when learners are very familiar with a topic they will be bored with any treatment of it as something not familiar Crofts (1977)cited in Swales (198067)and their motivation will be dramatically reduced.
17 Methodology adapted 18 Methodology adapted
In real life languages primary purpose is probably social (Nolasco Arthur 1987).
To develop grammatical competence
Lack of coherence
Absence of task environment3 (Hayes Flowers 1980) did not allow the students to plan articulate and monitor their target language and simply led them to final draft language use.
Predictability of mechanical-type exercises determine in advance what the learner is expected to say (Underhill 1987)
behaviourist approach to foreign language teaching and learning whose primary objective was accuracy achieved by the students instead of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the ESP learning situation (Hutchinson Waters 1984) in a learning-centred approach.
19 Classroom discourse 20 Classroom discourse
in more specific ESP classes the teacher sometimes becomes more like a language consultant enjoying equal status with the learners who have their own expertise in the subject matter (Dudley-Evans St. Johns 1998/20014).
21 Classroom environment and lesson plans 22 Classroom environment and lesson plans
abortive communication networks (see Shaw 1964 cited in Long 1977289-290) established by the students.
However a lesson is a communicative event which is created by the interaction of a number of forces (Hutchinson Waters 198782).
23 Learners motivation 24 Learners motivation
Mc Gregors(1960) Theory X.
the teacher as a demotivator a hygiene factor (Herzberg 1972)
It thus becomes apparent that motivation depends as much on the attitudes of the teacher as on the attitudes of the students (Dudley-Evans St. Johns 1998/2001100).
Instead of being integrative (Gardner Lambert 1972)
motivation seemed to be goal-driven (Dudley-Evans St. Johns 1998/200199) reflecting an external need (instrumental motivation in Gardner Lamberts theory.
25 Learners and teachers roles 26 Learners and teachers roles
Lack of inner impulse
statu pupillari attitude (Rogers 198678-79)
The observed practitioner a reluctant dweller in a strange and uncharted land (Hutchinson Waters 1987158) although she seemed willing to undertake the role of the consultant (Dudley-Evans St. Johns 1998/200114)
a member-rather than a leader-of the group (Rogers 1986190)
no agent of change (ibid)
relied on the traditional recipe of Initiation-Response-Follow up (Dudley-Evans St. Johns 1998/200114) teaching model.
27 Conclusion 28 Conclusion
ESP has frequently been a hotbed of conflict-the Wild West of ELTwith new settlers in the land having often found it difficult to find their bearings with no agreed maps to guide them (Hutchinson Waters 1987158).
29 listening 30 (No Transcript)
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