot must be allocated for the uplink and downlink respectively.
UTRA TDD occupies 5 MHz bandwidth per channel.
Germany paid less than 300 million Euros.
It is unclear to what extend this system will be deployed.
The coverage per cell is less than using UTRA-FDD.
UEs must not move too fast (like WLANs).
74 UMTS TDD frame structure (burst type 2) Radio frame 0 1 2 12 13 14 ... 10 ms Time slot Data 1104 chips Midample 256 chips Data 1104 chips GP 666.7 µs Traffic burst GP guard period 96 chips 2560 chips Midample is used for tranning and channel estimation.
2560 chips per slot
symmetric or asymmetric slot assignment to UpLink/DownLink (min. 1 per direction)
tight synchronisation needed
simpler power control (100-800 power control cycles/s)
75 UTRA architecture
Radio network subsystems (RNS)
Radio network controller (RNC) controls several node Bs over the interface (Iub) and is connected with the core network (CN) over Iu. The interface Iur is the interface for connecting two RNCs.
Each node B can control several antennas which make a radio cell.
The mobile device user equipment (UE) can be connected to one or more antennas.
The circuit switched domain (CSD) comprises the classical circuit switched services and connects to the RNS via the IuCS.
The packet switched domain (PSD) uses the GPRS components SGSN and GGSN and connects to the RNS via the IuPS.
76 UTRAN architecture RNC Radio Network Controller RNS Radio Network Subsystem RNS UE Iub Node B UTRAN comprises several RNSs Node B can support FDD or TDD or both RNC is responsible for handover decisions requiring signaling to the UE Cell offers FDD or TDD RNC Iu Node B Node B CN Iur Node B Iub Node B RNC Node B Node B RNS 77 UTRAN RNC functions
Call admission control
Radio channel encryption/decryption
ATM switching and multiplexing protocol conversion - Radio network configuration
Channel quality measurements
Radio resource control
Radio carrier control bearer setup and release
Data transmission over the radio interface
Channel allocation (coding)
Outer loop power control (FDD and TDD)
Handover control and RNS relocation (moving)
Management - System information including current load current traffic error states
78 UTRAN Components
The name node B was chosen during standardization until a new and better name was found.
The main task is the inner loop power control to mitigate near-far effect.
Measures connection qualities and signal strengths.
Supports a special case of handover (soft-handover).
User Equipment (UE)
The UE performs signal quality measurements inner loop power control spreading and modulation and rate matching. (counterpart of a node B).
The UE has to cooperate during handover and cell selection performs encryption and decryption. (RNC)
The UE has to implement mobility management. (CN)
79 Core network
The Core Network (CN) and thus the Interface Iu are separated into two logical domains
Circuit Switched Domain (CSD)
Circuit switched service including signaling
Resource reservation at connection setup
GSM components (MSC GMSC VLR)
Packet Switched Domain (PSD)
GPRS components (SGSN GGSN)
Release 99 uses the GSM/GPRS network and adds a new radio access!
Helps to save a lot of money
Much faster deployment
Not as flexible as newer releases (5 6)
80 Core network architecture with 3G RNS and 2G BSS VLR BSS Abis BTS Iu BSC MSC GMSC PSTN Node B BTS
AuC HLR EIR GR Node B Iub Node B RNC SGSN GGSN Gi Gn Node B Node B
CN RNS 81 Core network protocols with 3G RNS and 2G BSS VLR MSC GMSC GSM-CS backbone RNS HLR RNS SGSN GGSN Layer 3 IP GPRS backbone (IP) Layer 2 ATM SS 7 Layer 1 PDH SDH SONET UTRAN CN 82 UMTS protocol stacks (user plane) IuCS UTRAN 3G MSC Uu UE apps. protocols RLC SAR RLC SAR Circuit switched MAC MAC AAL2 AAL2 radio radio ATM ATM Uu IuPS UE UTRAN 3G SGSN Gn 3G GGSN apps. protocols IP PPP IP PPP IP tunnel Packet switched GTP PDCP GTP PDCP GTP GTP RLC UDP/IP RLC UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 L2 L2 radio radio ATM ATM L1 L1 83 UMTS protocol stacks
Circuit Switched Domain (CSD)
Radio link control (RLC)
Segmentation and reassembly (SAR)
ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2)
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Packet Switched Domain (PSD)
Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP)
UTRA-TDD can only use this type. Switching between TDD cells is done between the slots of different frames at a certain point in time.
Inter frequency handover (changing the carrier frequency) is a hard handover.
All inter system handover are hard handovers in UMTS (to and from GSM or IMT-2000 systems).
During a compressed mode which enables a UE to listen into GSM or other frequency bands the spreading factor can be lowered or less data is sent before and after the break in transmission.
Soft handover In CDMA they use macro diversity. A UE receiving data from different antennas at the same time makes a handover soft.
84 Support of mobility macro diversity
Multicasting of data via several physical channels
Enables soft handover
FDD mode only
The RNC splits the data stream and forwards it to different nodes B. It allows simultaneous transmission of data via different cells. The UE combines the received data again.
Different spreading codes in different cells
The UE sends its data which is then received by several Node Bs.
Reconstruction of data at Node B SRNC (Serving RNC) or DRNC (Drift RNC)
UE Node B CN Node B RNC 85 Support of mobility handover
From and to other systems (e.g. UMTS to GSM)
This is a must as UMTS coverage will be poor in the beginning
RNC controlling the connection is called SRNC (Serving RNC)
RNS offering additional resources (e.g. for soft handover) is called Drift RNC (DRNC)
End-to-end connections between UE and CN only via Iu at the SRNS
Change of SRNC requires change of Iu
Initiated by the SRNC
Controlled by the RNC and CN
CN SRNC Node B Iub Iu UE Iur DRNC Node B Iub 86 Example handover types in UMTS/GSM UE1 RNC1 3G MSC1 Node B1 Iu UE2 Node B2 Iur Iub UE3 RNC2 Node B3 3G MSC2 UE4 BSC BTS 2G MSC3 Abis A
Intra-node B intra-RNC UE1 moves from one antenna soft handover
Inter-node B intra-RNC UE2 moves from node B1 to node B2 soft handover
Inter-RNC UE3 moves from node B2 to node B3 Intra-RNC soft handover Inter-RNC hard handover.
Inter-MSC MSC2 takes over and perform a hard handover
Inter-system UE4moves from a 3G UMTS network into a 2G GSM network hard handover.
Intra-node B intra-RNC
UE1 moves from one antenna
Inter-node B intra-RNC
UE2 moves from node B1 to node B2
UE3 moves from node B2 to node B3
MSC2 takes over and perform a handover
UE4moves from a 3G UMTS network into a 2G GSM network.
88 UMTS services (originally)
Data transmission service profiles
Virtual Home Environment (VHE)
Enables access to personalized data independent of location access network and device
Network operators may offer new services without changing the network
Service providers may offer services based on components which allow the automatic adaptation to new networks and devices
Integration of existing IN services
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