Lev Vygotsky Archive Retrieved Online on June 22 2004 from http//www.marxists.org/archive/Vyg otsky/ 3 Biography
Born in Russia in 1896
Graduated from University of Moscow in 1917
Lectured on psychology and taught literature
Became interested in language and cognitive development
Developed Social Development Theory
Died of Tuberculosis in 1934 at the age of 38
Lev Vygotsky Archive Retrieved Online on June 22 2004 from http//www.marxists.org/archive/Vyg otsky/ 4 Social Development Theory
Social interaction fundamental in the development of cognition
Personal and social experience cannot be separated
Example Pointing a finger
Social and cultural institutions technologies and tools are the driving force behind interpersonal interactions.
A function in the cultural development of a child develops on two planes
Lev Vygotsky Archive Retrieved Online on June 22 2004 from http//www.marxists.org/archive/Vyg otsky/ 5 Zone of Proximal Development
Range of skills that can be developed with the guidance of a knowledgeable adult that exceeds what can be attained alone.
Depends on full social interaction
Four levels of learning for ZPD
Student needs assistance from other to do skill
Student needs assistance but he/she is in control
Student masters the skill and can work on their own
Recursive (disrupted) Child sometimes must go back to other stages
Gardhart C. Theories of Childhood. (2000) St. Paul MNRedleaf Books 6 ZPD continued
Teacher needs to teach at level where there is a minimum amount of assistance but the student is still not on his/her own yet.
When children are guided by explanation demonstrations and work they can attain higher levels of thinking
Example IQ testing
Scaffolding helping a child to understand difficult concepts (like using a scaffold to reach the top part of the house when painting)
Gardhart C. Theories of Childhood. (2000) St. Paul MNRedleaf Books 7 Vygotsky and Language
The relation between word is a living process thought is born through words. A word devoid of thought is a dead thing and a thought unembodied in word remains a shadow. The connection between them however is not a performed and constant one. It emerges in the course of development and itself evolves. -Vygotsky
8 Collaborative learning
Influenced by Vygotskys work
Collaborative classrooms have four major characteristics
Shared knowledge among teachers and students
Shared authority among teachers and students
Teachers as mediators
Heterogeneous groupings of students
Assessment in a collaborative classroom
Tinzmann B.F.What is the Collaborative Classroom North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (1990). Retrieved Online on June 22 2004 from http//www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/rpl_esy s/collab.htm 9 Applying Vygotskys Ideas
Observe children carefully and plan curriculum that encourages childrens emerging abilities.
Plan Challenging Curriculum to stretch a childs competence
Encourage conversations and social interaction
Provide opportunities for children to work together
Pair children up to learn from each other
Gardhart C. Theories of Childhood. (2000) St. Paul MNRedleaf Books 10 Vygotskys Works
The Psychology of Art 1925Consciousness as a problem in the Psychology of Behavior 1925Educational Psychology 1926Historical meaning of the crisis in Psychology 1927The Problem of the Cultural Development of the Child 1929The Socialist alteration of Man 1930Primitive Man and his Behavior c. 1930Mind and Society 1930Adolescent Pedagogy 1931Play and its role in the Mental development of the Child 1933Thinking and Speech 1934
Lev Vygotsky Archive Retrieved Online on June 22 2004 from http//www.marxists.org/archive/Vyg otsky/
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