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Electromotive Force - EMF

- The potential difference when no charge flows to

an external circuit is called the electromotive

force or EMF. - An induced EMF is produced by a changing magnetic

field.

Magnetic Flux

- The EMF produced is proportional to the rate of

change of the magnetic flux, ?B, passing through

the loop of area A, which is defined as - ?B B? A BA cos ?

B ? B cos ?

B - magnetic field strength

Faradays Law of Induction

- If the flux through N loops of wire changes by an

amount ??B during a time ?t, the average induced

EMF during this time is

Faradays Law of Induction

- The working equation for a moving conductor is

given by - EMF B l v
- where l is the length of the conductor
- and v is the velocity of the conductor.
- This equation is valid as long as B, l and v are

mutually perpendicular.

Problem using Faradays Law

- An airplane travels 1000 km/hr in a region where

the earths field is 5.0x10-5 T and is nearly

vertical. What is the potential difference

inducted between the wing tips that are 70m

apart?

Problem using Faradays Law

- Since v 1000 km/hr 280 m/s
- ? EMF B l v 5.0 x 10-5 x 70 x 280
- ? EMF 1.0 V

Lenzs Law

- An induced EMF always gives rise to a current

whose magnetic field opposes the original change

in flux. - This is the reason for the negative sign in

Faradays Law of Induction.

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