Fundamentals of Organizational Communication

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Fundamentals of Organizational Communication

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Title: Fundamentals of Organizational Communication


1
Fundamentals of Organizational Communication
  • Communication Implications of Major
    Organizational Theories
  • Chapter 4

2
The Scientific Management School
  • Scientific Management perspective
  • theoretical approach to organizations that
    emphasizes organizational design,worker training
    for efficiency, chains of command, and division
    of labor. The perspective rests on the assumption
    that work and organizations can be rationally or
    scientifically designed and developed.

3
Major Scientific Management Theories
  • Principles of Scientific Management Frederick
    Taylor (1856-1915)
  • Four Essential Elements
  • Careful selection of workers
  • Inducing and training the worker by the
    scientific method
  • Equal division of work between management and
    workers
  • Discovering the scientific method for tasks and
    jobs

4
Major Scientific Management Theories
  • Principles of Scientific Management Frederick
    Taylor (1856-1915)
  • Time and Motion Study
  • a technique for determining the efficiency of
    production through work observation and time
    measurements used to develop work standards that
    can be measured for efficiency.

5
Major Scientific Management Theories
  • Principles of Management Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
  • Credited with the first known attempt to describe
    broad principles of management for the
    organization and conduct of business.

6
Fourteen Principles of Management Henri Fayol
  • Division of work
  • Authority
  • Discipline
  • Unity of Command
  • Unity of direction
  • Subordination of individual interests to the
    general interest
  • Remuneration
  • Centralization
  • Scalar chain
  • Order
  • Equity
  • Stability of tenure of personnel
  • Initiative
  • Esprit de corps

7
Fourteen Principles of Management Henri Fayol
  • His discussion of the scalar chain is the only
    known treatment of horizontal communication found
    in organizational literature until the writings
    of Chester Barnard in 1938.
  • the chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate
    authority to the lowest ranks

8
Principles of Bureaucracy Max Weber (1864-1920)
  • The father of bureaucracy
  • Three types of authority
  • Charismatic
  • Traditional
  • Bureaucratic

9
Principles of Bureaucracy Max Weber
  • Bureaucracy
  • organizations based on formalized rules,
    regulations, and procedures, which make authority
    rational as opposed to charismatic or
    traditional.
  • Chain of command
  • the formal authority and reporting structure of
    an organization.

10
Communication Implications of Scientific
Management Theories
  • Communication was to be a tool of management
    designed to facilitate task completion
  • Train employees
  • Give daily instructions
  • Communication was to be formal
  • Messages primarily from supervisors to
    subordinates

11
Communication Implications of Scientific
Management Theories
  • Communication was viewed as rational and
    functioning to reduce uncertainty about task
    expectations and measurement

12
Communication Implications of Scientific
Management Theories
  • The Functional approach to organizational
    communication can be used to describe
    communication implications from the Scientific
    Management viewpoint.
  • Organizational communication functioned to
    organize task performance and to clarify rules
    and regulations.

13
Communication Implications of Scientific
Management Theories
  • The Functional approach
  • Scientific Management theorists described
    messages as flowing via the chain of command
    primarily in a downward direction.

14
Communication Implications of Scientific
Management Theories
  • The Meaning-Centered approach
  • Communication was described as a variable of the
    organization controlled by management
  • Culture was not a primary consideration
  • Decision making was another organizational
    variable controlled by management

15
Communication Implications of Scientific
Management Theories
  • The Emerging Perspectives
  • Scientific Management theorists did not consider
    abuses of power, as evidenced in the Emerging
    Perspectives, and readily supported a legitimate
    power within the control of management.

16
Scientific Management Theories in Contemporary
Organizations
  • A careful examination of most contemporary
    organizations reveals numerous Scientific
    Management principles still in operation.
  • Local, state, and national governments are also
    organized with many of these principles.

17
The Human Behavior School
  • The Human Behavior school shifts the emphasis
    from the structure of organizations, work design,
    and measurement to the interactions of
    individuals, their motivations, and their
    influence on organizational events.

18
The Human Behavior School
  • The Human Behavior Perspective assumes that work
    is accomplished through people and emphasizes
    cooperation, participation, satisfaction, and
    interpersonal skills.

19
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Principles of Coordination Mary Parker Follett
    (1868-1933)
  • Best known for her true principles of
    organizations based on a stable foundation for
    the steady, ordered progress of human well-being.
  • Characterized conflict as potentially
    constructive and described collective
    responsibility and integration as supportive of
    business excellence.

20
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Principles of Coordination Mary Parker Follett
    (1868-1933)
  • Four Active Principles
  • Coordination by direct contact of the responsible
    people concerned
  • Coordination in the early stages
  • Coordination as a reciprocal relation of all the
    features in a situation
  • Coordination as a continuing process.

21
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • The Hawthorne Effect Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
  • When the famous Hawthorne studies began, Mayo was
    experimenting with the alteration of physical
    working conditions to increase productivity.
  • They became aware that other unexpected factors
    were interacting with physical factors to
    influence work output.

22
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • The Hawthorne Effect Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
  • Output increased not matter how the physical
    variables were changed. Mayo and his colleagues
    came to understand that a powerful and previously
    unrecognized influence in the experimental
    setting was the attention the researchers were
    paying to the workers.

23
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • The Hawthorne Effect Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
  • As a result of the Hawthorne research, production
    could no longer be viewed as solely dependent on
    formal job and organizational design.

24
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • The Hawthorne Effect Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
  • This effect, widely know as the Hawthorne effect,
    was the first documentation in industrial
    psychological research of the importance of human
    interaction and morale for productivity

25
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor
    (1906-1964)
  • McGregors description of management assumptions
    about workers. Theory X characterizes assumptions
    underlying Scientific Management theory, and
    Theory Y is associated with assumptions common to
    Human Behavior perspectives. Theory X managers
    assume workers dislike work and will avoid
    responsible labor. Theory Y managers believe that
    workers can be self-directed and self-controlled.

26
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor
    (1906-1964)
  • McGregor has been criticized for what some have
    called a polarized either/or approach to human
    nature. McGregor has responded that Theory X and
    Theory Y are assumptions that may be better
    understood as ranges of behaviors from X to Y.

27
Theory X and Theory Y
28
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Participative Management Rensis Likert
    (1903-1981)
  • Likerts theory of employee-centered management
    based on effectively functioning groups linked
    together structurally throughout the organization

29
Likerts Linking Pin Concept
30
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Participative Management Rensis Likert
    (1903-1981)
  • Taylor had interpreted variability in performance
    as a need to establish specific procedures and
    production standards Likerts interpretation
    called for an increase in participation by
    organizational members at all levels.

31
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Participative Management Rensis Likert
    (1903-1981)
  • Likerts (1960) attitude toward communication was
    clear when he stated Communication is essential
    to the functioning of an organization. It is
    viewed widely as one of the most important
    processes of management.

32
Major Human Behavior Theories
  • Participative Management Rensis Likert
    (1903-1981)
  • Likerts research also revealed that productivity
    was high in groups in which the supervisor and
    subordinate shared reasonable accurate
    perceptions of each other. Likert concluded from
    this finding that good communication and high
    performance go together.

33
Communication Implications of Human Behavior
Theories
  • Effective communication was a cornerstone of the
    Human Behavior perspective.
  • Interactions at all levels were expected to be
    extensive and friendly, with substantial
    cooperation throughout the organization.

34
Communication Implications of Human Behavior
Theories
  • Functional Approach
  • The Human Behavior viewpoint saw a more complex
    role for communication than the Scientific
    Management theorists envisioned.
  • The relationship function of organizational
    communication was considered significant.
  • The change function of communication was
    everyones responsibility

35
Communication Implications of Human Behavior
Theories
  • Meaning-Centered Approach
  • Communication was better understood in the Human
    Behavior perspective than in the Scientific
    Management approach.

36
Communication Implications of Human Behavior
Theories
  • Meaning-Centered Approach
  • The Human Behavior perspective exhibits more
    concern with worker participation and
    satisfaction than do Scientific Management
    theories.

37
Communication Implications of Human Behavior
Theories
  • Emerging Perspectives
  • Despite this concern for participation, Human
    Behavior theorists pay little attention to the
    concerns of power and how communication
    constitutes organizing, decision making, and
    influence.
  • Women and other marginalized voices are not
    included as concerns.

38
Human Behavior Theories in Contemporary
Organizations
  • Most contemporary organizations include not only
    Scientific Management ideas but also much of the
    thinking generated from the Human Behavior
    theorists.

39
The Integrated Perspectives School
  • Theories that attempt to explain how people,
    technologies, and environments integrate to
    influence goal-directed behavior.

40
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Process and environmental approaches to
    organizational theory attempt to describe how
    complex processes such as decision making
    influence the internal operation of organizations
    and are influenced by external environments

41
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Decision-Making Approach
  • Sociotechnical Integration
  • Contingency Theory
  • The Systems Approach
  • The New Systems Approaches Flux,
    Transformation, Quantum Physics, Self-Organizing
    Systems, and Chaos Theory
  • Learning Organizations

42
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Decision-Making Approach Herbert Simon (1916- )
  • Simons concept that organizational behavior is a
    complex network of decisions, with
    decision-making processes influencing the
    behavior of the entire organization.

43
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Decision-Making Approach Herbert Simon (1916- )
  • Bounded rationality - assumption that people
    intend to be rational, but with limited
    information-processing capacity human decision
    making is based on selective perception and
    therefore exhibits limited rationality.

44
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Decision-Making Approach Herbert Simon (1916- )
  • He described decision making as the fundamental
    organizational process. Decision making, he said,
    occurs through the communication behaviors of
    individuals who intend rationality but can only
    approach rationality because of limited
    information-processing capacity.

45
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Sociotechnical Integration Eric L. Trist
    (1909-1993) and Kenneth W. Bamforth
  • theoretical attempt to balance human
    social-psychological needs with organizational
    goals

46
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Sociotechnical Integration Eric L. Trist
    (1909-1993) and Kenneth W. Bamforth
  • Two Assumptions
  • Assumed that organizational production is
    optimized through optimizing social and technical
    systems
  • Assumed a constant interchange exists between the
    work system and the broader environment.

47
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Sociotechnical Integration Eric L. Trist
    (1909-1993) and Kenneth W. Bamforth
  • Their experiments led them to conclude that
    meaning in work could be established through
    group assignments that permit individuals to be
    included in entire task cycles rather than
    working on isolated parts of a job.

48
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Contingency Theory Joan Woodward (1916)-1971),
    Paul Lawrence (1922- ), and Jay Lorsch (1932- )
  • Approach that rejects the one best way to
    organize in favor of the view that no specific
    set of prescriptions is appropriate for all
    organizations. As such, organizations must adapt
    to changing circumstances, the needs of
    individuals, and the environment in which the
    organization operates.

49
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Contingency Theory Joan Woodward (1916)-1971),
    Paul Lawrence (1922- ), and Jay Lorsch (1932- )
  • Contingency theory suggests that considerable
    judgment is required to understand effective
    organizational operation because that operation
    all depends on the situation.

50
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • The Systems Approach Daniel Katz (1903-1998) and
    Robert Kahn (1918- )
  • Describes organizations as made up of subsystems,
    which take in materials and human resources,
    process materials and resources, and yield a
    finished product to the larger environment.

51
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • The New Systems Approach Flux, Transformation,
    Quantum Physics, Self-Organizing Systems, and
    Chaos Theory Gareth Morgan (1943- ) and Margaret
    Wheatley (1944- )
  • Autopoiesis - process describing each element in
    a system simultaneously combining the maintenance
    of itself with the maintenance of the other
    elements of the system.

52
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • The New Systems Approach Flux, Transformation,
    Quantum Physics, Self-Organizing Systems, and
    Chaos Theory Gareth Morgan (1943- ) and Margaret
    Wheatley (1944- )
  • Dissipative Structures - descriptions of
    structures when a loss of energy and form
    contribute to disequilibrium, which in turn
    contributes to growth and new structures and
    forms.

53
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • The New Systems Approach Flux, Transformation,
    Quantum Physics, Self-Organizing Systems, and
    Chaos Theory Gareth Morgan (1943- ) and Margaret
    Wheatley (1944- )
  • Self-organizing/Self-renewing Systems - processes
    occurring when disturbances amplify stimulating
    reconfigurations to deal with new information.
  • Chaos Theory - description of systems disturbed
    from stable states of unpredictability.

54
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Learning Organizations Peter Senge and Gareth
    Morgan (1943- )
  • Organizations gaining knowledge from continuous
    processes of information exchange between the
    organization and its environment.
  • Double-loop Learning the process of learning
    (single-loop) vs. the process of learning to
    learn (double loop)

55
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Learning Organizations Peter Senge and Gareth
    Morgan (1943- )
  • Senges Five Disciplines
  • System Thinking
  • Personal Mastery
  • Mental Models
  • Building Shared Vision
  • Team Learning

56
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Process
and Environmental Approaches
  • Learning Organizations Peter Senge and Gareth
    Morgan (1943- )
  • Senge
  • A learning organization is a place where people
    are continually discovering how they create their
    reality. And how they can change it.

57
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches
  • Theories that describe how organizational members
    collectively interpret the organizational world
    around them in order to define the importance of
    organizational happenings. Approaches to theory
    that explain organizational behavior in terms of
    the influence of cultures that exist both
    internally and externally to the organization.

58
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches
  • Elements of Culture Terrance Deal (1939- ) and
    Allen Kennedy (1943- )
  • Five Basic Elements of Organizational Culture
  • Business environment
  • Values
  • Heroes
  • Rites
  • Rituals

59
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches
  • Theory Z William Ouchi (1943- )
  • Ouchis theory derived from comparisons between
    Japanese and American organizations. Theory Z
    organizations retain individual achievement and
    advancement as a model but provide a continuing
    sense of organizational community not typical of
    many American organizations.

60
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches Theory Z
  • Type A Organization
  • Short-term employment
  • Individual decision making
  • Individual responsibility
  • Rapid promotion
  • Formal control
  • Specialized career paths
  • Segmented concerns
  • Type J Organization
  • Lifetime employment
  • Consensual decision making
  • Group or collective responsibility
  • Slow advancement
  • Informal control
  • Generalized career paths
  • Holistic concerns

61
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches Theory Z
  • Type A Organization
  • -reflects cultural values of individuality over
    group membership and assume that broad social
    needs are supported by other institutions rather
    than formal employment groups
  • Type J Organization
  • -reflects a culture in which loyalty to groups
    is more important than individual achievement and
    in which individuals gain identity from long-term
    affiliations with the companies for which they
    work

62
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches
  • In Search of Excellence Thomas Peters (1942- )
    and Robert Waterman (1936- )
  • Eight Themes
  • A bias for action
  • Close to the customer
  • Autonomy and entrepreneurship
  • Productivity through people
  • Hands-on value-driven
  • Stick to the knitting
  • Simple form, lean staff
  • Simultaneous loose-tight properties

63
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches
  • Organizational Culture Formation Edgar Schein
  • Model of Culture 3 Levels
  • Artifacts and creations
  • The most visible level of culture consisting of
    the physical and social environment
  • Values
  • Individual and group preferences for the way it
    should be in the organization
  • Basic assumptions
  • The core of what individuals believe to be true
    about the world and how it works

64
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches
  • Sensemaking Model Karl Weick (1936- )
  • The outcome comes before the decision
  • Weick is arguing that we make decisions and then
    render them sensible by explaining the meaning of
    our decisions.

65
Major Integrated Perspectives Theories Cultural
Approaches
  • Sensemaking Model Karl Weick (1936- )
  • Seven Characteristics
  • Grounded in identity construction
  • Retrospective
  • Enactive of sensible environments
  • Social
  • Ongoing
  • Focused on and by extracted cues
  • Driven by plausibility rather than accuracy

66
Communication Implications of Integrated
Perspectives Theories
  • Systems theorists the effectiveness of
    communication is related not only to what happens
    within the organization, but also to how the
    organization communicates with its environment,
    its customers, and community.

67
Communication Implications of Integrated
Perspectives Theories
  • Cultural approaches more specific about the
    importance of communication in carrying messages
    about the culture and influencing behavior
    through cultural expectations.

68
Communication Implications of Integrated
Perspectives Theories
  • The Functional framework
  • The rejection of the one best way concept and
    the emphasis on the external environment require
    a communication system in continual adaptation to
    changing circumstances.

69
Communication Implications of Integrated
Perspectives Theories
  • The Meaning-Centered approach
  • Both decision-making and cultural concepts are
    based on how organizational members generate
    shared meanings and how these meanings influence
    behavior and organizational effectiveness.

70
Communication Implications of Integrated
Perspectives Theories
  • The Meaning-Centered approach
  • The major premises underlying the prescriptive
    and popularized cultural approaches are that
    organizations are more effective with strong
    cultures and that strong cultures require
    effective communication.

71
Communication Implications of Integrated
Perspectives Theories
  • The Meaning-Centered approach
  • The cultural theorists also underscore the
    importance of values for excellent organizations
    and the need for values to become part of the
    shared realities of organizational members.

72
Integrated Perspectives Theories in Contemporary
Organizations
  • The contribution of Integrated Perspectives
    theorists in describing the need to acknowledge
    the influence of the external environment has
    improved our ability to think comprehensively
    about organizations and how people and technology
    relate to larger environments.

73
Integrated Perspectives Theories in Contemporary
Organizations
  • Concern for organizational culture is readily
    apparent in contemporary organizations
  • Vision and mission statements
  • Training programs in organizational values
  • Annual events and rituals

74
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Theories that focus on power, domination, and
    challenges to hierarchy, bureaucracy, and
    management control.

75
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Postmodern Perspectives Steward Clegg (1947- )
  • The postmodern condition is highly ordered,
    technologically specialized, mass-mediated, and
    demanding of precision, speed, flexibility, and
    adaptability in individual performance

76
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Postmodern Perspectives Steward Clegg (1947- )
  • Clegg contends that postmodernism rejects the
    concepts of scientific management when he
    characterizes postmodern organizations a flexible
    structures needing workers with multiple skills
    who are capable of continual learning.
  • Market niches replace mass consumption, and
    smaller is better if organizations are doing what
    they do best.

77
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Postmodern Perspectives Steward Clegg (1947- )
  • Five Principles of the Postmodern Organization
    (Eisenberg and Goodall)
  • Decentralization of power
  • Changes in markets and commodity values
  • Flattening of hierarchies
  • Cultures based on trust and respect for
    difference
  • The use of groups

78
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Critical Theory Jurgen Habermas (1929- )
  • Critical theory is what the name implies a
    criticism, a critique of society, organizations,
    and social constructions. Tracing its roots to
    the work of Karl Marx and other, Critical theory
    today takes as a central theme the issues of
    power and power abuse in organizations and
    society as a whole.

79
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Critical Theory Jurgen Habermas (1929- )
  • Habermas calls for the use of Critical theory to
    reconstitute reason and rationality as processes
    for positive social change. According to
    Habermas, communicative process is the basis for
    change and carries a notion of constitutive
    process, literally foundational to all
    organizing, influence, and decision making.

80
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Critical Theory Jurgen Habermas (1929- )
  • Critical theorists call for a third paradigm in
    contrast to scientific and interpretative
    approaches to management and organization.
    Specifically, Critical theorists seek
    understanding of organizational life nested in
    the broader context of society through
    understanding of power and political
    relationships.

81
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Commentaries on Critical Theory and
    Postmodernism Mats Alvesson (1956- ) and Stanley
    Deetz (1948- ), Martin Kilduff (1949- ) and Ajay
    Mehra (1968- ), and Gareth Morgan (1943- )
  • Alvesson and Deetz Critical theory calls into
    question the illusion that organizations and
    their processes are natural and self-evident, the
    universalization of managerial interest, the
    primacy of instrumental reasoning, and hegemonic
    practices.

82
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Commentaries on Critical Theory and
    Postmodernism Mats Alvesson (1956- ) and Stanley
    Deetz (1948- ), Martin Kilduff (1949- ) and Ajay
    Mehra (1968- ), and Gareth Morgan (1943- )
  • Kilduff and Mehra
  • Challenging underlying assumptions of how we view
    organizations and organizational life.
  • Postmodernism sees truth as problematic and
    focuses on how individuals construct their social
    worlds.
  • Views the objective as subjective and challenges
    notions that we truly can generalize from one
    experience to another.

83
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Commentaries on Critical Theory and
    Postmodernism Mats Alvesson (1956- ) and Stanley
    Deetz (1948- ), Martin Kilduff (1949- ) and Ajay
    Mehra (1968- ), and Gareth Morgan (1943- )
  • Morgan
  • Identifies examples of how organizations
    establish class structures that provide forms of
    control over work, behavior, and even the
    continuation of employment.

84
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Commentaries on Critical Theory and
    Postmodernism Mats Alvesson (1956- ) and Stanley
    Deetz (1948- ), Martin Kilduff (1949- ) and Ajay
    Mehra (1968- ), and Gareth Morgan (1943- )
  • Critical theories contend that the world economy
    is dominated more by multinational organizations
    than by governments or national alliances.
    Critical theorists view these multinational
    organizations as primary sites for domination and
    abuses of power.

85
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Feminist Organization Theories Marta Calás
    (1942- ), and Linda Smircich
  • Theories that critique the gendered assumptions
    of modern organizations and call for the
    recognition and valuing of multiple voices and
    perspectives.

86
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • Feminist Organization Theories Marta Calás
    (1942- ), and Linda Smircich
  • Seven Approaches to Feminist Theory
  • Liberal feminist theory
  • Radical-cultural feminism
  • Psychoanalytic feminism
  • Marxist feminist theory
  • Social feminism/gendering or organizations and
    organizing
  • Poststructuralist feminism/postmodern
    perspectives
  • Third-world/postcolonial feminism

87
Communication Implications of Postmodern,
Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • The Functional approach
  • Hierarchy with its control of networks, exclusion
    of voices other than the dominant power
    structure, and deliberate distortions through
    mediated channels should be exposed so as to
    support more participative and democratic
    practices in organizations.

88
Communication Implications of Postmodern,
Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • The Meaning-Centered approach
  • Critical perspectives discount interpretative
    notions of the Meaning-Centered approach that
    focus on shared realities.

89
Communication Implications of Postmodern,
Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
  • The Emerging Perspectives approach
  • Most closely associated with Postmodern and
    Critical Perspective theory.
  • Both the Emerging Perspectives approach and
    Postmodern and Critical Perspectives theories
    propose a value of increased participation and
    democracy among workers with an emphasis on the
    value of all organizational voices.

90
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
in Contemporary Organizations
  • The delayering of organizations is evident in
    numerous organizations, with self-managing and
    high-performance teams replacing traditional
    notions of supervision.
  • Adaptation, flexibility, and change are more
    common than unusual, and organizations regularly
    examine new approaches requiring increased and
    changing skills from the work force.

91
Fundamentals of Organizational Communication
  • Communication Implications of Major
    Organizational Theories
  • Chapter 4
  • End