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An Introduction to High Energy Density

Physics The X-Games of Contemporary Science

Presentation to the HEDP Summer School July 30,

2007 University of California-San Diego

Bruce A. Remington Lawrence Livermore National

Laboratory

Work performed under the auspices of the U.S.

Department of Energy by the University of

California, Lawrence Livermore National

Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

BAR_summer_schl_v2.ppt

The NRC CPU organized the physics of the universe

around 11 fundamental questions in their Q2C

report

Eleven science questions for the new century

Q2C report

2. What is the nature of dark energy Type

1A SNe (burn, hydro, rad flow, EOS, opacities)

4. Did Einstein have the last word on gravity

Accreting black holes (photoionized

plasmas, spectroscopy)

6. How do cosmic accelerators work Cosmic

rays (strong field physics, nonlinear plasma

waves)

8. Are there new states of matter at extreme

HED Neutron star interior (photoionized

plasmas, spectroscopy, EOS)

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL

ACADEMIES

10. How were the elements made and ejected

Core-collapse SNe (reactions off excited states,

turbulent hydro, rad flow)

Excerpt from the conclusions

- HEDP provides crucial experiments to interpret

astrophysical observations

The NRC Committee on the Physics of the

Universe has presented a science vision for the

new century

Frontiers of research at the intersection of

physics and astronomy

Element formation and ejection

Star formation and evolution

The Big Bang

Planetary system formation

Planet formation and evolution

Chemistry of life

NRC Report, Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos,

Michael Turner et al. (2003), Fig. 1.1.1

The vision in NASAs Strategic Roadmaps and

Planning within the Universe looks very similar

to that of the CPU

What Powered the Big Bang

What Happens at the Edge of a Black Hole

What is the Dark Energy Pulling the Universe

Apart

Where Do the Elements of Life Come From

Are There Other Habitable Worlds

Are There Other Habitable Worlds

Where do Planets Come From

Courtesy of Michael Salamon, Strategic

Roadmaps and Planning (15 Feb. 2005)

The NRC committee on HEDP issued the X-Games

report detailing this new cross-cutting area of

physics

- Frontier research opportunities in
- - plasma physics
- - laser and particle beam physics
- - condensed matter and materials science
- - nuclear physics
- - atomic and molecular physics
- - fluid dynamics
- - magnetohydrodynamics
- - astrophysics

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL

ACADEMIES

Excerpt from the conclusions

- HEDP provides unique opportunities in basic,

applied, interdisciplinary, - and integrated research of the highest

intellectual caliber

There are unique regimes of overlap between HEDP

and astrophysics

20 25 30

35 40

Log n(H)(/m3)

6

10

4

8

Log kT(eV)

Log T(K)

2

6

0

4

-2

2

-10 -5 0

5 10

Log r(g/cm3)

NRC Report, Frontiers in HEDP, Ron Davidson

et al. (2003), Fig. 1.1

Key questions in stellar explosions, planetary

interiors, and radiatively driven molecular

clouds can be addressed

Jupiter

Stellar death, SNe

Eagle Nebula, dist. 2 kpc

1 pc

Kifonidis (2003 2006)

460 ky

1.0

Molecular H2

PPT

Inhomogeneous

Metallic H

y (pc)

0.5

Guillot (1999)

Mizuta (2005)

Miles (2005)

Rock - ice core

0

0 0.2 0.4

x (pc)

Opacity experiments led to an improved

understanding of Cepheid Variable pulsation and

stellar dynamics

Cox Tabor

0.74

6M

OPAL

5M

0.72

P1 / P0

4M

4M

5M

6M

7M

0.70

Observations

1 3 5

7

P0 (days)

Rogers Iglesias, Science 263,50 (1994) Da

Silva et al., PRL 69, 438 (1992)

- The original simulations of Cepheid Variables

predicted pulsation periods longer than observed - The measured opacities of Fe under relevant

conditions were larger than originally

calculated - New OPAL simulations of the opacity of Fe

reproduced the data - This allowed Cepheid Variable pulsations to be

correctly modeled

Accreting neutron stars and black holes are

observed by their x-ray spectral emissions

- Understanding rad. dominated photoionized

plasmas essential for interpreting these data

Accreting NS

Photoionized plasma

Transmission

Companion star

Wavelength (Å)

Foord, PRL (2004)

Chandra Spectrum of Cyg X-3 X-ray Binary

Prior to exprmnt, models disagree by 2x

Heeter, LDRD (2003)

Counts

Fractional Abundances

Paerels, Ap.J.L. (2000)

Wavelength (Å)

Degree of ionization (Fe)

- Scaled experiments of photoionized plasmas are

possible on NIF and ZR

Unique regimes of nuclear physics and nuclear

astrophysics will be accessible on NIF

Nuclear physics off excited states possible via

multi- hit reactions from 1033 n/(cm2 . s) flux

from ignition

NIF neutron spectrum

1020 1015 1010

vs 1032 n/(cm2 . s) for SNe

Neutrons/MeV

2nd hit

1st hit

1st n hit produces excited state

0 10 20 30

Energy (MeV)

s for 2nd reaction from this excited state

Courtesy S. Libby (2005)

- 1st hit gives excited nuclear state
- 2nd hit reaction cross section uncertain

- Reactions from excited states accesses unique
- new nuclear physics

- This is relevant to understanding r-process
- nucleosynthesis of heavy elements

- Screened reactions in stellar - (, T)

conditions - relevant to H- and He-burning may also be

possible

Courtesy L. Bernstein (2006)

Extreme materials science and hypervelocity

impact studies define a new frontier of

condensed matter science

Shoemaker-Levy impact into Jupiter, July 1994,

vimpact 60 km/s, diam 1-2 km, 0.5 g/cm3,

M 1015 g, Ereleased1028 erg 0.25 million

Mton

Lattice Dynamics

Io

Deep Impact mission 370 kg into comet Tempel,

at 10 km/s

Impact

Dynamic Diffraction Lattice Msmt

Iron, Pshk 20 GPa

lt 1 ns

Micro-crater damage on Hubble solar cell

D.H. Kalantar et al., PRL 95 ,075502 (2005) J.

Hawreliak et al., PRB, submitted (2006)

G.A. Graham et al., MAPS. 41, 159 (2006)

- Extreme materials science and hypervelocity

impact experiments possible on ZR and NIF - Micro-impactors accelerated to velocities of

50-100 km/s should be possible - New impactor physics is accessed ionization,

ablation, radiation all become important

An HEDP community is emerging, enhancing the

scientific interest and creating increased

access to the facilities

Titan laser at LLNL

(New HED intermed.-scale user facil.)

Omega laser at LLE

(NLUF program for shot access)

- HEDLA-08 will be April 11-15, 2008, together

with the April-APS, in St. Louis, MO

As an example, three university teams are

starting to prepare for NIF shots in unique

regimes of HED physics

Getting started

Planetary physics - EOS

Astrophysics -hydrodynamics

Nonlinear optical physics - LPI

Raymond Jeanloz, PI, UC Berkeley Thomas

Duffy, Princeton U. Russell Hemley, Carnegie

Inst. Yogendra Gupta, Wash. State U. Paul

Loubeyre, U. Pierre Marie Curie, and

CEA LLNL EOS team

Christoph Niemann, PI UCLA NIF

Professor Chan Joshi, UCLA Warren Mori,

UCLA Bedros Afeyan, Polymath David Montgomery,

LANL Andrew Schmitt, NRL LLNL LPI team

Paul Drake, PI, U. of Mich. David Arnett, U. of

Arizona, Adam Frank, U. of Rochester, Tomek

Plewa, U. of Chicago, Todd Ditmire, U.

Texas-Austin LLNL hydrodynamics team

What are HED experimental facilities

Omega laser facility, Univ. of Rochester

HED facilities deliver E/V 1012 erg/cm3 or P

1 Mbar over spatial scales L 1 mm

Omega laser

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) under

construction at LLNL

60 arms, 30 kJ, 1/3 mm, 1-10 ns, mm scale

targets (E/V 1014 erg/cm3)

Z (magnetic pinch) facility, SNLA

192 arms, 2 MJ, 1/3 mm, 1-100 ns, mm - cm scale

targets (E/V 1013 - 1016 erg/cm3)

20 MA, 1 MJ of x-rays, 10-100 ns, cm scale

targets (E/V 1013 erg/cm3)

Supernova explosion mechanisms remain uncertain

- This turbulent core inversion is not yet fully

understood

Jet model

Standard (spherical shock) model

Density

t 1800 sec

9 x 109cm

1012cm

Density

Kifonidis et al., AA. 408, 621 (2003)

6 x 109cm

Khokhlov et al., Ap.J.Lett. 524, L107 (1999)

- Pre-supernova structure is multilayered
- Supernova explodes by a strong shock
- Turbulent hydrodynamic mixing results

- Core ejection depends on this turbulent hydro
- Accurate 3D modeling is required but difficult
- Scaled 3D testbed experiments are possible

The first step in developing a scaled experiment

is to write down the equations that are likely

to apply

1st chapter, Landau Lifshitz (1987) Ryutov

et al., Ap. J. 518, 821 (1999)

Mass / unit volume of fluid

Mass of fluid flowing out of volume V0 in unit

time through bounding surface

Conservation of mass divergence theorem give,

for any volume element V0

Equation of continuity results

The total force on the same parcel of fluid is

given as

So

, that is

Continuing, we write the equation of motion

as the Euler equation for an ideal fluid

is not the change of fluid velocity at

a fixed point is space, but rather the rate of

change of velocity of a given fluid parcel as it

moves about in space. Hence, the change in

velocity, dv, in time element, dt, has two

parts

Consider two points at the same instant at

spatial interval, dr, apart, where dr

distance moved by the fluid element during time

interval dt

So

, and

So the equation of motion becomes

Euler equation

We complete the equation set with an adiabatic

equation of state and an energy equation assuming

a polytropic gas

We have ignored processes of energy dissipation,

caused by internal friction (viscosity) in the

fluid, and heat exchange between different

regions in the fluid, that is, we have assumed

that thermal thermal conductivity and viscosity

are negligible. Such fluids are said to be

ideal. This can be quantified by writing that

the Reynolds number and Peclet number are

large

, The absence of heat

exchange between different regions of the fluid

imply that the motion is adiabatic, that is, an

ideal fluid is adiabatic. If we also assume

that the fluid is polytropic, meaning that

internal energy per unit volume pressure, then

we can write U/V p, and for an adiabatic

equation of state (EOS), we have p . Then

the energy equation can be written as

Ryutov et al., Ap. J. 518, 821 (1999)

We then make the system of equations and initial

conditions dimensionless

Next write the initial spatial distributions for

density, pressure, and velocity as

where L is a characteristic spatial scale of the

problem , p, v correspond to the vale of

density, pressure, and velocity at a

characteristic point and f, g, h are

dimensionless functions. Euler equations

maintain their same functional form, only with

There are four independent dimensional parameters

describing the initial conditions L, ,

p, v. Now introduce dimensionless variables

The Euler equations maintain their form with the

dimensionless tilde variables. The initial

conditions now become, in dimensionless form

Ryutov et al., Ap. J. 518, 821 (1999)

Conditions on invariance are established

The dimensionless initial conditions for the two

systems are identical if the Dimensionless

functions f, g, and h maintain their form, and

the following dimensionless parameter remains

unchanged

Theorist view Equations (of the dynamics)

dimensionless Initial conditions

dimensionless Initial conditions between two

systems same, if Eu same Hence, dynamics will

evolve identically, up to violation of the

assumptions Have 4 independent variables, and

one condition, Eu inv, hence, can

pick 3 of the 4 variables arbitrarily, and pick

the 4th such that Eu inv

Experimentalist view Write the equations

(continuity, Euler, energy) in dimensional

form Write the obvious scale transformation h

SN ahlab, SN blab, pSN cplab,

Show that the equations are invariant under

this scale transformation, provided that SN

a(b/c)1/2 lab , then see if this lab is

possible.

Ryutov et al., Ap. J. 518, 821 (1999)

Simulations of SN and lab experiment demonstrate

this Euler scaling

a hSN/hlab 1.70e13 b SN/lab 1.8e-3,

c pSN/plab 5.8e1. So lab

SN/a(b/c)1/2 SN / (9.4e10) 2e3 s /

9.4e10 20 ns

Ryutov et al., Ap. J. 518, 821 (1999)

Remington, Ryutov, Drake, RMP 78, 755 (2006)

Supernova explosion hydrodynamics at

intermediate times obey an Euler scale

transformation

- The dynamics are described by Eulers equations

(pure hydrodynamics) - viscous dissipation and heat transport can be

neglected (Re gtgt 104, Pe gtgt 1)

- Conservation of mass

Ryutov, Ap.J. 518, 821 (1999) and RMP 78, 755

(2006)

- Conservation of momentum

- Conservation of energy

- Adiabatic equation of state

- Polytropic gas

- Eulers equations are invariant under this scale

transformation

r -----gt a1 r p -----gt a2 p h -----gt a3 h t

-----gt a3 (a1/a2)1/2 t

SN Lab. experiment p/rareal 10g0

1010g0 h 1012 cm 100 mm t 103 sec 10 ns

- SN scaling can be improved by a more star-like

configuration

- Key question where, when does this Euler

scaling break down

Scaled, nonlinear, multimode RT experiments are

being developed on the Omega laser in regimes

relevant to supernovae

Laser experiment time (nanoseconds)

J. Kane et al., PoP 6, 2065 (1999)

Euler scaling shows that the resulting deep

nonlinear, and early-time turbulent mixing in the

laboratory experiment should be similar to the

supernova case

Supernova velocity (km/s)

Laser exp. velocity (km/s)

Supernova time (seconds)

A. Miles et al., PoP 11, 3631 (2004)

8-mode

t 13 ns

Numerical radiograph

Experimental radiograph

Simulated radiograph

- Multimode, nonlinear simulations, experiment in

good agreement a solved problem

The experimental interface evolution shows a

transition towarda more turbulent structure, not

captured in the SN simulations

t 13 ns

t 25 ns

t 37 ns

Simulation

100µm

shock

Shock-tube wall

Kifonidis et al., Ap.J. Lett 531, L123 (2000)

Robey IFSA-2003 (2004) Miles et al., Phys.

Plasmas 12, 056317 (2005)

The experiment seems to be approaching a

turbulent state, and shows clear differences

with the supernova simulation

The experiment is limited, however, by the

spatial scale of the target

This affects the diagnosability, the interface

planarity, and the appearance of

larger-scale modal structure which drives the

growth of a turbulent layer.

Key question what is the effect of this

transition on the SN mix problem

A proposed supernova experiment for NIF first

bundle will use a spherically diverging, 3-layer

hemisphere target to examine the turbulent, SN

mix problem

Type II supernova

Laser-driven experiment

t 1300 sec

t 50 ns

t 100 ns

1 mm

1011 cm

Kifonidis et al., AA 408, 621 (2003)

Ti-CH-CRF foam 3-layer hemisphere target

A. R. Miles (2004)

- Mass-scaled to SN with representative Si/O,

He/H, and H/ISM interfaces

- Will address multi-interface interaction,

divergence effects, effect of initial conditions,

- 3D vs 2D, turbulent vs non-turbulent

instability evolution, and code validation

- Can be scaled up in size, energy, and complexity

as NIF is completed

Accreting neutron stars and black holes offer

spectral signatures of the dynamics as matter

spirals inward

- Analysis and interpretation require
- accurate photoionization models

AGN NGC 4261

d 30 Mpc

- Photoionization parameter L/nr2
- characterizes the regime

400 LY

Radio jets, vjet c/2

- Astrophysical regimes 102-103

Mblack hole 4.9 x 108 Msun

30

Cyg X-3 X-ray binary

Ferrarese et al., Ap. J. 470, 444 (1996)

d 10 kpc

Porb 5 hr

20

103

Counts /(sec.keV)

Gravitational well V(r)

Photoionized plasma

10

Viscous heating

103 km

Thermal x-ray radiation src

D.A. Liedahl F. Paerels, Ap. J. 468, L33

(1996)

Neutron star or black hole

0

1 2 3

5 7 10

Photon energy (keV)

R. Heeter et al., RSI 71,4092 (2000) M.E. Foord

et al., PRL 93, 055002 (2004)

Developing a scaled photoionized plasma experiment

Remington, Ryutov, Drake, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78,

755 (2006)

Developing a scaled photoionized plasma experiment

Remington, Ryutov, Drake, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78,

755 (2006)

Developing a scaled photoionized plasma experiment

- To study the physics of accreting neutron stars

or black holes, - one wants the ionization parameter, to be

large, gt 100

Remington, Ryutov, Drake, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78,

755 (2006)

HED experiments on Z have demonstrated

radiation-dominated photoionized plasmas

Pinch x-rays

Te 30 eV, Tr 180 eV, ne 1.5x1019cm-3, x 47

2 cm

Lexan- Fe -NaF foils

Spectrometers

Expl data NIMP, w/ rad. GALAXY, w/ rad.

R.F. Heeter et al., RSI 72, 1224 (2001)

- Experiments under nearly relevant
- conditions, x 25, demonstrated at Z

NIMP, w/o rad.

Tr 165 eV Te 150 eV Ti 150 eV

Charge state fraction

- Astrophysics codes disagree on ltZgt
- by 2x, showing the need for lab. data

- NIF will allow the astrophys. relevant
- regimes of x 102 - 103 to be accessed

S. Rose et al., J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

37, L337 (2004)

Iron charge state

Strong shocks (blast waves) are ubiquitous in the

universe, and observations in our galaxy show

that they are often radiative

Radiative shocks in Cygnus loop

Levenson and Graham, Ap. J. 559, 948 (2001)

Janus laser experiment

Omega laser experiment

Blast waves in gas

Shock

Xe, t 150 ns

Keiter et al., PRL 89,165003 (2002)

N2, t 100 ns

10 mg/cc SiO2 foam

Temperature (eV)

J.F. Hansen et al., submitted to PRL (2004)

Radiative precursor

Position (mm)

Theory for radiative precursor shocks can be

compared to the laboratory data, then scaled to

astrophysical shocks

5

Shock velocity

Xe shk vs(initial) 60 km/s, r/r0(initial) gt

20, Te 5 eV, r0(Xe) 10-5g/cm3, Elaser 10 J

Xe gas target experimental data

1

Te(eV)

J.F. Hansen et al., Submitted, PRL (2004)

0.1

20 10

0

r(mm)

vshk

1500

100

Xe plasma

Xe plasma

1000

150

C. Michaut et al., IFSA- 2003 proceedings (2004)

1000

T2/T1

500

r2/r1

250

C. Michaut et al., IFSA- 2003 proceedings (2004)

100 vshk

0 100 200

0 100 200

z (cm)

z (cm)

Protostellar jets are high Mach-, radiatively

cooled bi-polar outflows ejected from YSOs,

associated with the shedding of angular momentum

from an accretion disk

HH 47

1/2 lgt yr

dHH47 450 pc

The bipolar HH 47 complex embedded in the dense

Bok Globule (Red) SII emission (green) Ha

(blue) OIII.

Reipurth and Bally, Annu. Rev. Astron.

Astrophys. 39, 403 (2001) Heathcote et al., AJ

112, 1141 (1996).

Modeling of such jets shows the sensitivity of

jet morphology to Mach (M) -, radiative cooling,

and magnetic fields

jet/rambient 0.1

M 20, h 1 jet simulations

Adiabatic (pure hydro)

M 6

Blondin et al., Ap. J. 360, 370 (1990)

M 3

c 0.2

M 1.5

MHD

Mike Norman, AA113, 285 (1982)

R axis (x 1.e17 cm)

A. Frank et al., Ap. J. 494, L79 (1998)

- Experiments to test this modeling will require
- - high Mach-
- - radiative cooling, when necessary
- - magnetic fields, when necessary
- - sufficient evolution such that turbulence

could develop

Radiative MHD

Z axis (x 1.e17 cm)

- Can such numerical simulations be tested in

scaled dynamics experiments

High M- hydrodynamic jet experiments have been

developed on the Omega laser and the Z (magnetic

pinch) facility

12 ns

8 ns

200

RAGE hohl.

R (mm)

0

200

Al plug

CH reservoir

Experiment

J. Foster et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2251 (2002)

0

2

-200

200 400 200 400

Z (mm)

Distance (mm)

Tr150 eV drive

1

X-ray drive

300 micron Al

250 mg/cc CH foam

t 150 ns

0

0 0.5 1 1.5

600 micron spot

D.B. Sinars et al,. RSI 75, 3672 (2004) G.R.

Bennet, APS-DPP abstract, EP1.015 (Nov. 2004)

Distance (mm)

High Mach- jet experiments that enter the

turbulent regime have been designed and

demonstrated on Omega

125 mm

Mark Taylor et al., IFSA-2003, p. 485

RF foam, r 0.1 g/cm3

2 mm CH ablator

0.5

Mark Taylor et al., IFSA-2003, p. 485

r (mm)

4mm

3.2 kJ, 1 ns

-0.5

Omega laser design

t 240 ns gt tcrit

SHAMROCK AMR simulation

-1.5

6 mm

Titanium

1 2 3 4

825 mm

z (mm)

200 ns

Reipurth, ARAA 39, 403 (2001)

2000 mm

ttransition

100 AU

For comparison

HH 34 bow shock

Foster, Rosen, Wilde, Frank, Blue et al. (2004)

An alternate technique for efficiently launching

a high Mach- jet has been developed on the

Magpie Z-pinch

Al (hydro) Fe W

(radiative)

Target

Jet

1.5 cm

Anode

346 ns 326 ns 343

ns

1 cm

Wires

Soft x-ray image, t 305 ns, jet impacting

CH foil plasma

Cathode

- Jet velocity 200 km/s
- Radiatively cooled jet with M gt20
- ne 1018-1019 cm-3, T 50 eV
- /R lt10-4 , Re gt 104 , Pe gt 10-50

HH 111

0.1 lgt yr

Lebedev et al., Ap.J. 564, 113 (2002)

An experiment to generate and diagnose magnetic

tower jets has been designed

2-D MHD simulations

J x B force

t 90 ns

t 190 ns

z-axis (mm)

x-ray emission ( 300eV)

256 ns

t 206 ns

t 230 ns

z-axis (mm)

4 mm

10 mm

Lebedev, conference on Cores, Discs, Jets and

Outflows, Banff, Alberta,Canada (July 12-16,

2004) http//www.ism.ucalgary.ca/meetings/banff/i

ndex.html

r-axis (mm)

r-axis (mm)

A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev et al., HEDLA

proceedings, in press, Astrophys Space Sci.

2981-2 ( July, 2005)

- These tower jets have greater relevance to the
- earlier time evolution of accretion disk jets

An understanding of planetary interiors requires

an understanding of their constituents at very

high pressures

Molecular H2

Jupiter

0.5-5 Mbar

PPT

Inhomogeneous

Metallic H

40 Mbar

70 Mbar

Rock - ice core

Saturn

Molecular H2

Inhomogeneous

2 Mbar

Metallic H

Metallic H

10 Mbar

Rock - ice core

40 Mbar

Tristan Guillot, Science 286, 72 (1999)

HED experiments on the EOS of hydrogen replicate

the extreme pressures found in the interiors of

Jupiter and Saturn

1.5

Sesame Tight binding MD Path-integral

MC GGA-MD Linear mixing

1.0

Pressure (Mbar)

HE

Z

0.5

Nova

Gas gun

D2 sample

Al ref.

Knudson, PRL 90, 035505 (2003)

Relative method

0

2 4 6

Compression (r/r0)

- Laser experiments agree with Z
- experiments when done by the
- same relative method. Conclusion

Holmes et al.,PRB 52, 15835 (1995) Nellis et

al., Science 269, 1249 (1995) Mostovych, et

al., PRL 85, 3810 (2000).

- Experiments on H2 at 0.5-5 Mbar (where the PPT
- would occur) will be possible on ZR and NIF

The different EOS models for hydrogen lead to

very different predictions about the interior

structure and age of Jupiter

Jupiter

Gas gun Z machine Nova CSSW

P(Mbar)

MCore/MEarth

(g/cm3)

0 20

40

MZ/MEarth

D. Saumon and T. Guillot, Ap. J. 609, 1170

(2004)

SESAMEp

L/LJup

LMSOCP

SCVHI

- Higher accuracy data is needed, both
- in the lab and from space fly-by missions,
- to determine whether Jupiter has a core

LMH4

LMA

0 2 4 6

8

Time (Gyr)

Models of the interiors of Neptune and Uranus

require knowledge of the EOS of water at high

pressure

Neptune

Water

7

70 K 0.1 MPa

2000 K 10 GPa

5

T (103 K)

5000 K 300 GPa

3

Molecular hydrogen

Ice (P lt 300 GPa)

1

Ice (P gt 300 GPa)

8000 K 800 GPa

Rocks

100 200 300

P (GPa)

W.B. Hubbard, Science 275, 1279 (1997) Tristan

Guillot, Science 286, 72 (1999)

Cavazzoni et al., Science 283, 44 (1999)

- Where does water become metallic along its high

pressure isentrope - This affects models of how and where Neptunes

magnetic field is generated

Measurements have been conducted on and off

the Hugoniot, to determine the EOS and

conductivity of water

Pressure (GPa)

10

Pressure (Mbar)

1

Reflectance

0.1

Celliers et al., PoP 11, L41 ( 2004)

Shock velocity (km/s)

Density (g/cm3)

sDC

Koenig et al., Nuclear Fusion 44, S208

(2004) V.V. Yakushev et al., JETP 90, 617

(2000) R. Chau et al., J. Chem. Phys. 114, 1361

(2001)

DC conductivity (ohm-cm)-1

Inferred se for Neptune along its isentrope

se (this work)

Temperature (K)

- Compression measd on and off Hugoniot,

reflectance measd on Hugoniot - A model was constructed to reproduce the

compression and reflectance msmts - Same model applied to Neptune to predict

conductivity along isentrope

Major new laser facilities are expected in France

in the future upgraded-LULI, LIL, and LMJ

LULI at Ecole Polytechnique one 1 kJ beam, one

PW beam (500 J, 0.5 ps), and two 100 J probe

beams

The LMJ laser is under construction in France

- LIL has demonstrated 1 quad at 16 kJ.
- Experiments have started.
- LMJ will have 240 beams at total of 2.4 MJ

Designed for 2.4 MJ

Around the world, there are a number of unique,

new laser facilities, that will start operation

in the near future

Vulcan in the UK has both long pulse, and high

energy short pulse intense lasers

10-kJ Gekko at Osaka will be upgraded with

multiple FIREX HEPW beams

- Helen/Orion 10 long-pulse 1/2 kJ, 3
- beams, two PW 1/2 kJ beams by 2008

- Omega-EP 2 long-pulse 10 kJ beams,
- two HEPW 2.5 kJ beams into a stand-
- alone chamber, or the PW beams into
- the Omega target chamber

1.8-MJ NIF at LLNL will be finished in 2009

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HED laboratory astrophysics allows unique, scaled

testing of models of some of the most extreme

conditions in the universe

- Stellar evolution opacities (eg., Fe) relevant

to stellar envelopes - Cepheid variables sellar evolution models OPAL

opacities - Planetary interiors EOS of relevant materials

(H2, H-He, H20, Fe) - under relevant conditions planetary structure -

and - planetary formation - models sensitive to these

EOS data - Core-collapse supernovae scaled hydrodynamics

demonstrated - turbulent hydrodynamics within reach aspects

of the - standard model being tested
- Supernova remnants scaled tests of shock

processing of the ISM - scalable radiative shocks within reach
- Protostellar jets relevant high-M-

hydrodynamic jets - scalable radiative jets, radiative MHD jets
- collimation quite robust in strongly cooled jets

- Our goal to be citius, altius, fortius,

sapientius for laboratory astrophysics

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