1 Chapter Six MANAGING YOUR OWN BEHAVIOR CAREERS AND STRESS 2 After reading this chapter you should be able to 1. Understand socialization and identify the stages through which it develops. 2. Explain what mentors are what they do and the benefits as well as costs of mentoring to both mentors and their protégés. 3. Describe how people choose their careers and explain how the nature of careers has changed in recent years. 4. Explain how the careers of women and men differ including the so-called glass ceiling. 5. Define stress and distinguish it from strain. 6. Describe the major organizational and personal causes of stress. 7. Describe the adverse effects of stress including burnout and explain how individual differences play roles in such effects. 9. Describe individual as well as organizational techniques for managing stress. 3 Organizational Socialization - the three-step process through which newcomers become full-fledged members who share its major values and understand its policies and procedures 4 Getting In What Happens Before People Are Hired - pre-entry period How do we learn about organizations - several sources - employees of the organization - published material - representatives of the organization Reducing entry shock with realistic job previews Entry shock - confusion and disorientation experienced by newcomers whose expectations about an organization are not met Realistic job previews - accurate information about what working in the organization will be like - increase job satisfaction and reduce voluntary turnover - caution best applicants most sensitive to negative information about the job 5 Breaking In The Encounter Stage - begins when employees actually assume their new duties - learn what organization expects from them and how to be participating members of their work group - face several challenges - master skills required for the new job - become oriented to practices and procedures within the organization - organizational culture Settling In The Metamorphosis Stage - may be marked by a formal ceremony - employees make permanent adjustments to their jobs - organizations treat them as if they will be long-term members of the work team 6 Mentoring - process in which a more experienced employee -- a mentor -- advises counsels and otherwise enhances the personal development (and career) of a new employee -- a protégé - protégés receive more promotions and higher compensation What Do Mentors Do - assist protégés in many ways - provide emotional support and inspire self-confidence - nominate protégés for promotions - provide opportunities for protégés to show off their competencies - suggest personal career strategies - protect protégés from the consequences of errors 7 How Mentoring Relationships Form and Change - result from a complex selection process in which both mentor and protégé play active roles - pass through four distinct phases Phase 1 Initiation - lasts 6 months to a year - learn what to expect from each other Phase 2 Cultivation - lasts an additional 2 to 5 years - bond deepens between mentor and protégé - protégés career begins advancing as a result of mentoring Phase 3 Separation - begins when protégé feels it is time to assert independence - stressful period for both mentor and protégé Phase 4 Redefinition - occurs after a successful separation - bond based on friendship - mentor and protégé roles fade away 8 Career - the evolving sequence of a persons work experiences over time - people currently hold different conceptions about careers than they did in the past Choosing a Job Making Vocational Choices - influenced by several factors Person-job fit - personal characteristics make people more suited to some jobs than other jobs - better the person-job fit the greater the job satisfaction Job opportunities - beliefs about the future of jobs - focus on jobs believed to offer growing opportunities Changing Nature of Career Plans - single-track career paths are becoming the exception rather than the rule - careers involve lateral moves rotation through several different jobs geographic relocations and periods of time spent as an independent contractor or subcontractor rather than a full- time employee - employees should view their careers as a series of opportunities for gaining new proficiencies that will increase their value on the job market 9 Entrepreneurship Should You Start Your Own Business Entrepreneur - an individual who starts her/his own business Entrepreneurship - career path for increasing number of people because of - low job security in traditional organizational jobs - growing desire for independence and autonomy particularly among the young - media coverage of entrepreneurial success stories - risky career choice - high failure rate - profitability attained only after several years - sharp increase in personal work load - requires a solid business background and study 10 Careers of Women and Men How Similar Are They - benefits of training greater for men than for women - work experience and education provide greater training opportunities for men than for women - a spouse and dependents enhance experiences of men more than of women - collegial encouragement more closely related to managerial advancement for men than for women Female style of managing - less concern with status and hierarchies - greater willingness to compromise and mediate 11 Careers of Women and Men How Similar Are They (cont.) Glass ceiling - barrier preventing females from reaching top positions in many organizations - often takes subtle forms rather than overt discrimination - barriers have lessened during recent years but have not been eliminated 12 Stress - a complex pattern of emotional states physiological reactions and related thoughts occasioned by external demands - can have devastating effects on nearly all aspects of human behavior and organizational functioning Stressors - various factors in the external environment that induce stress among people exposed to them Cognitive appraisal - determines whether a factor acts as a stressor - perception that the situation is threatening - threatening situation is beyond the persons control Strain - the accumulated effects of stress primarily deviations from normal states or performance resulting from exposure to stressful events 13 Figure 6.10 Distinguishing Among Stessors Stress and Strain Stressors (physical) Stressors (psychological) 14 Work-Related Causes of Stress - work environments may be highly stressful Occupational demands - some jobs are more stressful than others depending upon whether they - require making decisions - involve constant monitoring - require repeated exchange of information - occur in unpleasant physical conditions - involve performing unstructured tasks - involve dealing with the public Conflict between work and nonwork - stress produced by competing demands Role conflict - incompatible demands on an individual made by different groups of persons - effects lessened by social support in work setting Role ambiguity - stress produced by uncertainty about how to meet the requirements of the job - differs greatly from culture to culture 15 Figure 6.11 Culture and Role Ambiguity 2.55 2.45 2.35 2.25 Role Ambiguity 2.15 2.05 1.95 1.85 1.75 U.S. U.K. Korea France Mexico Nigeria Australia Germany Indonesia 16 Work-Related Causes of Stress (cont.) Overload and underload - stress produced by too much or too little work Quantitative overload - situation requiring individuals to accomplish more work than they can in a given period of time Qualitative overload - belief among employees that they lack the skills and abilities to perform their jobs Quantitative underload - situation in which individuals have so little to do that they spend much of their time doing nothing Qualitative underload - lack of mental stimulation that accompanies many routine repetitive jobs 17 Work-Related Causes of Stress (cont.) Lack of social support - isolation poor situation in which to experience stress - presence of others can be very effective way of dealing with stress Sexual harassment - unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature - can be subtle as well as overt - may be increasing in US workplaces Responsibility for others - motivating punishing and rewarding and communicating with other people leads to higher stress than dealing with other organizational functions 18 Causes of Stress Outside Work - events outside work settings often causes stress that persists and may affect work Stressful life events - traumatic events or significant life changes - more stressful greater the likelihood of illness - typically are rare events Hassles of daily life - countless minor irritations that make up for their low intensity by their high frequency - more daily hassles experienced the greater the levels of self-reported stress 19 Stress and Task Performance - stress exerts mainly negative effects on task performance -- even at relatively low levels because - even relatively mild stress can be distracting - prolonged or repeated exposure to even mild levels of stress may exert harmful effects on health - may produce high levels of arousal leading to choking under pressure Exceptions to the general rule - large individual differences in impact of stress on task performance - some individuals seem to rise to the occasion - view stress as a challenge not a threat 20 Stress and Psychological Well-Being Burnout - a syndrome that results from prolonged exposure to stress and consists of Emotional exhaustion - chronic state of physical and emotional depletion Depersonalization - development of callous cynical attitudes about ones career and work Reduced personal accomplishments - tendency to evaluate accomplishments at work negatively 21 Stress and Psychological Well-Being (cont.) Some major causes of burnout - prolonged exposure to stress - belief that one has lost valuable resources that will reduce the ability to cope with work demands - job conditions suggesting the ones efforts are useless - feeling that one is trapped in an unfair situation - leadership that does not provide consideration Effects of burnout - has deleterious consequences - impairs ones physical condition - causes changes in ones behavior - leads to counterproductive work performance - increases voluntary turnover Preventing burnout - provide effective ways to cope with stress and inequity Reversing burnout - short breaks days off from work and vacations all are effective in allowing an individual to recover from emotional exhaustion and depersonalization due to stress 22 Stress and Health The Silent Killer - strong relationship between stress and personal health - leads to both degenerative as well as infectious diseases Individual Differences in Resistance to Stress - Type As less resistant to effects of stress than Type Bs - other personal characteristics (e.g. optimism and hardiness) also influence the effect of stress on personal health 23 Personal Approaches to Stress Management Resilien cy - learning ways of minimizing the degree to which stressors adversely affect us Physiological techniques - relaxation meditation and napping - people can learn to induce relaxation whenever they feel themselves becoming too tense Cognitive techniques - reduce worrying - avoid awfulizing and catastrophizing - magnifying the effects of failure imperfection or thoughts of rejection Lifestyle management - getting ones body into proper shape - balancing life activities Time management - take control over ones actions - set priorities and stick to them - avoid distraction by others - delegate responsibilities to others 24 Organization-Wide Strategies for Managing Stress Family-supportive practices - designed to reduce work-family role conflict Special corporate programs Stress management programs - systematic efforts by organizations designed to help employees reduce or prevent stress Wellness programs - variety of training programs (e.g. exercise nutrition training) designed to promote healthy employees Employee assistance programs - plans that provide employees with assistance with various problems including substance abuse career planning financial and legal problems)
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