2 Everyman desires to live long but no man would be old. Johnathan Swift 1667-1745 3 Theories of Aging
address the anatomic and physiologic changes occurring with age.
explain the thought processes and behaviors of aging persons.
4 (No Transcript) 5 Biological Theories of Aging
Immunologic / Autoimmune
Cross link or Collagen
6 Psycho-Social Theories of Aging
7 Disengagement Theory
developed by Cummings and Henry in late 1950s.
aging is an inevitable mutual withdrawal or disengagement resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he/she belongs to.
8 Activity Theory
developed by Robert Havighurst in the 1960s.
supports the maintenance of regular activities roles and social pursuits.
persons who achieve optimal age are those who stay active.
as roles change the individual finds substitute activities for these roles.
9 Continuity Theory
proposed by Havighurst and co-workers in reaction to the disengagement theory
basic personality attitudes and behaviors remain constant throughout the life span
10 ENJOY THE BALLET LORETTA .AND TRY TO SELL MY TICKET. 11
What is the relevance of the biological and psychosocial theories of aging to nursing
12 Developmental Tasks of Aging 13 Developmental Task
an activity or event that arises at a certain period in the life of an individual
successful achievement leads to happiness growth and success with later tasks
failure leads to unhappiness disapproval by society and difficulty with later tasks
What are some important roles that older individuals fulfill
15 Ericksons Developmental Stages
Young Adulthood (20-30)
- Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood (30-60)
- Generativity vs. Stagnation
Older Adulthood (60)
- Integrity vs. Despair
Area of Resolution and Behavior
Intimacy - capacity for relationships
Isolation - impersonal relations
16 Pecks Developmental Tasks of Aging
Ego Differentiation vs. Work-Role Preoccupation
Body Transcendence vs. Body Preoccupation
Ego Transcendence vs. Ego Preoccupation
17 Havighursts Developmental Tasks of Aging
Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health
Adjusting to retirement and reduced income
Establishing an affilitation with ones age group
Meeting civic and social obligations
Establishing satisfactory living arrangements
Adjusting to death of spouse
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What are factors which influences a persons success at achieving developmental tasks
20 Nursing Interventions
How can nurses assist elders accomplish developmental tasks
encourage clients to maintain and establish roles and relationships
offer maximum opportunities for decision making
build on clients unique interests ands skills
listen to clients concerns
promote reminiscence (Eliopoulas1995)
21 Common Psychosocial Changes
Assume Grandparent Role
Adjust to Retirement
Increase Volunteer Activity
Maintain or Develop New Interests
Cope with Death of Spouse or S.O.
Adjust to Change in Intimacy Sexuality
Cope with Relocation
Cope with Losses
22 Coping with Psychosocial Changes Developmental Crises
23 Spirituality and Religiosity
These concepts are frequently confused.
Studies have found that nurses tend to avoid addressing spiritual needs of patients.
24 Spirituality is the
totality of mans inner resources
the ultimate concerns around which all other values are focused
the central philosophy of life that guides conduct
and the meaning-giving center of human life which influences all individual and social behavior (Moberg 1979)
trust faith in a power greater than oneself
(levin Taylor 1997)
25 Religion is
only one aspect of spirituality
an organized practice of beliefs
may or may not fill an individuals spiritual needs eg. spiritual needs are much broader more personal than any particular religious persuasion
26 Church and Synagogue Attendance is
Lowest among those in their 30s
Peaks in the late 50s - early 60s
Declines in late 60s and early 70s however 65 are the most likely to belong to church-affiliated groups
27 Research Findings
Black women tend to be significantly more religious than black men and whites of both genders (Levin Taylor 1993).
Involvement in church activities tended to increase self-esteem (Krause 1995).
Religious preference practice were inversely related to depressive symptomatology (Kennedy 1996).
Persons who attended religious services had lower mortality (Oman Reed 1998).
28 Nursing Interventions that enhances the spirituality of clients
Presence and acceptance
Active Listening Touch
Discuss pts. source of strength instill hope
Conduct a spiritual assessment
Call/make referral to clergy
Pray or obtain religious articles (Poncar94 MacLennan Tsai 95)
29 (No Transcript)
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