1 Biosphere reserves in India Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve - Tamil Nadu Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve - Kerala Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve - Karnataka Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttaranchal Nokrerk Biosphere Reserve - Meghalaya Manas Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve - Assam Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve - West Bengal Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve - Tamil Nadu Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve - AN islands Similpal Biosphere Reserve - Orissa Dehang Debang Biosphere Reserve - Arunachal Pradesh Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve - Madhya Pradesh Kanchanjanga Biosphere Reserve - Sikkim 2 Atmosphere
Earth is enveloped by a gaseous layer
This layer sustains life or earth and saves it from dangerous environment of outer space
Absorbs most of cosmic rays from outer space
Transmits only near UV Visible near infrared radiation and radio waves while filtering out dangerous ultra violet radiations
Helps maintaining habitable temp on the planet by maintaining the heat balance on earth.
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Troposphere Lowest layer of Atmosphere close to earth surface 20km above. Turbulent zone of strong air movement and all climatic and weather changes takes place. Most imp. Zone of the atmosphere for organisms.
Stratosphere Lies between 14-50km above earths surface. It is zone of atmosphere. Ozone is present in the immediate upper layer called stratopause which absorbs UV radiation of sun hence increase in temp.
Mesosphere 50 90km from earths surface coldest region of Atmosphere.
Thermosphere Temp. increases with height. Includes region in which UV radiation and Cosmic rays cause ionization of Oxygen and Nitric oxide molecules.
Exosphere Region above thermosphere. Outer space which extends up to 32190 km from earth. Very high temp. due to solar radiation.
Hydrosphere Oceans seas rivers glaciers lakes reservoirs polar ice caps and shallow ground water bodies.
Approximately 70.8 of earth surface is covered with water mainly from oceans
97 - high salt concentration 2 - ice caps Less than 1 - fresh water
Slightest variation in the composition structure or function of the atmosphere through human interference will invite lot of serious environmental problems
climate change El Nino effect global warming Green house effect ozone depletion ozone hole etc.
These damages are quite difficult to repair unless man decides to improve on his mistakes.
There can only be reduction in further environmental damages and not the repair
7 Ozone Layer Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic species O2. Ground-level ozone is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals. Ozone in the upper atmosphere filters potentially damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earths surface. It is present in low concentrations throughout the Earths atmosphere. 8 CFCs CFC s are used in coolants in our homes cars and refrigerators as foaming agents in foam insulation mattresses and food packaging and as solvents that remove impurities from computer microchips and electronic equipment. The same properties that make CFCs efficient and safe for so many industrial uses also make them destructive for the environment. One of these atoms chlorine has a devastating effect on ozone. Other compounds called halons used in some fire extinguishers are even more destructive of ozone. 9 Ozone depletion
A slow steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths atmosphere since around 1980 and a much larger but seasonal decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths polar regions during the same period.
CFCs halons (bromofluorocarbon compounds) and other contributory substances are commonly referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS).
10 Ozone depletion
There has been a rapid decline in the amount of ozone over the
Antarctic region since the 1970s leading to the formation of the ozone
Ozone loss over the Antarctic appears to have stabilised in the 1990s
but between 1998 and 2001 the size of the ozone hole covered an area
of approximately 26 million km2 nearly three times the area of Australia.
After the hole was discovered many industries stopped releasing
ozone-depleting chemicals into the atmosphere.
An international agreement known as the Montreal Treaty intends
to reduce the emission of ozone depleting chemicals.
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