Title: SUSTAINABILE BUILDINGS WITH PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
1 SUSTAINABILE BUILDINGS WITHPRECAST / PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 2 AIA/CES Program
Precast Concrete Institute (PCI) is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request.
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling using distributing or dealing in any material or product.
3 Learning Objectives
At the end of this presentation you will be able to
Appreciate the sustainability aspects of architectural and structural precast concrete
Utilize precast concrete to design buildings with longer service life and better energy efficiency
Determine if precast concrete can contribute to your next LEED certified project
4 Why is Sustainability Important
The U.S. uses more energy and natural resources per capita than any other nation.
Buildings have an impact on the use of natural resources in two ways
The resources used to create and construct the building
The resources used to maintain remodel and operate over time.
5 Sustainable Buildings with Precast / Prestressed Concrete
How can precast concrete be specified and designed into a project to the benefit of the environment and the projects bottom line.
6 Every day the worldwide economy burns an amount of energy the planet required 10000 days to createthe stored solar energy is burned and released by utilities cars houses factories and farms. Source Paul Hawken The Ecology of Commerce 7 History of Sustainability
Energy efficiency gained importance during the 1970s oil crisis
Recycling efforts in the 1970s became commonplace and came to the attention of the building industry
1980s the sick building syndrome emerged
Projects in water scarce areas began to focus on water conservation
Early green designs focused on one issue
1990s integration of all factors would result in a high performance building
8 Why be Sustainable
In the U.S. building operations consume
70 of the electricity generated
gt36 of primary energy i.e. natural gas
12 of potable water.
Source USGBC website. February 28 2007. 9 Why be Sustainable
Americans spend 90 of their time inside of buildings.
Building materials and energy consumption affect the health of the population
Outdoor air water quality are affected by resources and energy used in buildings
Indoor air quality is dependent on the materials used to build and furnish the buildings.
Source USGBC website. February 28 2007. 10 Why be Sustainable
During their construction buildings produce
30 of national output of greenhouse gases
38 of CO2 emissions in the U.S.
136 million tons of construction demolition waste
Source USGBC website. February 28 2007. 11 Why be Sustainable
Worldwide buildings use 40 3 billion tons of the available raw materials used in construction operations.
Fifteen million new buildings are projected to be constructed by 2015.
Source USGBC website. February 28 2007. 12 Market Influences
13 Federal Regulations
USDA Forest Service
Dept. of Interior
Dept. of State
U.S. Air Force
These federal agencies all require some form of LEED certification. Source BDC November 2006 p. 50. 14 One prime motivation for early action on climate change is the looming threat of greenhouse gas controls. Nearly all companies in this report (90) believe that government regulation is imminent and 67 believe it will come between 2010 and 2015. Corporate Motives Source Getting Ahead of the Curve Corporate Strategies to Address Sustainability 15 Precast Concrete Construction May Contribute to the Following LEED Categories
Energy and Atmosphere
Materials and Resources
Indoor Environmental Quality
Innovation and Design Process
16 High Reflectivity
White or light colored precast concrete reduces heat in urban areas
This reduces the amount of electricity for A/C which reduces smog and improves urban air quality.
17 Energy Conservation 18 Night and Day
Lighting accounts for 25 of annual electricity usage when combined with reflective (white) precast concrete efficiency is enhanced
Lighting enhances security reducing crime.
19 Cooler communities
By reducing the heat island urban effect precast construction can improve energy use reduce greenhouse gases lower air and water pollution and enhance sustainable development
White roofs and shade trees have proven to lower the need for a/c
20 Energy and Atmosphere
The earths resources are best conserved if the service life of a building is prolonged so the durability and longevity of precast concrete make it an ideal choice.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy
Optimum Energy performance
Environmentally friendly production practices
22 Energy Efficiency
36 of ALL energy consumed in the U.S. is consumed by buildings
Energy efficient building shell is one that integrates and optimizes insulation levels glazing shading thermal mass air leakage control and light-colored exterior surfaces(Sustainable Building Industry Council - High Performance School Buildings 2005 2nd Edition)
23 Energy Conservation Valley River Office Park Eugene OregonArchitect Boutwell Gordon Beard and Grimes 24 Use of Vertical Fins Medical Science Research Building Duke University Medical CenterDurham North CarolinaArchitect Payette Associates 25 Energy Conservation East Los Angeles Municipal Courts BuildingEast Los Angeles CaliforniaArchitect Kanner Architects Arizona Public Service Administration Complex Phoenix ArizonaArchitect DFD Cornoyer-Hedrick formerly Comoyer-Hedrick Architects Planners Cantilever floor used to shade windows Deep recessed windows 26 Energy Efficiency The R-value provided by the insulation and the concretes thermal mass combine to provide a high insulating value in a relatively thin and durable panel. Exterior Wythe Interior Wythe Insulation 27 Energy Efficiency Thermal mass is particularly beneficial in spring and fall in Northeast climate where there are wide fluctuations in temperatures 28 Heat Capacity
Used in energy codes to determine if a wall has enough mass to use mass criteria or mass credit
Ability to store heat per unit area of wall area
Codes require an HC greater than 6 Btu/ft2F in order to use mass wall criteria
These criteria allow a lower wall R-value
29 (No Transcript) 30 ASHRAE 90.1-2004 R-value Req for Walls 31 Thermal Mass Effect
Absorbs outside and inside heat and slowly releases
32 Thermal Mass Effect
Delays the onset of peak heating or cooling loads
Reduces indoor temperature fluctuations to improve occupant comfort
33 Thermal Mass Precast Concrete Walls Precast Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels 34 Thermal Mass Effect
May reduce peak demand/energy consumption and enable downsized HVAC systems
Varies by climate and project type
35 Wall Assembly Performance
Energy transfer is minimized by wall design
Minimize thermal bridging
Minimize infiltration exfiltration
Heat Energy Warm Air Cool Air 36
Precast Concrete Insulated Wall System
Insulation can run edge to edge
Ready for immediate window/door installation and panel to panel caulk
Anticipating and designing for maintenance/repair and designing in flexibility for changes in usage can also extend service life.
Conservation of materials and resources
Construction waste management
Local/ regional Materials
41 Building Reuse
Precast conrete members are unique in that they can be dis-assembled. Precast concrete walls can be used for building expansion or fire walls.
Crushed concrete can be used as aggregate or can be used as base material for roads sidewalks or slabs.
42 Managing the environment
Compared to logging (wood) and mining (steel) aggregate and limestone extraction is the least disruptive to land
In a few years after closing quarries can be restored to agriculture nature preserves parks or other uses.
43 Renewable Materials
85 of Precast Concrete is made up of the naturally occurring materials sand and stone. Compared to other materials extraction requires low amounts of energy and they go directly into the finished product.
44 Concrete (and cement)
Cement manufacturing uses industrial byproducts from other sectors both as production ingredients and as fuel.
Cement manufacture is energy intensive.
A medium-sized cement kiln consumes up to 300 million BTUs of fuel per hour.
Source EPA Sector Strategies Performance Report 2006 45 Concrete (and cement) U.S. CEMENT PRODUCTION 4 of U.S. Industrial Carbon Emissions 5 40 5 50
RAW MATERIALS PREPARATION CLINKER PRODUCTION FINISH GRINDING
10 10 10 70 0.6 of U.S. Energy Consumption 46 Local Materials
The use of local cements aggregates etc. keeps transportation of raw materials to a minimum.
47 Local Precast Production Precast Concrete components are most often transported and erected within 200 miles of the plant. 48 Re-usable forms
Steel forms are used to cast structural precast products. These forms have a long life span providing thousands of reuses.
Specialty shaped forms are stored for future use.
49 Reusable Forms
Re-use of forms reduces waste and debris at the job site.
Construction sites are cleaner neater and quieter.
50 Controlled Environment Exact Batching Technologies little waste at plant 51 Qualified and trained personnel minimize waste every day 52 Controlled Environment
SCC (Self-Consolidating Concrete)
Grey water is often recycled
53 Controlled Environment
Enclosures allow for the recycling of sand or acid used in finishing techniques for APC
54 Recycled Materials
Use of fly ash slag or silica fume is commonplace as substitute for cement
Reinforcement and connection hardware are made from recycled steel
55 DESIGN AND DETAIL CONSIDERATIONS DURABILITY 56
Conservation of resources-
Prestressing allows designers to create longer spans using less material and leading to enhanced flexibility of buildings in their use.
57 Clean Site
No packaging required
Precast concrete construction reduces impact to site in both time and area
58 Sustainable Precast Concrete
Indoor environmental quality
Day lighting and Views
Control Contaminant sources
Low Emitting Materials Concrete emits low or no VOCs
59 Open Space 60 Indoor Air Quality
Precast concrete is vermin proof eliminating the need for chemical treatments or inhumane traps.
61 Indoor AQ
Precast floors / walls also provide first class sound proofing with typical STC 50 -55.
62 Indoor AQ
Using precast walls reduces the out-gassing often attributed to other materials.
63 Indoor Air Quality
Because precast concrete is inert it does not require VOC-based preservatives like wood.
Textured interior walls can provide aesthetic alternatives to VOC-emitting paints or wall board
64 Sustainable Design
Because precast concrete is non-combustible it does not require additional fire-proofing applications.
Precast structures are built to last for many many years.
65 Structural Fire Endurance
Fire ratings are determined based on full scale fire testing of structural assemblies per ASTM E119
UL Rated products
66 Indoor environmental quality Excellent sound and fire protection and high thermal mass touch on every aspect of sustainable design as well as the important aspect of increased consideration for peoples health and safety 67 Sustainable Precast Job Sites
Scheduling for efficient on-time deliveries of precast that minimize vehicular idling time and traffic congestion
68 Sustainable Precast Job Sites
Use of modular systems minimizes construction waste
69 Sustainable Precast Job Sites
Education of field personnel to ensure QC
Dust noise minimized
70 Innovation and Design Process
Innovation in Design
LEED accredited professional
71 Building Design Considerations
First Costs vs. Life Cycle Costs
Durability (or Service Life)
Quality of Life
72 Precast Integration Strategies
Use precast panel as interior surface
Saves material no need for additional framing and drywall
No construction debris
73 Single vs. Dual-use Components
Converting to a dual-use element may require adding thickness and height to accommodate structural reinforcing.
74 (No Transcript) 75 Velocity Condominiums Hoboken NJ
Improve IAQ by enclosing building quickly
76 Precast Integration Strategies
Use parking garages to reduce building footprint and site disturbance
More parking can be added in less space.
77 Precast Integration Strategies
Use thermal mass in combination with appropriate insulation levels in walls
Thermal mass with insulation provides energy benefits that exceed the benefits of mass or insulation alone
78 Precast Integration Strategies
Design wall panels to be disassembled for future function changes
Saves material extends service life of panels
79 Precast Integration Strategies
Materials with long life cycle and low maintenance will require less replacement and maintenance during the life of the building
Use durable materials
80 Glenview at Westfields Chantilly VA 4-Story Office 80000 sf Erected in 20 days 81 Precast Integration Strategies
Reduce and recycle construction waste
Reduces transportation and disposal costs of wastes.
82 Achieving Sustainable Design
Integrated/holistic approach includes
Building as a whole
Life cycle focus
Solutions that yield multiple benefits
Evaluation to ensure goals are met
83 Economic Benefits
Competitive first costs
Reduce operating costs
Lower utility costs significantly
Optimize life-cycle economic performance
Increase building valuation
Decrease vacancy improve retention
84 For more Information
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