Title: Teaching grammar and vocabulary with collocations
1 International Language Schools Teaching grammar and vocabulary with collocations
www.ef.com 2 Luca Marchiori Luca Marchiori has been involved in ESOL since 1992, as a teacher, Director of Studies and a materials developer with companies including Oxford University Press. He was previously Director of Studies at the EF International School of English in Bournemouth, before joining the Efekta team full time. He holds the Cambridge / RSA Diploma in TEFLA as well as an M.Ed. In Educational Technology and English Language Teaching. International Language Schools www.ef.com 3 Welcome Welcome to the lecture
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International Language Schools www.ef.com 4 Main Topics
What are collocations and why are they important?
How can a knowledge of collocation help us in our teaching?
What practical things can we do?
International Language Schools www.ef.com 5 Outline of Presentation
What does collocation actually mean?
Summary and Questions Answers
International Language Schools www.ef.com 6 Michael Lewis (1993) The Lexical Approach Hove LTP International Language Schools www.ef.com 7 What does collocation actually mean?
When two words co-occur, or are used together frequently, they are said to collocate.
Gairns and Redman (1986)
Some pairs of words occur together very rarely but other pairs occur together so often that when you see one word, you strongly expect that the other word might be there too.
Hill and Lewis (1997)
Two words collocate if they occur together with more than random frequency.
A collocation is a pair or group of words that are often used together. These combinations sound natural to native speakers, but students of English have to make a special effort to learn them
McCarthy and ODell (2005)
Collocation is the tendency of words to be biased in the way they co-occur.
International Language Schools www.ef.com 8 Examples
drive a car
salt and pepper
I look forward to hearing from you.
International Language Schools www.ef.com 9 Taxonomies of lexical chunks International Language Schools www.ef.com 10 Grammar vs. collocation The cat sat on the elephant. Ill be right back! Slide 14 International Language Schools 11 Why learn collocations?
Learning collocations is a good idea because they can
Give you the most natural way to say something smoking is strictly forbidden is more natural than smoking is strongly forbidden
give you alternative ways of saying something, which may be more colourful / expressive or more precise instead of repeating It was very cold and very dark, we can say It was bitterly cold and pitch dark
Improve your style in writing instead of saying poverty causes crime, you can say poverty breeds crime instead of saying a big meal you can say a substantial meal. You may not need or want to use these in informal conversations, but in writing they can give your text more variety and make it read better
McCarthy and ODell (2005)
Slide 14 International Language Schools 12 Noticing Teachers in English secondary schools will be given more freedom to tailor lessons to pupils than they have for 20 years, the government's curriculum watchdog promised today. Launching a wide-ranging consultation on the national curriculum for 11 to 14-year olds, Ken Boston, the chief executive of the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, said the proposed programmes of study would give teachers a "more flexible, less prescriptive framework for teaching". The education secretary, Alan Johnson, promised "more flexibility for teachers, more interesting for pupils". He added "These proposals move us away from a 'one size fits all' curriculum to one that offers more flexibility to tailor teaching to pupils' needs and aspirations." The Guardian 3 February 2007
Underline all nouns
Underline the verb used before the noun
Underline the whole phrase
(from Hill, Lewis and Lewis (2000))
This produces such phrases as
be given more freedom to
to tailor lessons
launch a wide-ranging consultation
International Language Schools www.ef.com 13 Noticing using corpora (Team Manager), Sue Lore and Janet Sutton." NOTICE BOARD Three ACET staff members, Peter me, I hope to continue for some time yet. NOTICE BOARD Maurice Adams, General Manager of But often the person infected doesn't notice anything wrong. What to do If you're worried volunteer coordinator and give us as much notice as possible. ACET volunteers carry out the "counter-revolutionary rebellion". A court notice reported the economic loss of the two vehicles, investigate allegations of torture brought to its notice, appears to be condoning the use of torture. AI the newspaper Al-Fajr to close until further notice on 8 February 1991. Hamadi Jebali's sentence knowing by a reader, who may occasionally notice that it underlies the degree of attention being Several features of its history are worth notice. for one thing, the group did not choose the than one review of any exhibition. The notice board at a show where notices are pinned up http//view.byu.edu/ http//www.collins.co.uk/Corp us/CorpusSearch.aspx International Language Schools www.ef.com 14 Practical ideas vocabulary Recording activities Choose from these words five of which make strong word partnerships in business English with each of the verbs below Bill presentation costs invoice discount Debt lunch message expenses deal Service calcul ation mistake money promise Lewis (1996a 92) International Language Schools www.ef.com 15 Practical ideas vocabulary
One verb in each line does not collocate with the noun. Cross out the one which does not fit.
accept, act on, disregard, follow, ignore, make, solicit, take ADVICE
Come up with, do, expect, get, require, supply AN ANSWER
Build up, close down, set up, put off, take over, wind up A BUSINESS
Deal with, do, examine, ignore, reject, respond to A COMPLAINT
Accept, answer, come in for, give rise to, make, reject CRITICISM
6. describe, do enjoy, have, recall, share AN EXPERIENCE
Hill, Lewis and Lewis (2000 113)
International Language Schools www.ef.com 16 Practical ideas grammar
Teach structures as phrases at lower levels
e.g. Ive just / nearly / almost finished.
Teach word grammar as collocation
e.g. gerunds and infinitives, dependent prepositions
The grammar of collocation
Grammar of keywords (Thornbury 2004)
International Language Schools www.ef.com 17 Further reading Gairns, Ruth and Redman Stuart (1986) Working with words Cambridge CUP Hill, Jimmie and Lewis, Michael (1997) The LTP dictionary of selected collocations Hove LTP Hill, Jimmie, Lewis, Morgan and Lewis Michael (2000) Classroom strategies, activities and exercises in Lewis, Michael ed. Teaching collocation Boston Thomson Heinle Hunston, Susan (2002) Corpora in applied linguistics Cambridge CUP Lewis, Michael (1993) The lexical approach Hove LTP Lewis, Michael (1996) Implications of a lexical view of language in Willis, J and Willis D, eds. Challenge and change in language teaching Oxford Macmillan Heinemann Lewis, Michael (1996a) Implementing the lexical approach Hove LTP McCarthy, Michael and ODell, Felicity (2005) English collocations in use Cambridge CUP Thornbury, Scott (2002) How to teach vocabulary Harlow Longman Thornbury, Scott (2004) Natural grammar Oxford OUP International Language Schools www.ef.com 18 International Language Schools www.ef.com 19 Next lecture International Language Schools Join the next online lecture! www.ef.com/teache r