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Primeval History Genesis 1.111.26

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Title: Primeval History Genesis 1.111.26


1
Primeval History Genesis 1.1-11.26
  • APTS-BOT620

2
CREATION
  • Genesis 1.1-2.3

3
Parallels between the Enuma Elish and Genesis
1.1-2.3
  • 1. The circumstantial clause followed by the main
    account of creation.
  • 2. Primeval dark, watery and formless state.
  • 3. The Order of Creation

4
The Order of Creation
  • EE Divine spirit and cosmic matter are
    coexistent and coeternal
  • GEN Divine spirit creates cosmic matter and
    exits independently of it
  • EE Primeval chaos, Tiamat enveloped in darkness
  • GEN The earth a desolate waste, with darkness
    covering the deep

5
The Order of Creation
  • EE Light emanation from the gods
  • GEN Light created
  • EE The creation of the firmament
  • GEN The creation of the firmament
  • EE The creation of the dry land
  • GEN The creation of dry land

6
The Order of Creation
  • EE The creation of man
  • GEN The creation of man
  • EE The gods rest and celebrate
  • GEN God rests and sanctifies the seventh day

7
Problems concerning the parallels
  • a. Tehom
  • b. Tannin
  • c. Separation of heaven and earth
  • d. Creation and function of luminaries
  • e. Purpose of humans
  • f. Creation by word

8
1.1-2 THE BEGINNING OF CREATION
  • Syntax four possibilities Wenham, Gordon J.,
    Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 1 Genesis 1-15,
    11
  • 1. "V. 1 is a temporal clause subordinate to the
    main clause in v2 In the beginning when God
    created..., the earth was without form....

9
1.1-2 Syntax four possibilities
  • 2. "V. 1 is a temporal clause subordinate to the
    main clause in v3 (v2 is a parenthetic comment).
    'In the beginning when God created... (now the
    earth was formless) God said....'"

10
1.1-2 Syntax four possibilities
  • 3. "V. 1 is a main clause, summarizing all the
    events described in vv. 2-31. It is a title to
    the chapter as a whole, and could be rendered 'In
    the beginning God was the creator of heaven and
    earth.' What being creator of heaven and earth
    means is then explained in more detail in vv.
    2-31."

11
1.1-2 Syntax four possibilities
  • 4. "V 1 is a main clause describing the first act
    of creation. Vv. 2 and 3 describe subsequent
    phases in God's creative activity. This the
    traditional view...."

12
Four Keys to 1.3-2.3
  • 1. Monotheistic
  • 2. Centrality of Humankind
  • 3. Sabbath
  • 4. Creation as Good as God made it

13
DAYS OF CREATION
  • 1.3-5 DAY ONE - LIGHT
  • 1.6-8 DAY TWO - THE SKY
  • 1.9-13 DAY THREE - LAND AND VEGETATION
  • 1.14-19 DAY FOUR - HEAVENLY BODIES

14
DAYS OF CREATION
  • 1.20-23 DAY FIVE - FISH AND BIRDS
  • 1.24-31 DAY SIX - ANIMALS AND HUMAN BEINGS
  • 2.1-3 DAY SEVEN THE CESSATION FROM WORK

15
GEN 1.26 THE PLURALITY
  • 1. From Philo onward, Jewish commentators have
    generally held that the plural is used because
    God is addressing his heavenly court, i.e., the
    angels (cf. Isa 68). Among recent commentators,
    Skinner, von Rad, Zimmerli, Kline, Mettinger,
    Gispen, and Day prefer this explanation.

16
GEN 1.26 THE PLURALITY
  • 2. From the Epistle of Barnabas and Justin
    Martyr, who saw the plural as a reference to
    Christ . Christians have traditionally seen this
    verse as adumbrating the Trinity. It is now
    universally admitted that this was not what the
    plural meant to the original author.

17
GEN 1.26 THE PLURALITY
  • 3. Gunkel suggested that the plural might reflect
    the polytheistic account taken over by P, though
    he recognized that this could not be Ps view. As
    shown above, Gen 1 is distinctly antimythological
    in its thrust, explicitly rejecting ancient Near
    Eastern views of creation. Thus modern
    commentators are quite agreed that Gen 126 could
    never have been taken by the author of this
    chapter in a polytheistic sense.

18
GEN 1.26 THE PLURALITY
  • 4. Some scholars, e.g., Keil, Dillmann, and
    Driver, have suggested that this is an example of
    a plural of majesty cf. the English royal we.
    It refers to the fullness of attributes and
    powers conceived as united within the God-head
    (Driver, 14). Joüons observation (114e) that
    we as a plural of majesty is not used with
    verbs has led to the rejection of this
    interpretation.

19
GEN 1.26 THE PLURALITY
  • 5. Joüon (114e) himself preferred the view that
    this was a plural of self-deliberation. Cassuto
    suggested that it is self-encouragement (cf.
    117 Ps 23). In this he is followed by the most
    recent commentators, e.g., Schmidt, Westermann,
    Steck, Gross, Dion.

20
GEN 1.26 THE PLURALITY
  • 6. Clines (TB 19 1968 6869), followed by Hasel
    (AUSS 13 1975 6566) suggests that the plural
    is used because of plurality within the Godhead.
    God is addressing his Spirit who was present and
    active at the beginning of creation (12). Though
    this is a possibility (cf. Prov 82231), it
    loses much of its plausibility if xwr is
    translated wind in verse 2.

21
THE IMAGE LIKENESS
  • 1. Image and likeness are distinct. According
    to traditional Christian exegesis (from Irenaeus,
    ca. 180 a.d.), the image and the likeness are two
    distinct aspects of mans nature. The image
    refers to the natural qualities in man (reason,
    personality, etc.) that make him resemble God,
    while the likeness refers to the supernatural
    graces, e.g., ethical, that make the redeemed
    godlike. While these distinctions may be useful
    homiletically, they evidently do not express the
    original meaning. The interchangeability of
    image and likeness (cf. 53) shows that this
    distinction is foreign to Genesis, and that
    probably likeness is simply added to indicate
    the precise nuance of image in this context.

22
THE IMAGE LIKENESS
  • 2. The image refers to the mental and spiritual
    faculties that man shares with his creator.
    Intrinsically this seems a probable view, but it
    is hard to pin down the intended qualities. Among
    the many suggestions are that the image of God
    resides in mans reason, personality, free-will,
    self-consciousness, or his intelligence. Owing to
    the sparsity of references to the divine image in
    the OT, it is impossible to demonstrate any of
    these suggestions. In every case there is the
    suspicion that the commentator may be reading his
    own values into the text as to what is most
    significant about man. For these reasons, most
    modern commentators have either abandoned the
    attempt to define the image, assuming that its
    nature was too well known to require definition,
    or they look for more specific clues in Genesis
    as to how the image was understood.

23
THE IMAGE LIKENESS
  • 3. The image consists of a physical resemblance,
    i.e., man looks like God. In favor of this
    interpretation is the fact that physical image is
    the most frequent meaning of µlx, and that in Gen
    53 Adam is said to have fathered Seth after his
    image, which most naturally refers to the
    similar appearance of father and son. P. Humbert
    (Études sur le récit du paradis, 15363) insisted
    that this was all Genesis meant, Gunkel and von
    Rad that it was at least part of its meaning.
    Nevertheless, the OTs stress on the
    incorporeality and invisibility of God makes this
    view somewhat problematic (cf. Deut 41516). The
    difficulty is increased if, as is usually the
    case, the material is assigned to the late P
    source, for this would be too gross an
    anthropomorphism for exilic literature. And if,
    as is widely

24
THE IMAGE LIKENESS
  • 3. Continued believed, the image of God
    terminology is based on Egyptian and possibly
    Mesopotamian thinking, it should be noted that
    the image of God describes the kings function
    and being, not his appearance in these cultures.
    Furthermore, it is argued that the OT does not
    sharply distinguish the spiritual and material
    realms in this way. The image of God must
    characterize mans whole being, not simply his
    mind or soul on the one hand or his body on the
    other. Finally, it may be noted that the ancient
    world was well aware, partly through the practice
    of sacrifice, that physiologically man had much
    in common with the animals. But the image of God
    is something that distinguishes man from the
    animal kingdom. The case for identifying the
    image of God with mans bodily form or upright
    posture is therefore unproven.

25
THE IMAGE LIKENESS
  • 4. The image makes man Gods representative on
    earth. That man is made in the divine image and
    is thus Gods representative on earth was a
    common oriental view of the king. Both Egyptian
    and Assyrian texts describe the king as the image
    of God (see Ockinga, Dion, Bird). Furthermore,
    man is here bidden to rule and subdue the rest of
    creation, an obviously royal task (cf. 1 Kgs 54
    424, etc.), and Ps 8 speaks of man as having
    been created a little lower than the angels,
    crowned with glory and made to rule the works of
    Gods hands. The allusions to the functions of
    royalty are quite clear in Ps 8. Another
    consideration suggesting that man is a divine
    representative on earth arises from the very idea
    of an image. Images of gods or kings were viewed
    as representatives of the deity or king. The
    divine spirit was often thought of as

26
THE IMAGE LIKENESS
  • 4. Continued indwelling an idol, thereby
    creating a close unity between the god and his
    image (Clines, TB 19 1968 8183). Whereas
    Egyptian writers often spoke of kings as being in
    Gods image, they never referred to other people
    in this way. It appears that the OT has
    democratized this old idea. It affirms that not
    just a king, but every man and woman, bears Gods
    image and is his representative on earth.

27
THE IMAGE LIKENESS
  • 5. The image is a capacity to relate to God.
    Mans divine image means that God can enter into
    personal relationships with him, speak to him,
    and make covenants with him. This view, most
    eloquently propounded by K. Barth (Church
    Dogmatics, III. 1.18387), is also favored by
    Westermann. He holds that the phrase in our
    image modifies the verb let us make, not the
    noun man. There is a special kind of creative
    activity involved in making man that puts man in
    a unique relationship with his creator and hence
    able to respond to him. But the image of God is
    not part of the human constitution so much as it
    is a description of the process of creation which
    made man different.

28
Genesis 2.4-25
  • 2.4 Introduction
  • A. 2.5-17 Narrative God the sole actor man
    present but passive
  • B. 2.18-25 Narrative God main actor, man minor
    role, woman animals passive
  • C. 3.1-5 Dialogue Snake and woman
  • D. 3.6-8 Narrative Man and woman

29
Genesis 2.4-25
  • C. 3.9-13 Dialogue God, man and woman
  • B. 3.14-21 Narrative God main actor, man minor
    role, woman animals passive
  • A. 3.22-24 Narrative God sole actor man passive
  • 3.25 Conclusion and Transition

30
Knowing Good and Evil
  • 1. A description of the consequence of obeying or
    disobeying the commandments.
  • 2. Moral discernment, knowing the difference
    between right and wrong.
  • 3. Sexual knowledge.
  • 4. Omniscience.
  • 5. Wisdom or legal responsibility.

31
Genesis 3.1-24
  • Temptation and Fall

32
Outline Structure
  • I. The Transgress 3.1-7
  • 3.1-5 The Temptation
  • 3.6 The Transgression
  • 3.7 The Result
  • II. The Interrogation 3.8-13
  • III. The Punishment 3.14-19
  • IV. A Pause 3.20-21
  • V. The Expulsion from Eden 3.22-24

33
The Serpent vx'N"h
  • 1. The serpent is Satan in disguise.
  • 2. The serpent is purely symbolical it
    symbolizes human curiosity (Talmud, B. Jacob), or
    intellectual curiosity.
  • 3. The serpent is a mythological form which was
    first reduced to an animal in Israelite tradition
    (so H. Gunkel and others).

34
The Serpent vx'N"h
  • 4. The serpent is an animal that is particularly
    clever. Its ability to speak is a characteristic
    of the tale.
  • 5. . . . the serpent in Gen 3 belongs to the
    realm of magic and is meant to be an animal of
    life and wisdom. . . this explanation agrees with
    the data of the narrative. 2 Kings 18.4 together
    with Num 21 refer to a cult of the serpent in
    Israel which presumes such an explanation.

35
yhilaKe t,yyIh.wI
  • 1. Like divine beings, i.e., angels
  • 2. Like the LORD God.

36
he Miruye yKi WdYEw
  • Opinions differ sharply here. One group of
    scholars sees the change as an awakening of
    sexual consciousness. . . . A second group
    understands the change as the acquisition of the
    consciousness of sexuality. . . . A third group
    understands the knowledge gained in the context
    of a change from a primitive to a civilized state.

37
Genesis 4.1-26
  • Reality Outside of Eden

38
Outline
  • 4.1-16 Cain and Abel
  • 4.17-22 The Genealogy of Cain
  • 4.23-24 The Song of Lamech
  • 4.25-26 Seth and Enosh

39
Similarities between Gen 2-3 4.1-16
  • Divine command or warning 217 (31-5) 46-7
  • The act/crime 36-7 48
  • Discovery and interrogation 38-13 49-10
  • Pronouncement of punishment 314-19 411-12
  • Mitigation of sentence 314-19 (21) 413-15
  • Expulsion 323, 24 416
  • Seters, van John, Prologue to History The
    Yahwist as Historian in Genesis, 139

40
Genesis 5.1-6.8
  • The Book of Genealogies

41
Outline of Genesis 5.1-6.8
  • 5132Genealogy of Adam to Noah
  • 614The angel marriages
  • 658Gods plan to destroy mankind except for
    Noah

42
Issues in Genesis 5.1-32
  • 5.1-5 Adam
  • 5.21-24 Enoch
  • 5.25-27 Methuselah
  • 5.28-31 Lamech
  • 5.32 Noah

43
Supernatural Evil Gen 6.1-4
  • "Early Jewish authors considered it to be more
    important than the story of the sin of Adam and
    Eve, for this passage was retold many times while
    the Eden story is only occasionally alluded to.
    For several authors this was the true 'Fall
    story,' the account of how evil came into the
    world by means of the descent of certain
    rebellious angels (e.g., Jub 5.1-11 1 En 6-10,
    86-33 2 En 18 T.Reuben 5.6).

44
Supernatural Evil Gen 6.1-4
  • For these earliest extant interpretations there
    was no question about the identity of the 'sons
    of God' they were fallen angels. Later Jewish
    and Christian authors 'demythologized' the
    passage, however. Among Jewish writers the sons
    of God were identified as members of the nobility
    who married beneath them.

45
Supernatural Evil Gen 6.1-4
  • Christian authors insisted that the sons of God
    were the descendants of Seth, while the daughters
    of men were from the line of Cain." Gowan, ITC
    Genesis 1-11, 82

46
Problem with Genesis 6.1-4
  • MATTHEW 22.30
  • MARK 12.25
  • LUKE 20.35-36

47
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • SOURCE CRITICAL DIVISIONS
  • Topic J P
  • God's Decision 6.5-8 6.9-13
  • Construction of the Ark 6.14-22
  • Entry into the Ark 7.1-5, 7-8, 10 7.6, 9
  • The Flood 7.12, 16b, 17, 22-23 7.11,
    13-16a, 18-21, 24

48
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • SOURCE CRITICAL DIVISIONS
  • Topic J P
  • The End of the Flood 8.2b, 3a, 6-12
  • 8.1-2a, 3b-5, 13a
  • Exit from the Ark 8.13b 8.14-19
  • Sacrifice and Promise 8.20-22 9.1-17

49
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • A Noah (6.10a)
  • B Shem, Ham, and Japheth (6.10b)
  • C Ark to be built (6.14-16)
  • D Flood announced (7.17)
  • E Covenant with Noah (6.18-20)
  • F Food in the ark (6.21)
  • G Command to enter the ark (7.1-3)

50
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • H 7 days waiting for flood (7.4-5)
  • I 7 days waiting for flood (7.7-10)
  • J Entry to ark (7.11-15)
  • K Yahweh shuts Noah in (7.16)
  • L 40 days flood (7.17a)
  • M Waters increase (7.17b-18)
  • N Mountains covered (7.19-20)

51
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • O 150 days water prevail (7.21-24)
  • P GOD REMEMBERS NOAH (8.1)
  • O 150 days waters abate (8.3)
  • N' Mountain tops visible (8.4-5)
  • M' Waters abate (8.5)
  • L' 40 days (end of) (8.6a)
  • K' Noah opens window of ark (8.6b)

52
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • J' Raven and dove leave ark (8.7-9)
  • I' 7 days waiting for waters to subside
    (8.10-11)
  • H' 7 days waiting for waters to subside (8.12-13)
  • G' Command to leave ark (8.15-17 22)
  • F' Food outside ark (9.1-4)
  • E' Covenant with all flesh (9.8-10)

53
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • D' No flood in the future (9.11-17)
  • C' Ark (9.18a)
  • B' Shem, Ham, and Japheth (9.18b)
  • A' Noah (9.19)
  • Wenham, "Coherence of the Flood Narrative," VT 28
    (1978), 338.

54
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • Transitional introduction (6.9-10)
  • 1. Violence in God's creation (6.11-12)
  • 2. First divine address resolution to destroy
    (6.13-22)
  • 3. Second divine address command to enter the
    ark (7.1-10)
  • 4. Beginning of the flood (7.11-16)
  • 5. The rising flood waters (7.17-24)

55
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • GOD'S REMEMBRANCE OF NOAH
  • Anderson, B., "From Analysis to Synthesis The
    Interpretation of Genesis 1-11," JBL 97 (1978).

56
NOAH AND THE FLOOD
  • 6. The receding flood waters (8.1-5)
  • 7. The drying of the earth (8.6-14)
  • 8. Third divine address command to leave the ark
    (8.15-19)
  • 9. God's resolution to preserve order (8.20-22)
  • 10. Fourth divine address covenant blessing and
    peace (9.1-17)
  • Transitional conclusion (9.18-19)

57
Conclusion of the Flood Narrative
  • 9.1-7 Renewal of the Blessing
  • 9.8-17 The Covenant with Noah
  • 9.18-29 Ham's Sin and the Curse of Canaan

58
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