Bernardino Alvarez establishes in Mexico the Hospital de San Hipolito the first in the Americas dedicated to serving patients with psychological problems.
Marco Marulik publishes The Psychology of Human Thought volume 1
Francis Bacon publishes The Proficiency and Advancement of Learning.
E. Neuhaus a student of Cassman publishes a book that summarizes the reason for studying psychology.
John Locke develops his theory of human nature based on precursor to modern empirical principles.
Christian von Wolff publishes seminal works on empirical and rational psychology.
Immanuel Kant publishes The Critic of the Pure Reason and establishes the precedent for a separation between the empirical and the transcendental.
Herbert Spencer publishes two volumes on the Principles of Psychology.
Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of the Species The Descent of Man The Expression of Emotions in the Man and in the Animals A Biographical Sketch of an Infant.
Willhelm Wundt establishes the first psychological laboratory at Leipzig Germany.
William James teaches the course The relationships among the Physiology and the Psychology.
Max Friedrich becomes the firs recipient of a doctoral degree in psychology.
Francis Galton begins extensive use of questionnaires
First psychology laboratory in American established at Johns Hopkins University
William James publishes What is Emotion
James McKeen Cattell becomes Americas first professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.
William James publishes Principles of Psychology
American Psychological Association founded by G. Stanley Hall
Hugo Munsterberg comes to Harvard and is eventually elected president of APA
8 1900 -1940
John Watson founded behaviorism while at Johns Hopkins
Freud begins his theory with The Interpretation of Dreams
William Stern publishes On the Psychology of the Individual Differences
Spearman publishes his first book on general intelligence
Jung splits with Freud
Division of Applied Psychology if established at Carnegie U.
Army Intelligence tests find widespread use.
Adler publishes On the Sense of Life and begins establishing Child Guidance Centers.
10 1940-1950The Late Years of the First Historical Period
The 1940s began to feel the influences of psychoanalytic concepts of repression and anxiety and their significances for understanding behavior.
Division 17 went through four name changes during this period Division of Personnel Psychologists Division of Personnel and Guidance Psychologists Division of Counseling and Guidance Psychologists Division of Counseling and Guidance
New APA created blending scientists and practitioners for psychotherapy and vocational issues with GIs
Super writes Vocational interest patterns A study in the psychology of avocations
Patterson et al. develop the Minnesota occupational rating scales and counseling profile
MMPI published by Hathaway and McKinley
Carl Rogers writes Counseling and Psychotherapy which marks the beginning of humanistic psychology and stimulated the development of counseling from non-medical and non-psychoanalytic perspectives
Merger between APA and the American Association for Applied Psychology initiating the divisions in APA
APA Division 17 formed and named the Division of Counseling and Guidance
Hull writes Principles of Behavior
Strong writes Vocational Interests of Men and Women
Brow writes Growth and Present Status of Occupational Testing
First US state law for certification or licensure of psychologists was signed in Connecticut
Fenichel publishes The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neuroses
15 1946(The Watershed Year)
WWII made it necessary for the VA to establish a counseling psychologist position focusing on GI psychotherapy and vocational issues
APA convention in Philadelphia introduced Carl Rogers as president-elect of APA. Division of Counseling and Guidance is official name given to Division 17
Bordin writes Diagnosis in counseling and psychotherapy
Rogers writes Significant aspects of client-centered therapy
First number of American Psychologist is published
Fromm writes Man for Himself
Skinner publishes Walden Two
Buber writes Between Man and Man
Tolman writes Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men
Inaugural newsletter of Division 17 Counseling News and Views
Counselor Training Committee and the Committee on Research were started. Close association with the National Vocational Guidance Association
Boulder conference produced the scientist-practitioner model of clinical education. Began to see the real divide between clinical and counseling psychology
Discrepancies over the name Counseling and Guidance began and would continue until the name change in 1951
Hebb publishes The Organization of Behavior
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children first published
Salter writes Conditioned Reflex Therapy
Brill writes Basic Principles of Psychoanalysis
Two events led to distinguishing the role of psychological counseling from that of clinical psychology and psychiatry Ann Arbor Conference and presidential message from Darley about defining the field in context of other helping professions
Professionalization of psychology-less interest in research more interest in practice
Division 17 commits to being a psychological field with a need for PhD over MA
Founding of the Annual Review of Psychology noted in the newsletter providing for relevant literature to be carefully reviewed
Dreikurs writes Fundamentals of Adlerian Psychology
Dollard and Miller write Personality and Psychotherapy
May writes The Meaning of Anxiety
Noted that counseling psychology influenced by two theoretical constellations 1)personality counseling psychotherapy2)vocational occupational career development
21 (No Transcript) 22 History of Counseling Psychology (1951-1956) In the fifties the career and interpersonal needs and problems of the many veterans and their families and the unprecedented growth in higher education enrollments created a ferment of research and experimentation especially in the areas of career development and of counseling orientations (Schwebel 1984). 23 1951
Tentative draft of the code of ethics for psychologists formulated (APA).
Division 17 is second largest division within APA.
Donald Supers APA presidential statement clarified the functions of Division 17.
The Northwestern Conference was the vehicle for addressing the problems of standards for practicum training and training psychologists at the doctoral level.
American Personnel and Guidance Association founded (now American Counseling association).
Rogers Client-Centered Therapy Its Current Practice Implications and Theories.
Donald super expands on the formal statements of the Northwestern Conference It is imperative that counseling psychology remain firmly established within the orbit of basic psychological science and related disciplines. The related disciplines are the other behavior sciences.
APA Division 17 Committee on Training stated that the counseling psychology should acquire a core of basic concepts tools and techniques that should be common to all psychologists
Along with research training six other areas were singled out by the committee for counseling psychologist to have training in.
The name of APA Division 17 is changed to the division of Counseling Psychology.
The birth of the Journal of Counseling Psychology announced.
The Guidance and Pupil Personnel Services section of the U.S. Office of education was re-established.
The Secretary-treasurer of the American board of Examiners in Professional Psychology indicated that awarded diplomas would designate Counseling psychology instead of Counseling and Guidance.
APA Education and Training Board approves the first evaluation of doctoral programs in counseling psychology. Seventeen programs are selected.
26 1954 - Journal of Counseling Psychology
First edition February 1954
Founders Milton Haun Harold G. Seashore Donald E. Super C. Gilbert Wrenn (Editor)
Financed by private shareholders
Original content areas
Counseling and Personality Theory
Research Theory and Method
Vocational and Rehabilitation Counseling
Measurement in Counseling
Counselor and Professional Growth
27 1954 - Hahns Division 17 Address
Purpose To differentiate Counseling Psychology from other fields
Counseling psychologist functions
Client vs. patient focus
Not under the supervision of other disciplines
Practice based on normative approaches
Change attitudes vs. restructuring personality
Anxiety states at interfering vs. disabling levels
Most skilled in assessment of human traits to aid clients in educational-vocational and social living
Process not complete until client has future plan of action
Stress positive strengths vs. remedying pathologies
28 1959 - APA Education Training Board
Purpose to determine whether counseling should continue to be recognized as independent specialty
Appraisals not in print for 20 years
Declining numbers entering field
Decline in quality grad students
No APA-approved internships
Scientific status unsatisfactory lowest of all psychology specialties
Need for possible fusion of clinical and counseling psychology
29 Division 17 Response
Based on Division growth health of counseling same as rest of
New members have range of interests outside counseling
Most employed in educational institutions very few in private practice
In medium sized field same as social and educational psychology
Distinct mission focus on role problems in education vocation and marriage vs. intrapersonal conflicts
30 Division 17 Response
Rationale for continued existence
History of responsible accomplishment
Healthy growth rate during preceding decade
Specialized training programs
Possibility of qualifying for ABEPP diploma
Opportunities for employment specific to training and certification
Goals purposes and techniques distinctly different from field of clinical psychology
31 1960 - E TB Status Report
Merger with clinical psychology new field would focus training on both normal and disturbed populations
Train as counselors first psychologists second
Development of counseling at M.A. level
Report was never published
32 Influence of Societal Context
Sputnik 1957 Spurs focus on identifying future tech and scientific leaders
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1954
National Defense Education Act of 1958
Created demand for more positions than could be filled by existing counseling psychologists
Cooperative Research Program (OE)
Sets up educational institutes for training testing and counseling personnel
Provides funds for research in counseling
33 Call for Research
New NDEA funding opportunities
As of 1958 50 to 66 of research authored by non-counseling psych.s
1958 Miami Conference
Research a defining characteristic of all psychologists
Broaden methodology courses using problems from clinics schools etc.
Begin research participation early in training
Supervision of clinical theses by experienced faculty members
Recognize creative useful but not necessarily original and inquiring types of research
34 Scientific Status of CP Committee
By 1959 though eligible still no funding from NIMH for CP training programs
1961 Annual Review of Psych. plans to discontinue reviews of CP
SSCPC investigated ways to improve quality and amount of CP research
identification of funding sources
method for communicating this info to Division 17 members
assisting them in utilizing sources
promoting greater interaction of group and research
35 Theoretical Developments
Major program of research in client-centered therapy
Rational Emotive Therapy developed by Albert Ellis (1957)
Transactional Analysis founded by Eric Berne (1958)
Vocational/Occupational psychology contributions E.K. Strong J.L Holland Donald E. Super and Anne Roe
36 Alternative Directions For the Profession
The Fifth Historical Period
37 The Most Comprehensive Definition of the Profession
Counseling Psychologist provides individual and group guidance and counseling services in schools colleges and universities hospitals clinics rehabilitation centers and industry to assist individuals in achieving more effective personal social educational and vocational development and achievement. Collects data about the individual through use of interview case history and observational techniques. Selects administers scores and interprets psychological tests designed to assess individuals intelligence aptitudes abilities and interests applying knowledge of statistical analysis.Evaluates data to identify cause of problem and to determine advisability of counseling or referral to other specialists or institutions. Conducts counseling or therapeutic interviews to assist individual to gain insight into personal problems define goals and plan action reflecting his interests abilities and needs. Provides occupational educational and other information to enable individual to formulate realistic educational and vocational plans. Follows up results of counseling to determine reliability and validity of treatment used. May engage in research to develop and improve diagnostic and counseling techniques (Vol I of the Dict. Of Occupations 1965).
38 3 New Roles Identified
Remedial or Rehabilitative This is helping people who are presently experiencing difficulty.
Preventive This is anticipating circumventing or forestalling difficulties which may arise in the future.
Educative and Developmental This is to help plan obtain and derive maximum benefit from experiences which will enable them to discover and fulfill their potential.
39 Settings and Positions in Which Counseling Psychologists Work
Industry and Government
Primarily Service Administration
In the 1960s all doctoral personnel were obviously providing the bulk of service delivery in educational settings. 40 Point of view is one of hope and optimism
Individuals can change can lead satisfying lives can be self-directing and can find ways of using their resources even though these may have been impaired by incapacitating attitudes and feelings slow maturation cultural deprivation lack of opportunity illness injury or old age.
Jordaan et al. defined the role and the steps to become a Counseling psychologist
Waranth address the continuing problems of defining Counseling Psychology and of the communication gap between academicians and service personnel
Wrenn clarified how the Evaluation Committee of the APA Education and Training Board functioned
Erikson Identity youth and crisis
42 The Counseling Psychologist Founded in 1969 John Whitely - Editor
It appeared as a vehicle for critical analysis reformulation and commentary on professional issues.
Each issue has a different topic of concern.
The usual format involves a major treatise on a problem followed by critical analysis by prominent
scholars or practitioners.
The appearance of new topics of importance to counseling psychologists
The opportunity to increase understanding of new client populations
The necessity and desirability of rethinking reformulating and extending the conceptual bases of the initial historical roots of the profession
The extension of substantive new approaches to delivery services
43 The Societal Context
Sources of the changes in social attitudes
The effects of the Vietnam war and the responses to it by the institutions in society especially education
The changes in attitudes toward authority and loss of trust in institutions in response to Watergate era
The continuing quest for the ideal self in society which characterized the 1970s
The search for wellness and pre-occupation with self-help abetted by the active efforts of some counseling psychologists to give the profession to the people through prevention and psychological education
Albert Bandura Social Learning Model
Adler The science of living
Anti War Movement
Atkinson Hosford and Zimmer founded UCSBs CP program rise of cognitive psychology
Atkinson begins research on multicultural issues in counseling
Vail Conference Diversity issues addressed Counselor Education PsyD degree established
Group for the Study of Interpersonal Development founded at Harvard by Dr. Selman
46 1970 cont.
Sues Psychotherapeutic Services for Ethnic Minority Groups Some Optimism Some Pessimism
Winborn publishes Procedures for protecting Consumers of Counseling
Kuhns Structure of Scientific Revolution
The Human Potential Movement begins
47 Conceptualized Youth as a preadolescent stage
Who have completed the tasks the adolescence as Erikson defined them (emancipation from the family comfort with sexuality attainment of a sense of identity and capacity for intimacy)
Who assess and reassess their relationship to society while postponing acceptance of adult responsibility
Who enter a period of experimentation with adult roles.
The Journal of Black Psychology was first published by the Association of Black Psychologists
Stacie Ottley arrived May 25
49 To Bring Closure to this Period
Began with the most comprehensive statement yet
A second definition in 1976 differed in direction from the 1968 version
Emphasis of the 3-part role was reaffirmed
Social Attitudes changed dramatically
Theoretical and research literature underwent a steady increase
50 RETHINKING PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY
The Sixth Historical Period
51 1977 - 1983 52 THREE ELEMENTS
General consensus on professional identity
Legacy of theoretical and empirical developments
Supportive attitude of society toward preventative and developmental services
53 FOUR INITIATIVES
Further refinement of professional identity
Project the role of the profession into the 21st century and be proactive
Determine what makes a counseling psychologist a counseling psychologist
The Next Decade project of Division 17
54 FURTHER REFINEMENT 55 A Counseling Psychologist would be
1977 Division 17 offered the defining characteristics of counseling psychologists
Are we as good as they Are we worthy of being called psychologists
56 To Infinity and BeyondThe Next Decade Project
Provide long-range guide
Provide statements to mediate state boards and national associations
Provide documents to use with prospective students on future
Provide process for CPs to consider roles aspirations and opportunities
57 FOUR REVIEWS
Super and Hall (1978) on Career Development
Krumboltz Becker-Haven and Burnett (1979) on Counseling Psychology
Holland Magoon and Spokane (1981) on Career interventions
Borgen (1984) on Counseling Psychology
58 Super and Hall
Emphasized exploration and planning aspects of career development
This review covered literature from 1932-78
59 So What Makes You You 60 And The Winners Are...Holland Magoon and Spokane (1981)
Krumboltzs Social Learning Model
Hollands psychology of careers and career intervention
Developmental formulations appealing but not appreciative of RIGOR
61 Trends and Emerging Trends 62 Controversy Conflict and Change
Developing a profession
Search for integration
Liberalizing bases for inference
Models of causations
1977- A. Bandura proposes Self-Efficacy Theory
1978- Pat Wolleat produces Multiplying Options and Subtracting Bias
1978- Krumboltz introduces Career Beliefs Inventory
1980- R. Reagan goes to War on Drugs
Selman develops Theory of Social Perspective Taking
Rise of Psychopharmacology
Borow writes The Way We Were Reflections on the History of Vocational Guidance
64 MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL RESEARCH LITERATURE 1980 - 2000
Changes in methodological diversity
Counseling interventions process and outcomes
Career development and counseling
Issues of gender and sexual preferenceSupervision
65 Methodological Diversity and Sophistication
1980s Call for utilization of more sophisticated statistical analysis including a shift from ANOVA to multiple regression
1987 Fassinger introduces one of the most significant statistical developments causal modeling
1992 P. P. Heppner Kivlighan and Wampold
published the first research design book specific to counseling
1997 Hill Thompson and Williams publish an article which introduces a new methodology-consens ual qualitative research
66 Counseling Interventions Process and Outcomes
1980s Investigations focus on cognitive processes and covert behaviors of both clients and counselors research is characterized by increased methodological rigor and greater clarity in operationalizing constructs and examining systematic linkage of process events to counseling outcomes
1984 Borgen identifies three mainstream theoretical perspectives that have been the most researched from 1978-1982 cognitive-behavioral social psychological models of influence and analytic models
67 Issues of Gender and Sexual Orientation
1960s-1970s Womens roles change rapidly and questions arise about bias in psychological research
1978 Counseling Psychology publishes its first special issue on counseling men
1980-1990 Research on womens issues grows research on counseling issues pertaining to gay lesbian and bisexual concerns is just beginning two major journals in counseling psychology published special issues devoted to gay lesbian and bisexual concerns
1992 Literature on the psychology of women develops as does feminist theory
68 Issues in Multicultural Counseling
Francis Cecil Sumner - Father of African American Psychologists. 1st African American to receive a PhD in Psychology 1920
Joseph White Ph.D. Father of Black Psychology
69 1968 APA Convention in San Francisco CA
Ø 200 psychologists created the Association of Black Psychologists as they voiced the following concerns at the APA Conference in 1968
1.) APA must racially integrate its own workforce
2.) APA should facilitate the entrance and advanced training of African Americans
3.) APA should monitor their journals to eliminate unsound unscientific racist themes
4.) APA should establish a program specifically for minority psychological concerns
70 1982 to Present
1973-1998 reflects a significant concern for the utilization of culturally diverse samples. Only 11 of publications reported ethnicity in 1973 whereas 93 reported ethnicity in 1998
Authors suggest that the trend in multicultural research will continue to grow as our profession remains dedicated to the growth and positive behavioral and emotional outcomes for an increasingly diverse society
71 1982 Multicultural Professional Divisions in ACA APA APS
American Counseling Association Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development
American Psychological Association Division 45 Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues
American Psychological Society Committee on Socially and Economically Underrepresented Populations
72 Multicultural Professional Conferences
1983 Columbia University Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Education
1999 First APA Multicultural Conference and Summit in Newport Beach CA
2001 Second APA Multicultural Conference and Summit in Santa Barbara CA
2003 Third APA Multicultural Conference and Summit will take place in Hollywood CA
73 Career Development and Vocational Behavior 1980-2000
Theories that have provided a foundation for empirical work and practice are Bordin Dawis/Lofquist Holland Krumboltz and Super
Four major specialty journals are
Journal of Vocational Behavior
Career Development Quarterly
Journal of Career Development
Journal of Career Assessment (new in 1993)
Continues to be the most empirically mature area of research and practice within the field of counseling psychology.
John Hollandprovides research and practical applications in his book Making Vocational Choices (revised in 1997).
Savickas outlined two important areas that the field continues to grapple with
1. Convergence of existing theories of career choice development.
2. Use of post-modern thought to move beyond logical positivism as the philosophy of science for theory and research about vocational behavior.
Methodological advancements have been a hallmark of the 1980s and 1990s.
Meta-analytic procedures structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling have allowed for a more thorough examination of the complex relationships among career constructs.
Oliver and Spokne conducted a meta-analysis across 58 vocational studies to determine the relationship between intervention characteristics and outcome.
Thus methodological diversity and sophistication have expanded during this time period to allow for greater exploration of the complex factors involved in career development
76 The role of career development in the lives of previously marginalized individuals has been an important focus of the 1980s and 1990s. Two major theoretical contributions during this time were 1. Gottfredsons theory of impact of occupational gender-typing on the circumscription and compromise of career choices (1981). 2. Hackett and Betzs application of Banduras self-efficacy theory to women career development. 77 Supervision 1980s
Bartlett Goodyear and Bradley edited a special journal issue on counseling supervision which discussed theoretical models and summarized the research literature.
Russell Crimmings and Lent analyzed the existing supervision literature calling for more specificity of theories moving beyond beginning counselor trainees and giving more attention to external validity issues.
Supervision-specific models were proposed (Loganbill Hardy Delworth)
Developmental approach The basic assumption was that effective supervision must incorporate the level of counselor development and thus differ across trainees level of development (Stolenberg Delworth).
78 Supervision 1990s
Several major books on supervision appeared (Bernard Goodyear 1992 1998 Holloway 1995 Stoltenberg McNeil Delworth 1997 Watkins 1997).
The Watkins book is an excellent resource devoted to theoretical approaches to supervision training models research and professional issues.
79 Throughout the 1980s 1990s Division 17 underwent tremendous change.
As proposed by then president George Gazda in 1986 the national conference for Counseling Psychology called Planning the Future was organized held. A major theme throughout the conference was the importance of counseling psychologys traditional awareness of viewing people and their behavior within a socio-cultural context influenced by variables of culture ethnicity gender sexual orientation age and socio-historical perspective.
The recommendations from this conference set in motion a wide range of activities related to education and training science practice and professional issues that would affect the members and leadership of the Division for many years.
In 1987 the Student Affiliate Group (SAG) was begun at the University of Iowa. At present SAG has over 300 members publishes a newsletter regularly presents a symposium at the Annual APA conference.
1980-1985 Push for more APA accredited counseling psychology training programs. Between 1980-1985 the number of accredited counseling psych. training programs increased from 22 to 44 and by 1995 there were 68 accredited programs. From 1980-95 an increase of over 180.
In 1987 President Lawrence Brammer moved to recognize the outstanding accomplishments of more individual members. He increased the professional awards from one to five including the Leona Tyler Award and other awards that recognized young professionals research achievements outstanding practice and outstanding dissertations.
Because of rising medical costs in the 1990s government and employers increasingly contracted psychological services out to managed care organizations (MCOs) which served as an entity to enhance accountability of health care and reduce costs. As a result of this change the Division was forced to focus more on independent practitioners and attend to matters outside the traditional focus of either academic psychology or practice within higher education settings.
During the 1980s the Counsel of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP) organized and developed a Training Manual for Program Directors focused on helping training programs interpret annual survey data and obtain accreditation of counseling psychology programs. CCPTP leadership also focused on improving internship standards and developing training experiences which promised to enhance competitiveness of counseling psychology intern applicants.
At the Georgia Conference of 1988 the issue of conceptualization of doctoral training models for counseling psychologists was addressed. At this conference pre-doctoral internship became more established as a necessary component of the doctoral degree in professional psychology. The Association of Counseling Center Training Agencies (ACCTA) is a central figure in addressing this and other training needs.
From 1980 to 1999 ACCTA has grown in numbers from 20 members to over 120. Its central focus remains bringing training directors together to talk about common education and training issues in university counseling centers. ACCTA has become a strong force within organized psychology particularly with regard to pre and post doctoral internship training.
The last twenty years have also witnessed greater collaboration between the American Counseling Association (ACA) and Division 17 of the APA. The ACA has become very active in accreditation and credentialing of professional counseling psychologists at both the masters and doctoral levels.
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