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Lawn establishment and management

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Title: Lawn establishment and management


1
Lawn
2
(No Transcript)
3
LAWN
  • Lawn is beautiful green ground cover with
    perennial grass.
  • Also called as a natural green carpet.
  • A lawn is the heart of a garden.
  • It is the basic feature for home ground
    development
  • In home garden
  • improves the appearance of the house,
  • enhances the beauty,
  • Increase conveniences
  • It adds monetary value to the real estate

4
  • Lawn also provide
  • Perfect setting for
  • flower beds
  • A border
  • A shrubbery
  • A specimen of tree or a shrub
  • Besides ,
  • the lawn has spiritual value too
  • Lawn is source of charm and pride
  • reduces tension of mind after a days hard work

5
IMPORTANCE.
  • Lawn is one of the most important features of a
    garden
  • Without a lawn no garden is complete and
    beautiful as the beauty of the garden largely
    depends on the condition of the lawn.
  • Main point of attraction of the garden.
  • Provides a place for takings rest after the days
    hard work.
  • Ideal place for holding parties and different
    Social functions.

6
Characters' of lawn grasses
  • It should develop quickly.
  • The grass must have compact growth.
  • It should withstand regular mowing.
  • It should tolerate Cold and drought.
  • The grass should be soft to touch and not patchy,
  • Should not give fowl and bad odour
  • Should look fresh and remain green throughout the
    year.

7
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8
SITE SELECTION
  • The selected site for making lawn should get full
    sunlight and the best situation is the southern
    side of the house.
  • The site selected should be in south-east or
    south west direction of house or any building.
  • Lawn grass do not grow well under the shade.

9
  • More over,
  • The dried leaves of trees fall on the lawn grass
    make the lawn dirty, hence it is desirable that
    no big trees should be existing in the site
    selected
  • Trees selected should provide shade during summer
    for sitting and should not shed leaves without
    adversely affecting the lawn
  • Soil moisture capacity and drainage are very
    important
  • Poor drained soil- grass will perish
  • Highly porous soil- Frequent irrigation

10
SOIL
  • For establishment of a good lawn fertile loamy
    soil is ideal.
  • Soil should be rich in humus content.
  • It should have good moisture holding capacity and
    at the same time it should have good drainage
  • Depth of soil shold be at least 25-30 cm for
    luxuriant growth

11
SOIL
  • A slightly acidic soil having pH between 5.5 to
    6.0 is good growth of grass.
  • Low pH-½kg/m2 of chalk or grounded lime stone
  • Alkaline soil- Gypsum- ½kg/m2

12
Drainage
  • Selected site- proper drainage
  • Grasses are shallow rooted herbs and no deep
    drainage is necessary, but
  • No water should stagnate in the root zone
  • Clayey soils- Drainage pipes or by putting a
    layer of bricks and rubbish 90cm bellow the
    surface
  • Ordinary drainage carried out with grading and
    levelling

13
Drainage..
  • Rough surface leveling by eye estimation- prior
    to digging
  • Shifting and filling of soil done if necessary
  • After rough levelling- thorough preparation of
    land is necessary- by digging
  • Very often digging- contribute to the failure of
    lawn
  • Digging should be done by trenching method- other
    wise the gardener fail to dig to the desired
    depth
  • To ensure proper depth- trench of 60cm deep and
    45 cm width dug at one side of the site

14
Drainage
  • During digging- old masonry, grass roots, stones
    etc., should be removed
  • Special care should be taken to remove the roots
    of Motha grass (Cyperus rotundus)
  • Digging should be done during April
    May-sterilize the soil, kill weed seeds, insects
    and harmful micro organisms
  • Soil should be turned up subsequently 2-3 times
    at weekly intervals, - each time clods of earth,
    if any are broken and roots of weeds are removed

15
Manuring and Grading
  • After digging is over,
  • Soil is manured and graded
  • If the soil is already fertile- Dont apply
    organic manure- weed seeds
  • Poor soil-FYM, night soil manure, stable
    manure-500kg/100 m2
  • The manure is worked up to a depth of 15-20cm
  • Any freshly dug soil will take long time for
    settleing
  • In heavy rainfall areas- soil get settled due to
    pouring rain
  • In low rainfall areas- flooding is done to notice
    the depression and filled with soil and finally
    leveled using spirit level

16
Selection of grasses
  • Most suitable in India- Hariyali- Doob grass
    Cynodon dactylon

17
Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species)
 Cynodon spp.                                    
        
18
Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species)
 Cynodon spp.                                   
         
  • Bermudagrass is a warm-season grass well adapted
    to warm regions.
  • Does best in full sun and high temperatures.
  • During extended low temperatures- will turn
    brown.
  • Bermudagrass is well adaptable - very
    water-efficient
  • Has few pest problems.
  • Both seeded and hybrid varieties are durable and
    withstand heavy use during the spring, summer,
    and early autumn months when they are actively
    growing,

19
Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species)
 Cynodon spp.                                   
         
  • Identifying tips
  • A medium to coarse-textured gray-green grass.
    Leaves are folded in the bud.
  • Hybrids are more fine-textured and vary in color
    from deep blue-green to dark green.
  • Bermudagrass loses its color and becomes dormant
    in most locations during the cooler months of
    late autumn and winter.
  • It spreads both by rhizomes and stolons.

20
Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species)
 Cynodon spp.                                   
         
  • Maintenance
  • Low to high maintenance.
  • Seeded Bermuda grass requires only moderate
    nitrogen and infrequent watering.
  • Hybrid varieties - higher maintenance because
    they require more nitrogen and a closer and more
    frequent mowing cut.
  • Regular edging will keep hybrids contained.
  • BG has a low tolerance for shade and cold
    temperatures,
  • but it can tolerate drought conditions and high
    temperatures.
  • Bermudagrass has a high tolerance for salinity.

21
Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species)
 Cynodon spp.                                   
         
  • Planting and management tips for bermudagrass
  • Mowing
  • Mow short to produce neat, restrained turf.
  • Mow frequently during warm months.
  • Mow seeded bermudagrass at 1 - 1.5 inches both
    rotary and reel lawn mowers can be used.
  • Mow hybrids at 0.5 - 0.75 inches a reel mower
    should be used.
  • Fertilizing
  • Fertilize using 2 - 4 lbs. nitrogen/1000 sq. ft.
    per year during the period of active growth
    (April - September) for seeded bermudagrass.
  • More attention is required for hybrid varieties
    fertilize using 4 - 6 lbs. Nitrogen/1000 sq. ft.
    per year during the period of active growth
    (April - September).

22
Bermuda grass (Seeded and hybrid species)
 Cynodon spp.                                    
        
  • Planting
  • Establish seeded bermudagrass from seed in areas
    where adapted.
  • Seed at 1 lb. seed/1000 sq. ft.
  • Establish hybrids vegetatively from sod, stolons
    or sprigs (4 - 6 bushels/1000 sq. ft.), and
    plugs.
  • Irrigation
  • Water infrequently.
  • Water deeply to develop a healthy root system.
  • Avoid frequent, shallow watering.
  • Special problems-
  • Bermudagrass mite, Dichondra flea beetle, Fiery
    skipper, Spring dead spot
  • Invasive
  • Hybrid bermudagrass requires frequent mowing
  • Dormant in winter

23
  • St. Augustine grass
  • Stenotaphrum secundatum
  • Other Names Buffalo grass, centipede grass 

24
Poa pratensis, commonly known as Kentucky
bluegrass, smooth meadow-grass, or common
meadow-grass,
25
Kentucky bluegrass-Poa pratensis,
  • It is a perennial species of  grass  native
    to Europe, Asia, North America, and
    northern Africa. 
  • Poa pratensis forms a valuable pasture plant,
    characteristic of well-drained, fertile soil.
  • Used for making lawns in parks and gardens and is
    common in cool moist climates

26
Kentucky bluegrass  Poa pratensis
                                           
                                           
27
Kentucky bluegrass  Poa pratensis
Boat-shaped tip and parallel-sided leaf blades
Overall plant structure of Kentucky bluegrass
28
Kentucky bluegrass  Poa pratensis
                                           
                                           
  • Qualities
  • Kentucky bluegrass is a cool-season grass
  • Its growth slows during the warm summer months.
  • prefers full sun, but will tolerate some shade.
  • It is susceptible to disease and weed invasion.
  • For a more disease resistant turf and good color
    and year-round performance, Kentucky blue grass
    is mixed with perennial rye grass.
  • Usually 2 or more cultivars of each species are
    used and it is recommended that at least 15 of
    the mixture is perennial ryegrass.

29
Kentucky bluegrass  Poa pratensis
                                           
                                           
  • Identifying tips
  • A dark-green, medium-textured turf. The new
    leaves are folded in the bud,
  • Kentucky bluegrass produces a dense turf.
  • Maintenance
  • Moderate to high maintenance.
  • Tolerate cold winters but has a relatively low
    tolerance for heat
  • Moderately drought tolerant.
  • During the summer months if stressed for water,
    Kentucky bluegrass can go dormant.
  • It has moderate wear tolerance, recovering
    quickly from some abuse.

30
Annual ryegrass  Lolium multiflorum
Also known as Italian ryegrass or winter grass,
  • Qualities
  • a cool-season grass well adapted to sunny
    conditions and moderate temperatures.
  • it is often sown at high rates to over seed
    warm-season turf grasses for fall, winter, and
    early spring color or to provide temporary cover
    for soil stabilization.
  • It is not otherwise used for turf.
  • Annual ryegrass dies in the late spring to early
    summer.
  • It often turns yellow and dies before warm-season
    grasses come out of dormancy.

31
Annual ryegrass  Lolium multiflorum
Collar of annual ryegrass
Overall plant structure of annual ryegrass
32
Annual ryegrass  Lolium multiflorum
  • Identifying tips
  • A coarse, shiny lime-green grass.
  • Leaves are rolled in the bud and long, narrow
    claw-like auricles are present.
  • Annual ryegrass is a bunchgrass with an upright
    growth habit and shallow roots.
  • Maintenance
  • Moderate to high maintenance.
  • Has low tolerance for drought, shade, and extreme
    high and low temperatures.
  • It is only moderately wear resistant.

33
Zoysiagrass  Zoysia spp.                         
                  
  • Qualities
  • It is a warm-season grass
  • adapted to warm climates.
  • slow to become establish
  •  Zoysia spp. is very water efficient with few
    pest problems.
  • It prefers full sun but will tolerate some
    shade.
  • Zoysiagrass forms a thick turf, prickly to the
    touch.

Collar of zoysiagrass
34
Zoysiagrass  Zoysia spp.                         
                  
  • Two common species
  • Zoysia tenuifolia, a fine-leafed dwarf plant used
    as ground cover,
  • Zoysia japonica, a Japanese lawn grass that is
    very drought tolerant.
  • 'Emerald', 'El Toro', 'Victoria', and 'DeAnza'
    are new varieties that tend to become established
    quickly.

35
Zoysia grass  Zoysia spp.                        
                   
  • Identifying tips
  • fine to medium-textured, dark-green grass.
  • The leaf is rolled in the bud, there are no
    auricles, and the ligule is a fringe of hairs.
    The leaf blade is stiff, short, narrow, and
    pointed.
  • Zoysia grass is a low-growing grass that spreads
    by stolons and rhizomes.
  • It is uniform, dense grass turns brown when it
    goes dormant during winter.
  • Maintenance
  • Low maintenance.
  • high tolerance for heat, drought, and heavy
    traffic.
  • tolerate some shade.
  • requires little nitrogen, however it retains
    better color during cool weather if fertilized
    during the fall.
  • difficult to mow evenly.

36
Hard fescue  Festuca longifolia
                                           
                                           
                                           
Collar of hard fescue
Overall plant structure of hard fescue
  • Qualities
  • Hard fescue is a cool-season grass often used in
    cool-season grass seed mixtures when shade is an
    expected problem.
  • It does well on low fertility soils and in shaded
    areas.
  • This species is good as a non-mowed turf for
    slopes, median strips, and non used areas of
    parks.
  • It does not recover well from severe injury.
  • It is not tolerant of high summer temperatures.

37
  • Identifying tips
  • A very fine-bladed grayish to dark-green grass.
  • The leaves are folded in the bud, there are no
    auricles, and a membranous ligule is present.
  • Hard fescue is a bunch grass with a semi-erect
    growth habit and heavy roots.
  • Maintenance
  • Low maintenance. Hard fescue is often not mowed
    and can be left unmowed (it doesn't respond well
    to close mowing).
  • It has a low fertility requirement and has a high
    tolerance for drought, shade, and cold
    temperatures.

38
Seashore paspalum  Paspalum vaginatum
                                           
  • Seashore paspalum is a very salt tolerant
    warm-season grass with desirable turf grass
    characteristics.
  • This specialty grass is sometimes used in
    warm-season areas where either the soil or
    irrigation water has a high salt content.
  • It does well near the ocean where it is subject
    to saltwater.
  • Improved cultivars have been developed.

39
Seashore paspalum  Paspalum vaginatum
                                           
  • Identifying tips
  • A medium to coarse-bladed grass
  • dense root system and an aggressive growth habit.
  • This light to medium-colored grass spreads by
    rhizomes.
  • Maintenance
  • Moderate maintenance.
  • Seashore paspalum requires moderate amounts of
    water and fertilizer and needs frequent mowing to
    maintain a low cut.
  • This species is hard to mow and is somewhat slow
    to recover from mowing damage.
  • It has a high tolerance for heat and salt and
    will tolerate some shade.
  • Seashore paspalum can tolerate some traffic and
    can recover quickly from moderate wear during
    spring and summer.

40
Buffalo grass  Buchloe dactyloides
                                           
  • Qualities
  • Buffalo grass is a warm-season grass
  • most drought-resistant grasses,
  • relatively low turf quality,
  • low shade tolerance, and
  • relatively high seed and sod cost.

41
Buffalo grass  Buchloe dactyloides
                                           
  • Identifying tips
  • fine-textured grayish-green grass.
  • low-growing grass and spreads by stolons
  • Maintenance
  • Very low maintenance.
  • survive with very little fertilizer, water, and
    mowing.
  • drought resistant
  • If not irrigated, will turn brown during the
    summer
  • it will recover well once irrigation has resumed.
  • very shade intolerant.
  • Many cultivars of this species can survive cold
    winter temperatures through dormancy.
  • Mowing before emergence from winter dormancy will
    remove brown, dead foliage and hasten spring
    green-up.

42
Rough bluegrass  Poa trivialis
                                           
  • Qualities
  • best adapted to wet, cool and shady areas.
  • A cool-season grass, it is sometimes used for
    shaded turf in the fog belt areas and
  • can be used to overseed dormant bermudagrass.

43
Rough bluegrass  Poa trivialis
                                           
  • Identifying tips
  • A fine-bladed yellow-green grass.
  • shallow root system and spreads by stolons
  • Maintenance
  • Moderate maintenance.
  • Rough bluegrass requires rich soils and a lot of
    water.
  • tolerates low temperatures,
  • not tolerate wear, heat or drought.

44
Dichondra  Dichondra spp.                        
                    
45
Dichondra  Dichondra spp.                        
                    
  • Qualities
  • Dichondra is a warm-season perennial ground
    cover,
  • best adapted for cool coastal conditions.
  • grow in partial shade, but does best in full sun.
  • Because dichondra does not tolerate heavy
    traffic, it is best adapted for small areas
    rather than large lawns or where mowing is
    difficult.
  • Broadleaf weed invasions are common and can be
    difficult to manage.
  • Identifying tips
  • A bright green ground cover with broad, circular
    leaves.
  • Dichondra is not a grass, but a low-growing
    broadleaf ground cover.
  • Maintenance
  • High maintenance for water and fertilizer.
  • requires well-drained soil and has a high
    nitrogen requirement.
  • It has a low tolerance for salinity, drought, and
    very cold temperatures but tolerates some heat.
  • Mowing is a matter of personal preference it may
    either be mowed or remain unmown.
  • Dichondra recovers only partially from moderate
    wear.

46
Red fescue  Festuca rubra                        
                    
  • Qualities
  • Red fescue is a cool-season grass
  • used in cool, shaded, mountain sites, such as
    camps, resorts, and cabins where low-input of
    mowing, fertilization, and irrigation is desired.
  • It does not do well in hot climates, except in
    shady, dry situations.
  • In areas where Kentucky bluegrass does well, red
    fescue forms an excellent companion grass to
    increase shade tolerance.
  • Red fescue germinates and establishes slowly. It
    is moderately wear resistant.

47
Red fescue  Festuca rubra                        
                    
  • Identifying tips
  • A very fine-bladed grass with a deep green color.
  • Red fescue has two distinct growing habits
  • Creeping red fescue -spreads very slow by very
    short rhizomes and
  • Chewings fescue- is a bunchgrass with an upright
    growth habit.
  • Maintenance
  • Very low maintenance.
  • It does not require much fertilizer and does not
    need excesssof water.
  • A high mowing cut is recommended.
  • has a high tolerance for cold temperatures and
    shade, moderate tolerance for drought and wear,
    and low tolerance for heat.

48
Creeping bent grass  Agrostis stolonifera
                                           
49
Creeping bent grass  Agrostis stolonifera
                                           
  • Qualities
  • Creeping bentgrass is a cool-season specialty
    grass
  • primarily used for golf course putting greens,
    lawn bowling greens, and lawn tennis facilities.
  • The skill and expense needed to maintain this
    species usually eliminates it as a possible home
    lawn turf.
  • It is adapted to cool, humid regions and prefers
    sunny areas but will tolerate some shade.
  • It tolerates low temperatures but will discolor
    early in the fall.
  • Identifying tips
  • A very fine-textured bright green grass.
  • Creeping bentgrass is a low-growing grass with a
    shallow root system.
  • It spreads by stolons to form a mat or thatch
    layer above the soil line.
  • Maintenance
  • High maintenance.
  • Creeping bentgrass requires frequent watering,
    mowing, aerating, and dethatching, and high
    levels of fertilizer.

50
Colonial bent grass  Agrostis capillaris A.
tenuis                                            
51
Colonial bent grass  Agrostis capillaris A.
tenuis                                            
  • Qualities
  • is a cool-season grass that thrives in cool
    coastal weather.
  • It does best in cool, humid weather and can
    tolerate some shade.
  • Identifying tips
  • A very fine-bladed, light-green grass.
  • Colonial bentgrass is a soft turf with upright
    leaves and a dense growth.
  • It spreads by short rhizomes that may give rise
    to short stolons.
  • Maintenance
  • Moderate to high maintenance.
  • It has a low tolerance for heat, salinity, water
    stress and traffic.
  • It requires frequent irrigation, aerating and
    dethatching, and a relatively high level of
    fertilizer.
  • Colonial bentgrass is slow to recover from
    moderate wear. 'Highland' is a cultivar of
    colonial bentgrass that tends to have a slightly
    higher tolerance for heat and drought.

52
Perennial ryegrass  Lolium perenne
                                           
53
Perennial ryegrass  Lolium perenne
                                           
  • Qualities
  • Perennial ryegrass is a very competitive
    cool-season grass,
  • best adapted to coastal regions that have
    moderate temperatures throughout the year.
  • It prefers full sun but will tolerate partial
    shade.
  • Perennial ryegrass has the highest wear-tolerance
    of any cool-season grass and can tolerate high
    traffic.
  • It is often used around homes, schools, and
    parks. Because it germinates quickly, it is often
    used for overseeding winter-dormant bermudagrass
    lawns.
  • Its rapid emergence helps to suppress weeds.
  • For a more traffic and disease-resistant turf, it
    is often mixed with Kentucky bluegrass.

54
Perennial ryegrass  Lolium perenne
                                           
  • Identifying tips
  • A fine-textured, rich green grass with the leaf
    folded in the bud.
  • Leaf margins are parallel, the back of the leaf
    is shiny, and the tips of the leaf blades are
    tapered.
  • The collar usually has outgrowths (auricles) that
    clasp the stem.
  • Ryegrass may form clumps where marginally
    adapted. There are no rhizomes or stolons.
  • Perennial ryegrass has a bunchgrass-type growth
    habit.
  • Maintenance
  • Moderate to high maintenance.
  • It has a moderately low tolerance for heat,
    shade, and drought and a high tolerance for cold
    temperatures.

55
Tall fescue  Festuca arundinacea
                                           
56
Tall fescue  Festuca arundinacea
                                           
  • Qualities
  • Tall fescue is a cool-season grass, well adapted
    to sunny or partially shady areas.
  • When densely sown, a pure stand forms a moderate
    to coarse-textured lawn that is uniform in
    appearance with good weed and disease resistance.
  • Tall fescue tolerates warm summer temperatures
    and stays green during cool, but not severe
    winter conditions.
  • New varieties that are finer in texture and
    shorter in stature are known as turf-type tall
    fescues and dwarf turf-type tall fescues. Tall
    fescue is a good species to plant for general
    lawn use and is the most common lawn grass in
    California.

57
Tall fescue  Festuca arundinacea
                                           
  • Identifying tips
  • A coarse-textured medium to dark-green grass.
    Leaves are rolled in the bud. It has short,
    rounded auricles, a short membranous ligule, and
    an extensive root system. Because tall fescue has
    a bunch-type growth habit rather than a
    creeping-type, open areas may develop and need to
    be reseeded.
  • Maintenance
  • Low maintenance. Tall fescue has excellent
    tolerance for heat stress and drought. It will
    tolerate moderate traffic and infrequent mowing.
    This species is not well adapted to high
    altitudes.

58
Kikuyugrass   Pennisetum   clandestinum
Collar of kikuyugrass
Overall plant structure of kikuyugrass
59
Kikuyugrass   Pennisetum   clandestinum
  • Qualities
  • Kikuyugrass is a warm-season grass
  • spreads quickly and thrives in areas with
    moderate temperatures. I
  • tolerate heat and will do well under relatively
    shady conditions.
  • It is seldom established as a desired turfgrass.
  • It has a low disease incidence and is susceptible
    to cold but is able to recover quickly from
    moderate wear or severe injury.
  • Although once considered to be primarily a weed,
    kikuyugrass is now sometimes managed as a turf
    species.
  • Identifying tips
  • A coarse-textured, light green grass, sometimes
    mistaken for St. Augustinegrass.
  • The leaves are folded in the bud, the ligule is a
    fringe of hairs, and there are no auricles.
  • It has slightly flattened, hairy leaf sheaths and
    tapering leaf blades with files of hairs.
    Kikuyugrass spreads by its thick rhizomes and
    vigorous stolons.

60
St. Augustinegrass  Stenotaphrum secundatum
                                           
61
  • Qualities
  • St. Augustinegrass, along with bermudagrass and
    zoysiagrass, is a warm-season turfgrass. In areas
    where it is well adapted, it is water efficient
    and has few pest problems. St. Augustinegrass is
    used in the most moderate California climate
    zones, along the Southern California coast or in
    coastal valleys. It prefers full sun, but has a
    high tolerance for shade. It grows quickly during
    the summer months, but slows down during the
    spring and fall and enters a dormancy period in
    the late autumn and during the winter months.
    Because St. Augustinegrass is not wear tolerant,
    it is used for lawns and general purpose turf,
    but not for high traffic sports turf.
  • Identifying tips
  • A broad-bladed, medium-green grass. Leaves are
    folded in the bud, there are no auricles, the
    ligule is a fringe of hairs, and the leaf blades
    are wide with a boat-shaped tip. The leaf sheath
    is flattened and the collar narrows to form a
    short stalk or petiole for the leaf blade. St.
    Augustinegrass has a creeping growth habit and is
    propagated by stolons that form shoots at every
    node. It forms a dense prostrate turf that is
    virtually weed free.
  • Maintenance
  • Moderate maintenance. St. Augustinegrass requires
    a high amount of nitrogen per year. It has a high
    tolerance for shade and heat but a poor tolerance
    for cold temperatures. It is drought and salt
    tolerant. Thatch is a severe problem. If not
    regularly dethatched, St. Augustinegrass can be
    difficult to mow.

62
Turf adaptations and tolerancesnot adapted to
hot climates When planted as a blended turf,
this species can be grown successfully in
warm-season areas if properly managed.
Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates
Turf species Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Temperature adaptation Planting method
Turf species Cold Drought Shade Salinity Wear/ Traffic Temperature adaptation Planting method
Annual ryegrass Low Low Low Low Low Cool season(CS) Seed
Colonial bentgrass High Low Moderate Low Low (CS) Seed, sod, plugs
Creeping bentgrass High Low Moderate Moderate Low (CS) Seed, sod, plugs
Hard fescue High High High Low Low (CS) Seed, sod
Kentucky bluegrass High Low Moderate Low Moderate (CS) Seed, sod
Perennial ryegrass High Low Low Moderate High (CS) Seed, sod
Red fescue High Mod. High Low Moderate (CS) Seed, sod
Rough bluegrass High Low High Low Low (CS) Seed
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Turf adaptations and tolerances somewhat adapted
to summer heat
Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat Turf species somewhat adapted to summer heat
Turf species Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Temperature adaptation Planting method
Turf species Cold Drought Shade Salinity Wear/ Traffic Temperature adaptation Planting method
Dichondra Low Low Moderate Low Low Warm-season Seed, plugs
Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat
Turf species Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Temperature adaptation Planting method
Turf species Cold Drought Shade Salinity Wear/Traffic Temperature adaptation Planting method
Bermudagrass Low High Low High High Warm-season Seed, sod, stolons, sprigs, plugs
Buffalograss Moderate High Low Low Low Warm-season Seed, sod, plugs
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Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat Turf species well adapted to summer heat
Turf species Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Temperature adaptation Planting method
Turf species Cold Drought Shade Salinity Wear/Traffic Temperature adaptation Planting method
Kikuyugrass Low High Moderate Moderate High Warm-season Sod, stolons
Seashore paspalum Low Moderate Moderate High Moderate Warm-season Sod, stolons
St. Augustinegrass Low Moderate High High Moderate Warm-season Sod, stolons
Tall fescue Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate-high Cool-season Seed, sod
Zoysiagrass Low - moderate High Moderate-high Moderate High Warm-season Sprigs, sod
Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat. Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat. Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat. Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat. Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat. Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat. Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat. Tall fescue has moderate to high tolerance for heat.
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Turf adaptations and tolerancesnot adapted to
hot climates When planted as a blended turf,
this species can be grown successfully in
warm-season areas if properly managed.
Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates Turf species not adapted to hot climates
Turf species Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Temperature adaptation Planting method
Turf species Cold Drought Shade Salinity Wear/Traffic Temperature adaptation Planting method
Annual ryegrass Low Low Low Low Low Cool-season Seed
Colonial bentgrass High Low Moderate Low Low Cool-season Seed, sod, plugs
Creeping bentgrass High Low Moderate Moderate Low Cool-season Seed, sod, plugs
Hard fescue High High High Low Low Cool-season Seed, sod
Kentucky bluegrass High Low Moderate Low Moderate Cool-season Seed, sod
Perennial ryegrass High Low Low Moderate High Cool-season Seed, sod
Red fescue High Moderate High Low Moderate Cool-season Seed, sod
Rough bluegrass High Low High Low Low Cool-season Seed
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Bermuda grass
Centipede grass
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St. Augustine
Zoysia
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Bahia
Creeping red fescue
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Tall fescue
Creeping bent
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Annual rye
Kentucky blue
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Winter grass
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  • Land Preparation
  • The germinated weeds during this period can be
    easily removed before next watering spray non
    selective type of herbicides paraquat/gramaxone(1-
    1.5 lit /ha)800-1000
  • After the soil has settled, level the soil by
    filling depressions repeat rolling.
  • A gradual slope from the centre to the edges is
    always preferred to facilitate drainage of excess
    water during heavy rains and irrigation drainage.
  • In small lawns where the soil is not so sticky
    necessary arrangement of drainage may not be
    necessary.

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PLANTING OF GRASS.
  • Planting of grass can be done at anytime of the
    year.
  • But in the tropical country like India it is
    better to start the work of planting the grass in
    the beginning of rainy season, because grass
    thus planted will get quicker growth and better
    establishment..

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a KOREAN GRASS.
  • This grass is native of Japan and Korea.
  • It has recently been introduced in India
  • Korean grass has velvety growth besides having
    more tolerance to cold.
  • This grass is highly suitable for making lawn in
    small areas and home gardens.

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b DOOB OR BERMUDA GRASS.
  • It is used very commonly for making lawn due to
    its faster growth, hardiness, less water
    requirements.
  • This grass makes excellent turf.
  • it can be grown on any type of soil.

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Method of planting Grasses
  1. Seed sowing
  2. Dibbling
  3. Turfing
  4. Bricking
  5. Turf plastering
  6. Planting on polythene sheet

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1. SEED SOWING.
  • Before sowing of seeds divide the entire plot.
  • It should be 200 -300sq meter.
  • 500 gm Of seed will be required for 200 sq metre
    area.
  • The entire amount of seeds should be mixed with
    double the quantity of fine soil.
  • Then the soil should be raked over in two
    directions so as to mix the seeds uniformly with
    the soil.
  • Then the ground should be rolled..
  • Then watering must be done.

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1. SEED SOWING.
  • The seeds will germinate within 3-5 weeks.
  • After few weeks when the grass attains the
    height of about 4-5 cm the first cutting should
    be done and then the surface is rolled.
  • The grass on the lawn should never be allowed to
    grow more than 5 cm.

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2. DIBBLING.
  • It is cheapest and slowest method of lawn making
    but it is the most common method.
  • A small bunch of grass along with roots and
    little stem is taken.
  • Planting is done at a spacing of 7-9 cm apart
    both row to row and plant to plant, preferably
    when the soil is slightly moist.
  • The roots spread and grow underground in the
    course of 3-4 months making a fairly compact lawn.

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3. TURFING
  • It is also called sod method quickest method of
    forming a lawn.
  • Small pieces of well prepared lawn or turf are
    cut into square or rectangular shape preferably.
  • Turf is a piece of earth with compact grass on
    it. Selected small piece of grass should be cut
    uniformly thick selected from a place free from
    weeds and grasses along with soil are placed on
    prepared ground side by side closely
  • Slightly beat down flat into position.
  • Any cavity or interspaces found should be filled
    with fine soil.
  • It is the most costly way of making a lawn.

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TURF
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4. BRICKING
  • It is done to replace few unhealthy patches in a
    well maintained lawn.
  • In this methods pieces of lawn along with soil in
    the shape of bricks are planted and watered
    immediately.

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5. Turf Plastering method
  • Grass roots with little stem of 4-5 cm long
    pieces are mixed with garden soil, fresh cow dung
    water and roots i e., rhizomes or stolons of doob
    grass.
  • Spread this paste evenly over prepared field
    during raining season.
  • It is then covered by 2 cm soil and watered
    regularly.

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6.PLANTING ON POLYTHENE SHEET.
  • In this method lawn is grown on thick
    polyethylene (800 gauge thickness)
  • First cut the polyethylene into suitable pieces
    of desired dimension.
  • Spread a mixture of soil (3-4 cm thick) over the
    polyethylene sheets grow grass on it.
  • It can be rolled and taken when temporary effect
    is to be created.

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Maintenance of lawn
  • Once the lawn has established it needs
    maintenance.
  • To retain of the texture of the turf and its
    uniform colour, the lawn is raked, aerated and
    top dressed with fertilizers kept weed free
    since it is the focal point of any landscape
    design an improperly cared or badly maintained
    lawn can spoil the beauty of the complete garden.

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Maintenance of lawn
  • Lawn rolling
  • Mowing
  • Manuring
  • Scraping
  • Raking
  • Watering and
  • Weeding

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Rolling
  • The purpose of rolling is to bring the grass in
    contact with the soil and also to keep the ground
    levelled
  • After the first shower of rain, roll, thoroughly
    with medium roller both ways to make the level
    correct.
  • Avoid rolling when the soil is too wet.
  • The lawn should be rolled after every weeding or
    at weekly intervals.

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Mowing
  • Mowing is the process of cutting turfgrasses
    using lawn mowers to improve aesthetics,
    appearance of area, to provide a good playing
    surface for a game and to control the weed growth

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Moving
  • Moving is important operation to get good quality
    and healthy lawn
  • Regular mowing of lawn is also as essential as
    watering.
  • Moving frequency varies with season and type of
    grass
  • Never allow the grass to grow more than 6 cm
    high.
  • During winter the lawns require mowing once or
    twice a week.
  • Mower Machine used for cutting grass or other
    plants grow in the lawn

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  • Mowing frequency The number of times a turf
    grass community is mowed per week, month or
    growing season
  • Mowing height The distance at which the ground
    surface at which the turfgrass is cut during
    mowing
  • Mowing interval The reciprocal of mowing
    frequency is mowing interval i.e., the number of
    days, week etc., between successive mowing
  • Mowing pattern It is the pattern of back and
    forth travel while mowing turf. Pattern may be
    changed regularly to distribute wear and
    compaction to avoid creating grain and to
    create visually aesthetic effects, especially for
    spectaror sports

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ROLLER
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LAWN MOWER
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MOWER CYCLE
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Top dressing and manuring
  • For continuous and healthy growth of lawn
    continuous supply of nutrients is important.
  • FYM -100kg/ 100m2
  • Bone meal-1kg/10m2
  • The application of 50gms mixture/sq.mt during
    rainy season (August September) Feb-March
    helps to maintain a good growth of grass.
  • The mixture will contain 2 parts CAN, 1 part SSP
    and 1 part of potassium sulphate.
  • Spraying of urea _at_2g/litre of water is also
    useful to produce good growth of grass.
  • A top dressing of garden soil course sand and
    screened leaf mould with addition to bone meal in
    121 proportion should be applied followed by
    raking and scraping. A quantity of 100kg to
    cover an area of 100 sq.mt to a depth of 2 cm is
    sufficient,
  • It can be repeated for every 2-3 weeks.

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Scraping and raking
  • Scraping and raking are always beneficial to
    maintain the tenderness of the lawn.
  • Due to constant rolling and mowing a hard crust
    forms on the surface and lower part of the grass
    become woody.
  • Before rainy season that is May or June the
    entire lawn should be scraped completely with a
    Khurpi followed by raking in both ways.
  • If the condition of lawn is good only raking is
    sufficient to loosen soils.
  • Then mow the grass thoroughly until the old
    stumps/runners is well trimmed and expose to sun.

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Watering
  • Lawn need regular water supply for its continuous
    growth.
  • Watering must be thorough and as frequent
    depending upon the weather conditions.
  • Frequent watering is beneficial rather than heavy
    watering at long interval.
  • Heavy watering may encourage the deep rooting
    weeds to come up

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Irrigation
  • Sprinkler irrigation is the best method for
    watering lawn for even distribution of water.
  • Pure water should be used as saline or brackish
    water burns the grass specially during summer.
  • Winter dew is very beneficial for lawn.

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Weeding
  • Weeds compete and make grass and less vigorous.
    Hence, weeds should be controlled either by
    manual weeding or by using chemicals.
  • Weeds should be removed at regular intervals as
    and when seen.
  • More frequent weeding is required in rainy season
    than in the winter months.
  • Weedicide 2,4-D is the most effective chemical
    used for lawn weeding.

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Pests
  • Termites Termites attack in summer months
  • Termites attack stem roots.
  • Management
  • Heavy watering
  • Application phorate/neem cake or pongamia cake

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Pests
  • Whitefly
  • Symptoms Green colour turn to pale dull to grey
  • CM Spray systemic insecticides.
  • Mealy bugs Mostly attacks Bermuda hybrid grass
    in summer months.

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Pests
  • Brown patches
  • Management
  • Drenching of systemic pesticides / phorate.
  • Maintain high moisture levels in summer months.

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Brown patches
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Pests
  • Root grubs It is minor lawn pest.
  • CM Drenching of systemic pesticide.
  • Slugs They are seen in water logged conditions
    Can be controlled by liming, or keeping gunny
    bags wetted with salt water

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Diseases
  • Damping off It appears mainly due to water
    stagnation and poor drainage of the lawn.
  • Fairy ring causal organisms Marasmius
    ordeades, Psalliota compestris, Leipiota
    morgani
  • Symptoms
  • These fungi cause circular rings on the grass.
    Rings may not be complete with an appearance and
    are of horse shoe shape. Grass turns brown,
    rings, widen in circles from few centi metres to
    meters.
  • Control measures Drenching of soil with Bordeaux
    mixture or spraying of copper fungicides like coc
    _at_ 0.3, Blitox _at_ 5g/litre of water.

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Other problems
  • Yellowing of lawn
  • More prevalent in wet weather
  • It is caused by water logging in heavy rainfall
    areas and lack of water.
  • Deficiency of Nitrogen.
  • Hardening of a soil, which creates oxygen
    deficiency in roots.
  • Management
  • loosening of soil with help of Khurpi or raking
    reduces yellowing.
  • Controlled by drenching with COC or Dithane M-45_at_
    3g/lit or Bavistin 1g/litre

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Other problems
  • Frost Injury
  • In cold region grass is injured due to frost
  • In N India grass is injury is due to frost
  • Management
  • Spraying of water in the every evening and early
    in the morning after the frost

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Other problems
  • Thatching
  • Formation of straw like layers of dead stems,
    leaves and roots of grasses is called thatching
  • It can be controlled by manual removal
  • Earthworms
  • Affect lawn by depositing their extreta
  • Cause a circular ring of thin coloued or dead
    grass
  • Control- Bavistin drenching 1g/l or Dithane
    M-45_at_3g/l, Neem or Pongamia cake _at_500g/sqm
    applied before rainy season
  • Termites
  • Controlled by application of Phorat/Thimet

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SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
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RAKER
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DISEASES
1 -FAIRY RING.
  • This is caused by the soil borne fungi.
  • The fungi produce a circular ring like
    appearance on the leaves.
  • Rings may not be complete and give the appearance
    like horse shoe.
  • This disease can be controlled by drenching the
    soil with blitox_at_ 5 g/litre of water.

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www.lawngrasses.com http//www.lawn.co.uk http//w
ww.ipm.ucdavis.edu/ Bose TK, Maiti RG, Dhua RS
and Das P. 1999. Floriculture and Landscaping.
Naya Prokash. Nambisan KMP.1992. Design
Elements of Landscape Gardening. Oxford IBH.
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