1 INTELLIGENCE INTELLIGENCE ? ? Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 2 Francis Galton
Francis Galton studied many family histories and concluded that success and brilliance were passed from one generation to the next.
He discounted the advantages of good schooling and social-class, and proposed instead that eminence was genetically determined.
He believed like many that the mind was built from elementary sensations. He sought to show that superior intelligence was reflected by superior sensory functioning. He failed in this effort and eventually concluded that there is no detectable difference between the sensory acuity of very intelligent people and others.
He published his findings in his 1869 book entitled Hereditary Genius. Galton is credited with inventing the phrase, nature versus nurture.
Although Galtons tests for intelligence were neither valid nor effective, he caused an interest in intelligence testing that set the table for future psychologists to make important breakthroughs. Unfortunately, it also fueled racism in the 1800s.
Paraphrased version of information found in a PPT slide at http//maverick.sdstate.edu/users/shaffer t/Cognitive20Psychology/Psychology20306-Human20 20Artifical20Intelligence.ppt4. Dr. Vessels the arranger of this slide was unable to find the full name of the author of the PPT show identified. 3 Click here to go to Dr. Smiths super website Intelligence can be defined as a combination of mental competencies and potentialities that includes the ability to (a) learn from experience and to (b) apply this knowledge, (c) formulate new understandings, and (d) construct solutions to novel problems encountered in new and challenging situations (Vessels, 2004). Sixty-eight percent of people score within fifteen points above or below 100 on all standardized, norm referenced IQ tests Ninety-six percent of all people fall within 30 points of 100 Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 4 Alan Kaufman WISC-R, WISC-III, K-ABC, KABC-II E.L. Thorndike CAVD IQ Test Abstract, Mechanical, Social Robert Thorndike Cognitive Abilities Test Stanford-Binet Alfred Binet Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale Charles Spearman G Factor specific abilities in intelligence Link to Dr. Jesse Smiths website on Intelligence Link to Learning Curve website information about intelligence theories Practical Assessment, Research Evaluation Journal (article Current issues Intelligence . . . Link to map of intelligence theorists and test developers over decades MAJOR FIGURES IN INTELLIGENCE THEORY INTELLIGENCE TESTING Link to description of basic multiple intelligence theory Link to multiple intelligence theory in historical context Link to website to assess your own intelligence Link to a wild website with all kinds of challenging tests Francis Galton James M. Cattell Psychological Corporation Mental Tests and Measurements David Wechsler WISC, WISC-R, WISC-III, WISC-IV Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences Theorist Robert Sternberg Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test Lewis Terman Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 5 Click here to go to the same chart on an IU website that will carry you to more information via links. HISTORY OF INFLUENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE THEORY AND INTELLIGENCE TESTING For further information please contact Dr. Jonathan Plucker (jplucker_at_indiana.edu), Project Director and Associate Professor of Educational Psychology and Cognitive Science, at Indiana University. This map is used here with the written permission of Dr. Plucker and was retrieved from http//www.indiana.edu/intell/map. shtml 6 Philosophy Physiology 1632-1704 Psychophysical Parallelism Idealism (Reason/Emotion) 1789 1857 Descartes 1596 1650 1711 1776 Comte Hume 1758 1828 John Locke Spinoza Rousseau 1712-1778
Principle of Heredity 1822 -1884 Mechanistic View Man Rationalism Evolutionary Biology Empiricism 1632-1677 Fechner Gall 1 Darwin 1801-18 87 Marx Materialism Kant 1745-1826 1809 -1882 Free Will G. Mendel Cabanis, LaMittrie, Condillac Sensationalism Psycho- physics 1820 1903 Social Darwinism Idealism (Reason) Bell, Muller Flourens (nerves) P. Pinel 1806-1873 Free Will H. Spencer Eclectic treatment of the Insane 1724-1804 J. S. Mill Renouvier John S. Mill Nerve Impulse Speed 1806 -1873 Phrenology Mind as an Adaptive Function Modern Foundations 1824 -1880 Man explained by examining sensation Helmholtz Libertiy Untilitarianism Empiricism Associationism Pragmatism 1825-1893 Broca 1822 -1911 1821-1894 Energy Conservation J. Charcot C. Pierce Neuropsychology Surgeon Aphasia Brocas Area Francis Galton Functionalism Structuralism Neurologist 1839 -1914 Cognition Memory Experimental Psychology 2 William James Heredity Correlation Anthropo- metric Lab Eugenics 1850-1909 Wilhelm Wundt 1856-1939 Ebbinghaus Click Here 1850-1909 Physician 1842 1910 S. Freud 1832 -1920 Click Here Ebbinghaus Cognition Memory Experimental Psychology
Anthropo- metric Lab Psycho- physical 1847 1931 The Great Schools 1857-1936 G.S. Hall Dewey Sociology 1860 1944 A. Adler 1844 1924 Pearson 1859 1952 E. Durkheim J.M. Cattell Edison 1857-1911 1858-1917 1866 1957 A. Binet 1867 1927 Gestalt Psych Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler 1874-1949 Titchener McDougall 3 Goddard E.L. Thorndike 1871 - 1938 SBIS 1877 1956 H.L. Holling-sworth SBIS CAVD Zone of Proximal Development Mediated Learning L. Terman Intelligence Hereditary L. Stern Simon 1878-1958 SBIS C. Spearman 1885-1913 The Great Schools Influence 1886 -1939 Jung Burt 1873 1961 Leta S. Hollings-worth 1870 1937 1863-1945 Goodenough Vygotsky 1883 1901 1880-1957 Schema Memory 18961934 F. Bartlett 1886-1959 J. Watson 1896-1980 1870 1955 1913-1997 1902-1977 1902-1994 1886 1969 L. L. Thurstone Inhelder Cortical Spec. M. Bentley J. Piaget A. Luria LNNB Erikson Neuropsychologist 1896-1981 Accommodation Assimilation Adaptation Structure of Intellect K. Lashley 1887-1955 1897 1988 1897-1993 Wechsler 7 Factor Model R.L. Thorndike J. Guilford 1890-1958 T.G. Thurstone K-ABC WISC WISC-R 1921 - Pres 4 Mediated Learning 1915 Pres 1920 - Pres. A. Kaufman 1904-1990 J. Bruner 1910-1990 CAT G. Miller Skinner Vernon SBIS-IV Feuerstein 1915-2000 1900 1986 R. Cattell G. Miller 1920 Pres. SBIS-IV 1905-1987 F. Taylor LPAD Kohlberg Damon Modern Explorations McNemar 1925-2000 Hard Science Intelligence (3 types A,B,C) Chomsky 1928 Pres. Hierarchical Model Information Processing Psychologists 1925-Present Fluid Crystallized Visual Reasoning M. Hoffman J. Kagan 1916-Present 1906-1991 1905 1998 Eysenck R.B. Cattell J. Carroll A.Bandura E. Hunt 1916-1997 Hierarchical 3 Stratum G, 8 generalized, many S John Horn Cognitive and Psychometric Blend A. Jensen PASSS Mediated Learning S. Kline 5 Intelligence 80 Hereditary C. Lidz A. Kaufman CAS CAS 8 intelligences linguistic, mathematical, spatial, naturalist, intrapersonal, musical interpersonal, kinesthetic M. Jensen ACFS WJ-III KABC-II DAS 1923 pres. Dynamic Assessment Differential Abilities Scale J.P. Das R. Woodcock C. Elliot J. Naglieri R. Sternberg H. Gardner RIAS STAT J. McClelland Current Efforts PASS Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive Based on Horn-Cattell Fluid Crystallized processing tests 1948 - present Triarchic Analytic Practical Creative Reynolds C. Shearer MIDAS 1983 - present 1985 - Present PDP Parallel Distributed Processing Multiple Intelligences Theories Dev. Assessment Scale Multiple Intelligences Multiple Intelligences student or assistant of influenced by. Some info drawn from a map created by J. Plucker in 1979 new design created by Vessels in 2004. Historical Origins of Psychology, Intelligence Theory, Cognitive Psychology, and Intelligence Testing 7 Howard Gardners Eight Intelligences Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 8 Gardners Multiple Intelligences Model
Gardners (1999, p. 20) criteria for acceptance as a distinct form of intelligence
Potential localization in the brain via brain damage cases
Existence of individuals who display the form of intelligence to an exceptional degree
An identifiable set of core operations such as the detection of relationships among musical tones
A regular developmental progression by way of experience beginning with novice and resulting in mastery
An evolutionary history wherein increases in intelligence can be associated with better adaptation to the natural environment
Supportive evidence from psychometric tests showing intelligence systems or clusters of abilities (e.g. visual spatial vs. verbal skills)
Supportive evidence from cognitive psychology showing cross-task performance strengths or information processing strengths (e.g. mental rotation, recall of visual spatial images)
Possible or actual encoding in a symbol system (e.g. linguistics, math, dance, athletics, music).
Gardner, H. (1999). Disciplined Minds What all students should understand. New York Simon and Schuster.
Paraphrased and arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 9 Theories of Multiple Intelligence Sternbergs Triarchic Model
Sternberg proposes that intelligence is comprised of three fundamental aspects
Factors related to the internal world of the individual (e.g. executive processes, performance components as in sensory functioning, and problem solving or knowledge acquisition components)
Factors relating to the external world (e.g. how we adapt to the external world, how we shape our environment to suit our needs, how we select new environments)
Factors related to experience (e.g. difficult tasks may become easy with practice, so experience shapes intellectual functioning)
Primary source for this slide Sternberg, R.J. (1988). The triarchiic mind A new theory of human intelligence. New York Viking.
Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 10 Robert Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence ANALYTIC Characteristic of people who have high IQs on traditional tests includes the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge. CREATIVE PRACTICAL Shown by people who think divergently and flexibly and can consider a wide range of original solutions to problems. Displayed by people who can size up a real-world situation and then adapt effectively to demands and circumstances. Sources Sternberg, Robert (1985). Beyond IQ, A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York Viking Sternberg, R. J. (1997). The triarchic theory of intelligence. In Dawn P. Flannagan, Judy, L. Genshaft, Patti L. Harrison (Eds.). Contemporary Intellectual Assessment Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 92-104) New York Guilford Press.) Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 11 He has attempted to identify the cognitive processes that contribute to intelligence. He proposes that these processes fall into three categories metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components. Sternbergs model of intelligence consists of three parts the contextual subtheory, the experiential subtheory, and the componential subtheory. Much of his research has been devoted to the componential subtheory. Practical Intelligence Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Types of Intelligence Creative Intelligence Analytical Intelligence Experiential Subtheory Specifies how experiences affect intelligence and vice versa Meta- components Control, monitor, and evaluate cognitive processing Triarchic Theory of intelligence External-Contextual Subtheory Specifies the behaviors thought intelligent in a particular culture Internal- Componential Subtheory Specifies the internal cognitive processes that underlie all intelligence Componential Subtheory Knowledge acquisition components Encode, combine, and compare information Performance components Execute strategies assembled by metacomponents Robert Sternberg Sources Sternberg, Robert (1985). Beyond IQ, A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York Viking Sternberg, R. J. (1997). The triarchic theory of intelligence. In Dawn P. Flannagan, Judy, L. Genshaft, Patti L. Harrison (Eds.). Contemporary Intellectual Assessment Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 92-104) New York Guilford Press. Slide arranged by G. Vessels. 12 Robert Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence Meta- components control, monitor, and evaluate cognitive processing Contextual Subtheory Specifies the behaviors thought intelligent in a particular culture. Knowledge acquisition components encoding, combining, and comparing information Componential Subtheory Specifies the cognitive processes that underlie all intelligent behavior. Experiential Subtheory Specifies how experiences affect intelligence and vice versa. Performance components Execute strategies assembled by meta- components Adapted by Dr. Gordon Vessels from a similar graphic in Beyond IQ A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence, by Robert Sternberg, 1985. Cambridge University Press 13 Mental Ability, Cognitive, Intelligence Tests Used by Applied Psychologists Including School and Clinical Psychologists Primary sources (1) Carolyn Ks website called Hoagies Gifted Education Page An Inventory of Tests. Retrieved at http//www.hoagiesgifted.org/ tests.htm (2) Machek, Greg (2003). Individually administered intelligence tests, a webpage accessed at http//www.indiana.edu/intell/intelli genceTests.shtmlcharacs This is a page on the website at Indiana University created and maintained by Dr. Jonathan Plucker and which covers in-depth key contributors to intelligence testing and theory. 14 Charles Spearmans g In his analysis of the structure of intellect, Charles Spearman found that specific mental talents (S1, S2, S3, etc.) were highly Inter-correlated. He concluded that all cognitive abilities share a common core, which he labeled g for general mental ability. S2 S1 S3 S4 g Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 15 Guilfords Structure of Intellect Memory Visual Cognition CONTENTS Auditory Evaluation Divergent Production OPERATIONS Convergent Production Symbolic Semantic OPERATIONS Behavioral Cognition Evaluation Divergent Production Evaluation Auditory Visual Convergent Production PRODUCTS Transformations Visual PRODUCTS Symbolic Implications Semantic Visual PRODUCTS Relations Behavioral Transformations Visual Systems Implications CONTENTS Visual Classes Relations In contrast to Spearman, Guilford concluded that intelligence is made up of numerous abilities. According to his analysis, people have as many as 150 distinct mental abilities that can be described in terms of operations, contents, and products. Visual Units Systems Auditory Units Units Symbolic Units Classes Semantic Units Behavioral Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 16 Guilfords Structure of Intellect Click title to learn more.