1 Chapter Five WORK-RELATED ATTITUDES FEELINGS ABOUT JOBS ORGANIZATIONS AND PEOPLE 2 After reading this chapter you should be able to 1. Define attitudes and understand their basic components. 2. Identify the concept of job satisfaction and outline the techniques used for measuring it. 3. Summarize two major theories of job satisfaction. 4. Explain the major consequences of job dissatisfaction and how to overcome them. 5. Define organizational commitment and describe the three major types. 6. Describe the major consequences from low levels of organizational commitment and how to overcome them. 7. Distinguish prejudice and discrimination and identify victims of prejudice in organizations. 8. Describe how organizations today manage diversity in the workforce. 9. Descri be the effectiveness of diversity management programs. 3 Three Essential Components of Attitudes Evaluativ e component - our liking or disliking of any particular person item or event - feeling aspect Cognitive component - what we believe whether true of false about an attitude object - knowledge aspect Behavioral component - our predisposition to behave in a way consistent with our beliefs and feelings about an attitude object - may not actually be predictive of ones behavior Attitudes - relatively stable clusters of feelings beliefs and behavioral intentions toward specific objects people or institutions Work-related attitudes - pertain to any aspect of work or work settings 4 Job Satisfaction - positive or negative attitudes held by individuals toward their jobs Are People Generally Satisfied with Their Jobs - overall most satisfied Certain groups more satisfied than others - white-collar older more experienced Some individuals always more satisfied Dispositional model - job satisfaction is a characteristic that stays with people across situations 5 Measuring Job Satisfaction - several useful techniques have been developed Rating scales and questionnaires - most common approach - can be completed quickly - normative data may be available to assess relative satisfaction - e.g. Job Descriptive Index Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire Critical incidents - employees describe incidents relating to their work that they found especially satisfying or dissatisfying Interviews - explore attitudes more deeply - particularly effective in gathering reactions to complex and difficult situations 6 Theories of Job Satisfaction - address what makes people satisfied with their jobs and the underlying processes Two-factor theory - suggests that satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from different groups of variables - satisfaction - associated with the content of the job itself or with outcomes directly derived from it Motivators - e.g. nature of the job achievement in the work promotion opportunities chance for personal recognition and growth - dissatisfaction - associated with the physical and social context of the job Hygienes - e.g. working conditions pay security relations with others quality of supervision Evaluation - intriguing but unverified theory Implications - focus attention on motivators to promote satisfaction - create conditions to avoid dissatisfaction 7 Figure 5.4 Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction 8 Theories of Job Satisfaction (cont.) Value theory - suggests that job satisfaction depends primarily on the match between the outcomes individuals value in their jobs and their perceptions about the availability of such outcomes - satisfaction - individual receives job outcomes s/he values - dissatisfaction - individual does not receive job outcomes s/he values Evaluation - research provides good support for theory Implications - individuals may value different outcomes and therefore employees may have different sources of satisfaction - satisfaction may stem from many job factors 9 Figure 5.5 The Result of Getting What We Want Size of Have-Want Discrepancy None Great (have as much as want) (want more than have) 10 Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction Task performance - relationship to job satisfaction is positive but not especially strong because - range of possible performance restricted on many jobs - variables are not directly related but both may be influenced by the same job factors (e.g. receipt of various organizational rewards) Employee withdrawal - actions that enable employees to escape adverse organizational situations Chronic absenteeism - less satisfaction more absenteeism - modest relationship since many factors affect an employees decision to report to work Voluntary turnover - less satisfaction greater likelihood that employee will consider resigning - modest relationship since many factors affect an employees decision to move to another job - e.g. economic conditions - intent to quit or stay reflected in concrete actions 11 Figure 5.6 Voluntary Turnover A Model Job satisfaction 12 Guidelines for Promoting Job Satisfaction Make jobs fun - people are more satisfied with jobs they enjoy doing than those they find dull and boring Pay people fairly - job dissatisfaction associated with perceptions of unfairness in compensation system Match people to jobs that fit their interests - fulfilling interests on the job associated with feelings of satisfaction Avoid boring repetitive jobs - people more satisfied with jobs that allow then to take control over how they do things 13 Organizational Commitment - degree to which people are involved with their organizations and are interested in remaining within them Varieties of Organizational Commitment Continuanc e commitment - the strength of a persons desire to continue working for an organization because s/he needs to and cannot afford to do otherwise - increases with greater tenure in the organization Affective commitment - the strength of a persons desire to continue working for an organization because s/he agrees with its goals and values - endorse what organization stands for - may be threatened when organization undergoes change Normative commitment - the strength of a persons desire to continue working for an organization because s/he feels pressure from others to remain - reluctance to disappoint others 14 Why Strive for a Committed Workforce Committed employees are less likely to withdraw - less likely to resign or be absent Committed employees are willing to sacrifice for the organization - good organizational citizenship characteristic of committed employees Approaches to Developing Committed Employees Enrich jobs - give employees control over their jobs and recognize their important contributions Align company and employee interests Profit-sharing plans - incentive plans in which employees receive bonuses in proportion to the companys profitability Recr uit and select new employees whose values closely match those of the organization - investments in employees likely to prompt the return investment of employee energy in the company 15 Prejudice - negative attitudes toward the members of specific groups based solely on their membership in those groups (e.g. age gender race) - negative beliefs and feelings and predispositions to behave accordingly Discrimination - behavior that is follows from a prejudicial attitude - treating someone negatively because of her/his group membership 16 The Reality of Prejudice and the Problems of Prejudice - ethnic and cultural diversity is the rule today - prejudicial attitudes in this environment create problems - produces serious friction or even conflict between people - can have adverse effects on the careers of people targeted by prejudicial attacks - e.g. glass ceiling - can have devastating psychological effect on victims 17 Groupism - no one is immune to prejudice based on membership in certain groups Prejudice based on age - discrimination exists against older and younger workers - prejudices not founded on accurate information - the more time younger people spend working with their older colleagues the more positive -- and the less stereotypical -- their attitudes toward one another Prejudice based on physical condition (i.e. some physical feature) Stigmas - conditions (e.g. blindness disfigurement or paralysis) considered to be negative aspects of ones identity Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) - safeguards the rights of people with physical and mental disabilities - requires reasonable accommodations be made to enable disabled to hold a job 18 Groupism (cont.) Prejudice based on race and national origin - discriminatory acts have caused minorities to use the Equal Employment Opportunity Act to file law suits - mentoring of minority employees attempts to minimize problems stemming from discrimination Prejudice based on sexual orientation - no legal protection for homosexuals - leads to fears of being exposed as a homosexual - many organizations have adopted internal fair employment policies that include sexual orientation - some companies prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation - some companies extend fringe benefits which traditionally were offered only to opposite- sex partners to same-sex domestic partners 19 Groupism (cont.) Prejudice against women - lessening but it is a slow victory Sex-role stereotypes - narrow-minded beliefs about the kinds of tasks for which women are suited - keep many women from important organizational positions including boards of directors 20 Do Companies Care about Diversity - trend is clearly toward more activity and greater concern about diversity issues - increased support for diversity programs where - senior managers are aware of the importance of diversity management - there is recognition of the need to attract and retain a skilled workforce What Are Todays Companies Doing about Diversity - two approaches Affirmative action plans - attempt to provide employment opportunities to groups who traditionally have been disadvantaged - over the past 30 years plans have been effective Diversity management programs - create an atmosphere in which diverse groups can flourish - celebrate diversity - women and minorities are valued not just tolerated 21 How Are Companies Fostering Workforce Diversity - there is more talk about diversity than action - however encouraging signs of improvement - widespread diversity management practices include Promote policies that discourage sexual harassment Provide physical access for disabled employees Offer flexible work schedules Allow days off for religious holidays Offer parental leaves Varieties of Diversity Management Programs - two categories Awareness-based diversity programs - designed to make people more aware of diversity issues and get them to recognize the underlying assumptions they make about people Skill-based diversity training - develops tools needed to interact effectively with others 22 Figure 5.16 Two Approaches to Diversity Management Training Awareness-based Diversity Training Skills-based Diversity Training 23 Companies that made special efforts to use their diverse human resources were considerably more profitable than those that discriminated against employees - managing diversity is the right way to treat employees and is good business - notes of caution Focus differences between people not stereotypes - instead of looking at average differences between people look at the range of differences between people Managing diversity requires total managerial support - management must go the extra mile in support of diversity activities
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