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Gravitational Force

4 Forces of the Universe

- Nuclear Strong forces holding the nucleus of an

atom together (gluon) - Weak Forces as a result of some atoms that

decay the nucleus ( radioactive ) - Electromagnetic a force based on electricity,

magnetism and light properties - Gravitational The weakest force caused by the 2

factors, MASS and DISTANCE

Gravity vs. displacement Graph

Henry Cavendish 1731 - 1810

- Education. At age 18, (1749) he entered

Cambridge in St. Peter's College. He left

without graduating four years later. His first

paper Factitious Airs appeared 13 years later.

- Eccentric in life. Henry Cavendish had a

peculiarly odd demeanor. He was morbidly shy of

women and strangers and avoided ever speaking to

them. Henry Cavendish was extremely wealthy, he

became the single largest holder of bank stock in

England.

Cavendish Experiments

- Cavendish's most famous accomplishment in science

took place during the years 1796 - 8 during which

he established the mean density of the earth to

be 5.448. The current estimate is 5.5.

Verification of G, Gravitational Constant - Hydrogen (Inflammable air). Cavendish is

generally credited with the discovery of

inflammable air

Universal Gravitation

- The force on two objects vary inversely with the

square of the distance between the objects. - F a 1
- d2
- F G m1 m2 where G 6.67 x 10 -11 Nm2/kg2
- r2

Mass, distance, force

- How does the mass change the force of gravity?
- How does distance change the force of gravity?

- Mass has a direct change of the force.

- Distance is an inverse square to the force.

Gravitational Problem 1

- Gravitational force of attraction F exists

between two point masses. Mass A distance is 3m

and B is changed to only 1m, the gravitational

attraction between the masses has changed by - A Tripled F
- B 1/9 F
- C 9 times F
- D no change in F

3m

Mass A

Mass B

1m

Answer 9 times the Force

Mass A

Mass B

Mass B

Gravitational Problem 2

- Gravitational force of attraction F exists

between two point masses, mass A and B are

separated by a fixed distance. After mass A is

tripled and B remains the same, the gravitational

attraction between the masses is - A Tripled F
- B 1/9 F
- C 9 times F
- D no change in F

3m

Mass A

Mass B

3m

Mass A

Mass B

Answer Tripled Force

Gravitational Problem 3

- Gravitational force of attraction F exists

between two point masses, mass A and B are

separated by a fixed distance. After mass A is

tripled and B is halved, the gravitational

attraction between the masses is - 1/6 F
- 2/3 F
- 3/2 F
- 6 F

3m

Mass A

Mass B

3 m

Mass B

Answer 3/2 F

Mass A

Gravitational Problem 4

- Gravitational force of attraction F exists

between two point masses. After the distance is

doubled between A and B, the gravitational

attraction between the masses is - 2x F
- 4x F
- ½ F
- ¼ F

3 m

Mass A

Mass A

Mass B

6m

Mass B

Mass A

Answer ¼ F ( Inverse Square )

Gravitational Problem 5

- Find the Force of attraction (gravity) between

two 7.26 kg Bowling balls separated by .3 m. - F G m1 m2
- r2
- F (6.67 x 10 -11 Nm2/kg2) ( 7.26kg) ( 7.26kg)
- (0.30m)2
- F 6.67 x 52.7076 x 10 -11 N m2
- .09 m2
- F 351.559692 / .09 x 10 -11N
- F 3906.2188 x 10 -11N
- F 3.91 x 10 -8 N

Einsteins Gravity??

- The editors of Scientific American have asked me

to write about my recent work which has just been

published. It is a mathematical investigation

concerning the foundations of field physics - He discussed his special and general theories of

relativity and his work toward a unified field

theory in a 1950 Scientific American article. At

the time, he was not convinced that he had

discovered a valid solution capable of extending

his general theory of relativity to other forces.

He died in 1955, leaving the problem of Gravity

unsolved.

Summary

- Gravity is the weakest force
- Gravity is only a force of attraction
- Gravity is dependant on distance and mass
- The force of gravity changes directly with the

mass - The force changes inversely to the square of the

distance

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