Title: Motion Photography and the Beginnings of Cinema
1 Motion Photography and the Beginnings of Cinema Eadweard Muybridge 1879 2 Eadweard Muybridge (Edward James Muggeridge British 1830-1904) AKA Helios San Francisco Landscape photographer Valley of the Yosemite ca.1867
Muybridges five-month trip to the Yosemite Valley in 1867 yielded 260 published views 160 of them stereographs. His were among the most celebrated images taken of the Valley.
3 Eadweard Muybridge (Edward James Muggeridge British 1830-1904) Galloping Horse Motion Study Sallie Gardner owned by Leland Stanford running at 1.40 gait over the Palo Alto track June 19 1879 wet plate collotype a sequence of photographs with 12 cameras
Muybridge began the project in 1872. In 1878 he succeeded in taking a sequence of photographs with 12 cameras that captured the moment when the animals hooves were tucked under its belly. Publication of these photographs made Muybridge an international celebrity.
4 Eadweard Muybridge The Zoopraxiscope projector presented in autumn of 1879 The private gathering that watched the first Zoopraxiscope projections at Mayfield Grange the home of Muybridges sponsor Leland Stanford at Palo Alto farm in the autumn of 1879 has the distinction of being one of the earliest motion picture audiences. 5 Zoopraxiscope disc and detail of stencil 6 Muybridge Animal Locomotion Plate 455 Woman Throwing herself on heap of hay 1887 collotype The Pennsylvania Project 1883 1887 University of Pennsylvania 7 Eadweard Muybridge Animal Locomotion Man Shoveling (Self Portrait) 1895University of Pennsylvania 8 Thomas Eakins (American Realist Painter 1844-1916) George Reynolds Seven Photographs 1883 albumen print Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (lower left) Motion Study male running jump to left ca. 1885 (lower right) Motion Study female nude blindfolded walking to left ca. 1885 Eakins approached the human figure with the analytical eye of a scientist. 9 (left) Thomas Eakins The Swimming Hole oil on canvas 1884-85 (right) Eakins Eakinss Students at the Site for Swimming albumen print ca.1884 10 Etienne-Jules Marey (French Physiologist 18301904) Photographic Gun camera with a rotating plate capable of taking rapid sequence of separate images. (below) Marey Pelicans in Flight c.1882
Marey saw Muybridges motion photographs when they were published in Paris in 1878. Muybridges multi-camera system wasnt scientific enough for Marey.
11 Marey Chronophotographic study of Man Pole Vaulting 1890 -1891 albumen silver print
Marey used dry photographic plates faster than the wet plates Muybridge used and an ordinary camera with its lens left open. Behind the lens Marey put a rotating metal disk that had from one to ten slots cut into it at even intervals. As the subject dressed
in white moved in front of a black background the rotating shutter exposed the glass plate creating a sequence of images.
12 Thomas Eakins Motion Study using Mareys wheel camera Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts 1885 13 Edgar Degas (French Realist/Impressionist Painter and Sculptor 1834-1917)Frieze of Dancers 1895 oil on canvas 27 3/4 x 79Multiple views of a single figure an approach that violated the traditional notion that a painting must represent a unity of time place and viewpoint 14 Giacomo Balla (Italian Futurist Painter) Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (Leash in Motion) 1912 oil on canvas 35 x 45Antonio Bragaglia (Italian Futurist Photographer) Change of Position 1911 gelatin-silver print 15 Giacoma Balla Swallows 1913 oil on canvas 16 (right) Lucien Bull (Marey assistant) with Marey-wheel camera photographing soap bubble 1906(left) Bull Soap Bubble Bursting 1904 silver gelatin print from a film strip This stereoscopic camera took 54 pairs of pictures per second. 17 The Movies BeginFirst Kodak camera 1888Celluloid FilmYou press the button we do the rest
Drawings submitted by George Eastman for his new camera The Kodak showing detailed views of the cameras exterior and the interior with its barrel shutter and roll-film transport designs.
18 Kinetograph motion picture camera William Dickson (British inventor 1860 - 1935) under the employ of Thomas EdisonCamera (the first to use perforated film stock) for producing subjects for the Kinetoscope peepshow machine. Developed over several years shot commercially produced movies from 1893 and patented in 1897 19 Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope 1894. The loop of film was about 45 feet long. Edison to George Eastman on receiving 50-ft celluloid roll Thats it -- weve got it -- now work like hell! 20 (center) Man Using a Sound Version of the Kinetoscope(right) Kinetoscope parlor in San Francisco ca. 1894(bottom right) Sandow the Modern Hercules 1894 (Still from strip of the Edison Kinetoscope) BW 39 feet Directed by W.K.L. Dickson and William Heise Eugen Sandow (Friedrich Muller) Edison Manufacturing Company production Thomas Edison wanted an instrument that does for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear. 21 The Black Maria Edisons film studio part of an industrial research laboratory Edison built in West Orange New JerseyEdisons inventors in West Orange c. 1890 22 Within twelve years of its invention film grammar is being determined in The Great Train Robbery the cut the close-up parallel action - along with the social and economic structures that would integrate cinema into the pattern of peoples daily lives and make it pay for itself. The Great Train Robbery (1903) directed and photographed by Edwin Porter 10 minutes long with 14-scenes filmed in New Jersey at Edisons studios and along the Lackawanna railroad. Actor Justus Barnes
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