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Physics II PHY 202/222 Electricity

- 452 South Anderson Road
- Rock Hill, SC 29730
- www.yorktech.com

Electricity Test 4

Beiser Chapters 23-26 Multiple Choice

Odd Supplementary Problems Every Other Odd

(1,not3,5,not7) Browne Chapter 20-25 for PHY

222 20 3,13 21 8 22 5 24 7 25 9

Chapter 23 Electricity

Beiser p.266

Electric Charge

- Positive charge from protons
- Negative charge from electrons
- Measured in Coulombs (C)
- e 1.6 x 10-19 C

Like charges repel. Unlike charges attract.

_

_

_

Coulombs Law

Beiser p.266

Coulombs Law Example

_

Find the force of attraction between a ball with

a charge of 0.2 C and a ball with a charge of

-0.3 C if they are separated by .5 m.

Beiser p.266,7

Superposition of Electric Forces

- Find the electric force on Q3 from the other

charges.

Fnet

350

Beiser p.269

Electric Fields

If you had a small positive test charge and

placed it near other charges, it would experience

a force at every point in space. Mapping these

lines of force show the electric field. Measured

in N/C or V/m.

Beiser p.269,270

Potential Difference

- The amount of work needed to move a charge of 1C

from one point to another. - Measured in volts (V)
- 1V 1J/C

Beiser p.266

Chap 23 - Summery

236,8

23.10

23.12

q2

q

x

40 - x

40 cm

23.14

23.16

100 V

23.18

- - - -

F

23.20

Chapter 24 Electric Current

Beiser p.277

Current

- The flow of charge
- Measured in Amperes (or Amps), A
- 1 A 1 C/s

Beiser p.277,8

Direction of Current

- A complete circuit is needed for electrons to

travel. - Electrons actually travel from negative terminal

of battery to positive. - Current is said to go from positive to negative.

Direction of current is positive to negative

V 12 V

Mr. Electron sez Im going this way!

Conductors Insulators

- Conductors a material through which current

flows easily - Insulator - a material through which current will

not (generally) flow - Resistor a material through which current flows

with some difficulty - Semiconductor - a material that is sometimes a

conductor sometimes a resistor - Superconductor a material that carries current

effortlessly with no loss

Beiser p.277

Resistance

- A measure of the opposition to current in a given

material - Measured in Ohms (O)
- 1 O 1 V/A
- A resistor is a device with resistance

Resistor color band example red yellow blue is 2

4 6 so 24x106O

R 24x106 O

Beiser p.278

Ohms Law

- Relates current, voltage and resistance.
- It takes more voltage to push current through a

high resistance material

Beiser p.278

Power

- The rate at which work is done to maintain

current. - or
- The rate at which a current at a voltage can do

work - Measured in Watts (W)
- 1 W 1 J/s

Beiser p.282

24.2

24.4

24.6

24.8

24.10

24.12

24.14

24.16

24.18

24.20

Chapter 25 Direct Current Circuits

Beiser p.288

Resistors in Series

- Current has to fight its way through R1 then

R2 and then R3 - Add resistors in series.
- RTotal R1, R2 R3 100 O 300 O 500 O

900 O

Beiser p.288

Resistors in Parallel

- Current can choose to go through R1 or R2, so

total resistance is less that either individual

resistor. - Use formula to get total resistance

TI-83 keystrokes

Mr. Electron sez Whee! I can go either way.

That makes it easy for me/hard for you!

Beiser p.290

Combinations of Resistors

Mr. Electron sez looks like fun!

1) Add the parallel resistors

2) Add the series resistors

RTotal 191 O

3) Add the parallel resistors

Beiser p.293

EMF Internal Resistance

- Batteries have a small internal resistance so

that - V Ve Ir or
- Terminal Voltage emf potential drop due to

internal resistance - The total internal resistance of batteries in

series is the sum of the individual internal

resistances. - The total voltage of batteries in series is the

sum of the individual batteries.

Beiser p.294

Batteries in Series

- The total voltage of batteries in series is the

sum of the individual batteries. - The total internal resistance is the sum of the

individual internal resistances

Beiser p.295

Batteries in Parallel

- Batteries in parallel should always have the same

voltage, so that back currents dont flow through

the weaker batteries and waste power. - The total voltage of batteries in parallel is the

voltage of any of the batteries. - The total internal resistance is added like

resistors in parallel.

Beiser p.295

Kirchhoffs Rules

- The sum of the currents into any point is equal

to the sum of the current from that point, - The sum of the voltage around a loop is zero.

Beiser p.298

Kirchhoff Example 1

- Step 1 pick a point where all the legs of the

circuit come together. - Step 2 pick a direction that you think current

will flow in each leg and label each leg as I1,

I2 - Step 3 The current into point A the current

out of point A I1 I2 I3 - Step 4 Trace a complete circuit and add the

voltages batteries increase and resistors

decrease see 4 12V I1R1 I2R2 0 (If

moving against the current reverse the signs) - Step 5 Trace another path see 5 12V

I1R1 I3R3 0 - Solve the three simultaneous equations

Beiser p.299-302

Solving by Substitution Method

Substitute both into eq.1

I1 I2 I3 12 I1R1 I2R2 0 12 I1R1 I3R3 0

Solve eq.2 for I2, and eq.3 for I3.

Substitute into eq.2 and eq.3

Solving by matrices

On TI-83

25.2

25.4

25.6

25.8

25.10

25.12

25.14

25.16

25.18

Example 25.21

25.22

25.24

Chapter 26 Capacitance

Beiser p.308

Capacitors Capacitance

- A capacitor is a device that stores charge.

A voltage can push electrons around to store

charge on a capacitor. Capacitance is the ratio

of charge to voltage.

Capacitance is measured in farads.

Beiser p.308

Capacitors in Parallel

Beiser p.310

Capacitors in Series

If C1 100 F and C2 300 F TI-83 keystrokes

Beiser p.310

Energy of a Capacitor

When charge is stored in a capacitor, the amount

of stored or potential energy is given by any of

the following

Beiser p.312

Capacitor Charging

- For a capacitor that initially has no charge,

these three formulas govern capacitor charging

when the switch is closed - The first gives current or rate of charging at

any time - The second is the TIME CONSTANT a which tells

how long it takes to charge a capacitor to 63 of

its capacity. - The last gives the amount of charge at any time.

Beiser p.313

Capacitor Discharging

- For a capacitor that initially is fully charged,

when the switch is closed - The first is the TIME CONSTANT a which tells

how long it takes to discharge 63 of the full

charge of the capacitor (or how long it takes to

fall to 37 of capacity) - The last gives the amount of charge at any time.

Beiser p.314

Beiser p.313

26.2

26.4

26.6

26.8

26.10

26.12

26.14

26.16

26.18

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