PRODUCTION Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to make things for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users - the "consumers".
Manufacturing takes place under all types of economic systems.
3 FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
Land and other natural resources.
Labor (human efforts).
Capital( factory, building, machinery, tools, raw materials).
4 Boundaries of Production System
Policy Formulating System
Intermediate organization systems
5 Types of Production
6 Production Management
Production Management refers to the application of management principles to the function in a factory.The production management team (consisting of a production manager and any number of assistants) is responsible for realizing the visions of the producer and the director or choreographer within constraints of technical possibility. This involves coordinating the operations of various production sub-disciplines (scenic, wardrobe, lighting, sound, projection, automation, video, pyrotechnics, stage management, etc.) of the presentation.
7 Production Management
In addition to management and financial skills, a production manager must have detailed knowledge of all production disciplines including a thorough understanding of the interaction of these disciplines during the production process. This may involve dealing with matters ranging from the procurement of staff, materials and services, to freight, customs coordination, telecommunications, labor relations, logistics, information technology, government liaison, venue booking, scheduling, operations management and workplace safety.
8 Objectives of Production Management
Machinery and equipment
9 Operations Management
Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. It is the management of resources, the distribution of goods and services to customers, and the analysis of queue systems.
10 Operations Management
APICS The Association for Operations Management also defines operations management as "the field of study that focuses on the effectively planning, scheduling, use, and control of a manufacturing or service organization through the study of concepts from design engineering, industrial engineering, management information systems, quality management, production management, inventory management, accounting, and other functions as they affect the organization"
11 UNIT-2 DESIGN AND PRODUCT
Product design can be defined as the idea generation, concept development, testing and manufacturing or implementation of a physical object or service. Product Designers conceptualize and evaluate ideas, making them tangible through products in a more systematic approach. The role of a product designer encompasses many characteristics of the marketing manager, product manager, industrial designer and design engineer.
12 Brauns Ten Industrial Principles
Ease of use
13 Stages of Design Concept Generation Screening Preliminary Design Evaluation Improvement Prototyping final design The concept The Process The package 14 Stages of Design
From idea to concept
The marketing screen
The Operations screen
Ideas from customers
Listening to customers
Ideas from competitor activity
Ideas from staff
Ideas from Research and development
15 Requisites of Good Design
Earn Adequate Profit
Factors affecting Product Design
16 UNIT-3 Product Life Cycle
The product life cycle (PLC) describes the stages a new product idea goes through from beginning to end. The five major stages
17 Product Life Cycle Volume Growth Decline Product Development Introduction Maturity Units Sales Profits 0 Time 18 Stages of PLC
The different stages in a product life cycle are
Market introduction stage
sales volume low
no/little competition - competitive manufacturers watch for acceptance/segment growth losses
demand has to be created
customers have to be prompted to try the product
19 Stages of PLC
2. Growth stage
costs reduced due to economies of scale and
sales volume increases significantly
competition begins to increase with a few new players in establishing market
prices to maximize market share
20 Stages of PLC
3. Mature stage
Costs are very low as you are well established in market no need for publicity.
sales volume peaks
increase in competitive offerings
prices tend to drop due to the proliferation of competing products
brand differentiation, feature diversification, as each player seeks to differentiate from competition with "how much product" is offered
Industrial profits go down
21 Stages of PLC
4. Saturation and decline stage
costs become counter-optimal
sales volume decline or stabilize
prices, profitability diminish
profit becomes more a challenge of production/distribution efficiency than increased sales
The product life cycle goes through many phases, involves many professional disciplines, and requires many skills, tools and processes. Product life cycle (PLC) has to do with the life of a product in the market with respect to business/commercial costs and sales measures.
In the criticism of the product life cycle, Dhalla Yuspeh state
...clearly, the PLC is a dependent variable which is determined by market actions it is not an independent variable to which companies should adapt their marketing programs. Marketing management itself can alter the shape and duration of a brand's life cycle.
23 UNIT-4 PRODUCT PLANNING DEVELOPMENT
ProductIn general usage, product may refer to a single item or unit, a group of equivalent products, a grouping of goods or services, or an industrial classification for the goods or services.
Classification of Products
Consumer Business Products
Classification of Business goods
Accessory equipment etc.
24 Product Development
The entire product development process is characterized by a number of factors which complicate its conduct.
Preliminary secreting of new product ideas.
The time substantial amounts of expenditures are authorized for research and development.
Authorization for prototype manufacture and market or use testing.
The decision regarding full scale manufacture and marketing.
25 Product Planning Development System
Phases involved are
Generating new product ideas.
Preliminary appraisal of new product ideas selection of projects.
Product and market research.
Prototype testing in production and marketing
26 Determinants of Product Mix
27 Determinants of Product Mix
Shifts in customers product mix
Changes in availability of cost
Changes in manufacturing processes
Shifts in location of customers
Changes in levels of business activity
Interest and abilities of the executive group
28 UNIT-5 PLANT LOCATION
Plant Location refers to the area where the plant will operate to produce goods or services. Site is an important activity which decides the fate of the business. A good location may, reduce the cost of production and distribution to a considerable extent.
Locating a business involves a large, relatively permanent.If the site selection isnt proper all the money spent on factory building, machinery and their installation will go in waste and the owner has to suffer a great loss. While selecting a site, it is necessary to consider technical, commercial and financial aspects.
29 The Problem of Location
The problem of site selection of a factory can be solved in the following three stages
Selection of the region
Selection of the locality
Selection of actual site
30 Steps in Plant Location
Selection of the region or general area
Selection of the particular community
Selection of the exact plant site
31 Factors Affecting Plant Location
Selection of Region
Availability of raw materials
Power and Fuel
Meteorological conditions and topography
32 Selection of Community
Momentum of early start
33 Selection of Plant Site
Price of land
Type of soil
Availability of amenities
Health of locality
Flood drought experience
Right title of the land
Attitude of local people
Religious social institutions
34 Recent trends in Plant Location
To locate plants away from cities
The development of Industrial estates
Competition among states to develop industries
Trend towards decentralization
Location of industries leading to balanced regional development
Growth of multinational firms, thereby transcending the geographical areas of the country
35 UNIT-6 PLANT LAYOUT
According to Mallick and Gaudreau- A floor plant for determining and arranging the desired machinery and equipment of plant, in one best place, to permit the quickest flow of materials at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw materials to the shipment of finished products.
Knowles and Thomson said that plant layout involves
Planning and arranging manufacturing machinery, equipment and services for the first time in completely new plants.
The improvements in layouts already in use in order to introduce new methods and improvements in manufacturing procedures.
37 Essential features of Plant Layout
Departmentation of factory into a number of units to facilitate the smooth flow of production
Arrangement of plant and machinery in a systematic and orderly way to quicken the process of production
Placing the right equipments and tools in their appropriate places so that they will be readily available when required.
To arrange the material handling equipments and other auxiliary services required in the course of manufacturing.
38 Objectives of Plant Layout
To facilitate manufacturing process
To minimize material handling
To maintain high turnover of semi-finished goods
Effective utilization of space
To provide employees comfort and job satisfaction
To provide effective utilization of labor
39 Principles of Plant Layout
Principle of overall integration
Principle of minimum distance
Principle of flow
Principle of cubic space
Principle of satisfaction and safety
Principle of flexibility
40 Factory Machine Layout
Factory layout is one of the components of plant layout, the other being machine layout. The layout of a factory means the position of the departments of shops in the factory, storage points in the working areas, including office and staff facilities relative to one another.
Machine layout is another name for plant layout(as discussed earlier).
41 Types of Plant Layout
Product Line Layout
Process or Functional layout
Combination of product and process layout and
Fixed position layout
42 1. Product or Line Layout
43 Difference b/w Product layout Process layout
Duplication of equipment
Adaptability in the case of breakdown of individual machines
Material handling cost
Production time involved
Accumulation of work in process
Floor area occupied
Greater utilization of machines
44 Topics for Discussion
COMBINATION OF PRODUCT AND PROCESS LAYOUT
FIXED POSITION LAYOUT OR STATIC PRODUCT LAYOUT
45 TOOLS TECHNIQUES FOR PLANT LAYOUT
Process charts and flow diagrams
Machine data cards
Model of equipment
Layout of drawings
46 Layout Procedure
Plan individual work station
Calculate the storage space required
Locate service departments
Construct master plan
Check the final layout
Get official Approval
Install the approved layout
Collection of basic data
Analysis co-ordination of basic data
Decide the type of machines required
Decide material handling plan
Sketch the plot for factory building
Plan the general flow pattern
47 Revision of Layout- Re layout procedure
Need for revising the original layout arises from the following
Use of an unsuitable site for factory
Failure to make periodic work simplification surveys
Rapid expansion of the factory
Shifting the plant to other localities
Introduction of new product line
Steps in the re-layout Procedure
To state the objectives to be accomplished and collect data.
Conduct work-simplification survey
Develop an improved layout
48 UNIT-7 MATERIAL HANDLING
Material Handling is the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. The focus is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve these functions. The material handling industry manufactures and distributes the equipment and services required to implement material handling systems. Material handling systems range from simple pallet rack and shelving projects, to complex conveyor belt and Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS).
49 FUNCTIONS OF MATERIAL HANDLING
To choose production machinery and assist in plant layout so as to eliminate as far as possible the need of material handling.
To choose most appropriate material handling equipment which is safe and can fulfill material handling requirements at the minimum possible overall cost.
50 Factors of selecting the Material Handling Equipment
Material to be moved
Plant buildings and layout
Type of production Machines
Type of material flow pattern
Type of Production
Cost of material handling equipment
Life of the equipment
Amount of care maintenance required for the material handling equipment.
51 Objectives of Material Handling
Improved Working Conditions
Improved Customer Service
52 Steps in Analyzing Material Handling Problem
Establish the scope of the study.
Pinpoint the areas of plant layout to be covered by the study.
Determine volume expected to be handled per unit time by the new system.
Nature type of the materials to be handled.
Determine the handling cost of the items being handled by the present system.
Determine details of distance to be moved, with details of curves, slopes etc.
Determine how to move the materials.
Determine the details of the equipment used.
Determine the time taken for the movement.
A thorough survey should then be made considering the systems approach.
53 Basic Handling Systems
Equipment Oriented Systems
Material(load) Oriented Systems
Method(Production) Oriented systems
Function Oriented Handling Systems
54 Material Handling Cost
Material Handling Cost cost of handling cost of transportation cost of packing cost of space cost of handling equipment including operations, maintenance and depreciation etc.
55 Unit Load Concept
The unit load principle means that it is quicker to move a lot of items as a unit than it is to move each one of them individually. With machines at our disposal, these units can be made for machine size rather than man size.
56 UNIT-8 DEMAND FORECASTING
Any forecast can be termed as an indicator of what is likely to happen in a specified future time frame in a particular field. Therefore, the demand forecast indicates as to how much of a particular product is likely to be sold in a specified future period in a specified market at specified price.
Accurate demand forecasting is essential for a business house to enable it to produce the required quantity at the right time. Further, it makes the arrangement in advance for raw-materials, equipments, labor etc. Some firms manufacture on the order basis but in general firm produces the material in advance to meet the future demand.
57 Types of Forecasting
Forecasting means estimation of quantity, type and quality of future work e.g. sales. For any manufacturing concern it is very necessary to assess the market trends sufficiently in advance.
58 Purpose of Short-term Forecasting
To adopt suitable production policy so that the problem of overproduction and short supply of raw material, machines etc. can be avoided.
To reduce the cost of raw materials, machinery etc.
To have proper control of inventory.
To set the sales targets.
To have proper controls.
To arrange the financial requirements in advance to meet the demand.
59 Purpose of Long-Term Forecasting
To plan for the new unit of production or expansion of existing unit to meet the demand.
To plan the long-term financial requirements.
To train the personnel so that manpower requirement can be met in future.
60 Methods of Forecasting
Survey of Buyers Views
Collective Opinion or sales force polling
61 Approach to forecasting
Identify and clearly state the objectives of forecasting-short term or long term market share or industry as whole.
Select appropriate method of forecasting.
Identify the variables affecting the demand for the product and express them in appropriate forms.
Through the use of statistical techniques, determine the most probable relationship b/w the dependent and the independent variables.
Prepare the forecast and interpret the results. Interpretation is more important to the management.
Forecast may be made either in terms of physical units or in terms of rupees of sales volume. The latter may be converted into physical units by dividing it by the expected selling price.
62 Length of Forecasts
Short-Term Forecasts Period up to 12 months.
Medium-Term Forecasts Period from one to two years.
Long-term Forecasts Period of three to 10 years.
63 Forecasting Demand for new Products
Project the demand for the new product as an outgrowth of an existing old product.
Analyze the new product as a substitute for some existing product or service.
Estimate the rate of growth and the ultimate level of demand for the new product on the basis of the pattern of growth of establishment products.
Estimate the demand by making direct enquiries from the ultimate purchasers, either by the use of samples or on a full scale.
Offer the new product for sale in a sample market.
64 Criteria of A Good Forecasting Method
Simplicity ease of Comprehension
Maintenance of timeliness
65 Presentation of a Forecast to the Management
Make the forecast easy for the management to understand a possible.
Avoid using vague generalities.
Always pin-point his major assumptions and sources.
Avoid making undue qualifications.
Make use of charts and graphs as much as possible for easy comprehension.
66 Recent trends in Demand Forecasting
More firms are giving importance to demand forecasting than a decade.
Since forecasting requires closer co-operation and consultation with many specialists, a team spirit has developed.
Better kind of data and improved forecasting techniques have been developed.
There is greater emphasis on sophisticated techniques such as using computers.
New products forecasting is still in infancy.
Forecasts are usually broken down in monthly forecasts.
67 UNIT-9 PRODUCTION PLANNING CONTROL (PPC)
Production planning/operations planning involves the organization of an overall manufacturing /operating system to produce the product.
The various activities involved in production/operations planning are designing the product, determining the equipment and capacity requirements, designing the layout of physical facilities and material handling system, determining the sequence of operations and nature of the operations to be performed along with time requirements and specify certain production quantity quality levels.
68 Factors determining Production Planning Procedure
Volume of Production
Nature of Production Processes
Nature of operations
69 Production Planning System
Product planning system involves planning the activities related to development of the product according to market requirements. Process Planning System involves planning those activities which are necessary to manufacture the product according to estimated demand.
Product planning system is an integration of two subsystems namely
Product planning System
Process planning system
70 Production Control
Function of Production Control is to
Provide for the production of parts, assemblies and products of required quality quantity at the required time.
Co-ordinate, monitor and feedback to manufacturing management, the results of the production activities analyzing and interpreting their significance and taking corrective action if necessary.
Provide for optimum utilization of all resources.
Achieve the broad objectives of low cost production reliable customer service.
71 Elements of Production Control
Control of planning
Control of Materials
Control of Tooling
Control of Manufacturing Capacity
Control of activities
Control of quantity
Control of Material Handling
Control of due dates
Control of Information
72 Objectives of PPC
To deliver quality of goods in required quantities to the customer in the required delivery schedule.
To ensure maximum utilization of all resources.
To ensure production of quality products.
To minimize the production through-put time.
Maintain optimum inventory levels.
Maintain flexibility in manufacturing operations.
To co-ordinate b/w labor machines and various supporting departments.
To plan for plant capacities for future requirements.
To ensure effective cost reduction and cost control.
73 Objectives of PPC
To remove bottlenecks at all the stages of production and to solve problems related to production.
To prepare production schedule and ensure that promised delivery dates are met.
To produce effective results for last total cost.
The ultimate objective is to contribute to the profits of the enterprise.
To establish routes and schedules for work that will ensure optimum utilization of labor and equipments and machines and to provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in accordance with these plans.
74 Stages in Production Planning Control
Planning- choosing the best course of action among several alternatives.
Operations- execution as per plan.
Control- Maintaining the performance by comparing the actual results with performance standards set and taking appropriate corrective action, if necessary to reduce variance.
75 Principles of PPC
Type of production determines the kind of production planning and the control system needed.
Number of parts involved in the product affects expenses of operating PPC department.
Complexity of PPC function varies with the number of assemblies involved.
Time is a common denominator for all scheduling activities.
Size of the plant has relatively little to do with the type of the PPC system needed.
PPC permits management by exception.
Cost control should be a by-product of the PPC function.
76 Levels of Production Planning
77 Functions of PPC department PPC Production Control Dispatching Expediting Inspecti on Evaluating Corrective Action Production Planning Estimating Routing Scheduling Loading 78 Requirements of Effective PPC system
Sound organizational structure with mechanism for proper delegation of authority and fixation of responsibility at all levels.
Information feedback system should provide reliable and up-to-date information to all persons carrying out PPC functions.
Standardization of materials, tools, equipments, labor, quality, workmanship etc.
Trained person for using the special tools, equipment and manufacturing processes.
Flexibility to accommodate changes and bottlenecks such as shortage of materials, power failures, machine break-downs and absenteeism of employees.
79 Requirements of Effective PPC system
Appropriate management policies regarding production and inventory levels, product-mix and inventory turnover.
Accurate assessment of manufacturing lead time and procurement lead times.
Plant capacity should be adequate to meet the demand. The plant should be flexible in order to respond to the introduction of new products, changes in product mix and production rate.
80 UNIT-10 PRODUCTION CONTROL AND SCHEDULING
Production Control or Shop floor Activity Control
Production Activity Control Priority Control Capacity Control 81 Objectives of Production Activity Control
To know the current status of the job.
To determine what should be the next job to be processed and in which work centre?
To ensure that the correct quantities of materials are in the right place at the right time and the required capacity and tooling are provided.
To maximize operational efficiency
To minimize work-in-progress inventory.
To minimize set-up costs.
To maintain control of operations by monitoring job status and lead times, measuring progress and indicate corrective action when necessary.
82 Operations Planning and Scheduling
83 Scheduling Techniques for Job Shop
The type of scheduling technique used in job shop depends on the volume of orders, the nature of operations and job complexity.
84 Priority Sequencing
Set up costs or change over costs.
Work-in-progress inventory cost.
Number or percent of jobs late.
Average job lateness.
Average flow time.
Average number of jobs in the system.
Average time to complete a job.
85 Single Criterion Priority sequencing Rules
First come-first served
Shortest Processing time
Minimum Processing Time
Longest Slack job
Earliest due date
Truncated shortest processing job first
Preferred customer order
Least change-over cost
86 Dynamic Sequencing Rules
Dynamic Slack (DS) rule
Dynamic Slack per Remaining Operation (DS/RO) rule.
Critical Ratio (CR) rule.
87 Evaluating Sequencing Rules
Average flow time
Average number of jobs in the system or shop
Average job lateness
Change over cost
89 Line Balancing
Line balancing is, arranging a production line so that, there is an even flow of production from one work station to the next, i.e. so that there are to delays at any work station that will leave the next work station with idle time.
It is defined as the appointment of sequential work activities into work stations in order the gain a high utilization of labor and equipment and therefore minimize idle time.
90 Analysis of Line Balancing Problems
Determine the number of work stations and time available at each work station.
Group the individual tasks into approximately equal amounts of work at each work station.
Evaluate the efficiency of grouping.
When the available work time at any station exceeds that, which can be done by one worker, additional workers must be added at that work station.
91 Determination of Cycle Time (CT)
Cycle Time (CT) Available time per period / Output units required per period
Cycle time is the time interval at which, completed products leave the production line, assembly line.
92 Determination of the ideal or theoretical minimum number of workers required in the line
Ideal or theoretical number of workers required in the assembly line/production line (total operation or task time) (output units required per period) / Available time per period per worker
93 Balancing efficiency
EffB output of task time / input by workstation times
2. EffB Theoretical number of workers / Actual number of workers
94 UNIT-11 DISPATCHING FOLLOW-UP
Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees (workers) or vehicles to customers. Industries that dispatch include taxicabs, couriers, emergency services, as well as home and commercial services such as maid services, plumbing, HVAC, pest control and electricians.
With vehicle dispatching, clients are matched to vehicles according to the order in which clients called and the proximity of vehicles to each client's pick-up location. Telephone operators take calls from clients, then either enter the client's information into a computer or write it down and give it to a dispatcher. In some cases, calls may be assigned a priority by the call-taker. Priority calls may jump the queue of pending calls. In the first scenario, a central computer then communicates with the mobile data terminal located in each vehicle (see computer assisted dispatch) in the second, the dispatcher communicates with the driver of each vehicle via two-way radio.
With home or commercial service dispatching, customers usually schedule services in advance and the dispatching occurs the morning of the scheduled service. Depending on the type of service, workers are dispatched individually or in teams of 2 or more. Dispatchers have to coordinate worker availability, skill, travel time and availability of parts. The skills required of a dispatcher are greatly enhanced with the use of computer dispatching software.
96 FOLLOW UP
After dispatching production orders to various shops, it is necessary to regulate the progress of job through various processes. For this purpose, a follow-up section is formed.
The function of follow-up section is to report daily the progress of work in each shop in a prescribed proforma and to investigate the causes of deviation from the planned performance. This section sees that production is being performed as per schedule and tries to boost it.
97 UNIT-12 INSPECTION
Inspection is the process of measuring the quality of a product or service in terms of established standards.
An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. It involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets. Inspections are usually non-destructive.
98 Qualities of Inspector
He should know his job thoroughly. For this purpose, technical knowledge and skill in the art of inspection is essential.
He should be intelligent, capable and of good grasping power.
He should understand his responsibility and be able to work with patience.
He must know statistical quality control techniques programme well.
He should be cost conscious therefore not set unnecessary strict and narrow limits.
He should be able to minimize or prevent wastage by using a substitute to the material already in use.
He should have the working knowledge of the general quality standards.
He should know the reasons for standard through an understanding of materials and processes.
99 Principles of Inspection
The inspection function for maximum efficiency must be independent but co-ordinate with the functions of production, planning and sales department.
Improvement in quality performance is achieved as a result of changes in engineering specifications or manufacturing procedures and not by inspection techniques.
100 Inspection Standards
Inspection standards for raw materials
Inspection standards for work in process
Working inspection standards
Inspection standards for finished product
Inspection standards of the completed mechanism
101 Function of Inspection Department
To inspect raw materials
Metallurgical Metallographical inspection
Purchase parts inspection
Work in process inspection
Periodic gauge and other measuring instruments inspection
Finished products inspection
102 Kinds of Inspection
First piece inspection
Pilot Piece inspection
Key operation inspection
103 METHODS OF INSPECTION
Screening or 100 inspection
Lot by inspection
104 Problems of Inspection?
Where to inspect?
When to inspect?
How to inspect?
How much to inspect?
105 Tools of Inspection?
Inspection by measurement
106 Plant Maintenance
The principal of plant and equipment maintenance which follows the engineering phrasing of the proverb, A stitch in time saves nine, is anticipating repairs, renewals and replacements.It prevents interruption of operation due to poor condition of building or broken-down machinery and equipment.
107 Need for Plant Maintenance
For preventing accidents on the machines
For preventing the breakdown of machines
For preventing excessive repairs on machines
For preventing undue wear and tear of machines
For preventing excessive vibration of machines
For facilitating proper inspection of machines
For designing proper layout of machines
For proper lubrication of machines
108 Importance of Plant Maintenance
To ensure continuity in production
To ensure efficiency in production
To ensure productivity
To deliver goods on the promised date
To minimize excessive scraps and wastages
To increase the life of equipments
To avoid losses due to poor maintenance
To ensure good housekeeping
109 Topics to be discussed
Functions of Plant Maintenance
Scope for Plant Maintenance Function
110 Organization of Maintenance Department
The organization of maintenance department depends upon the size of the factory and the functions to be performed in a factory. The maintenance department can be organized under any one of the following
Centralized by trade
Maintenance coverage by area
A combination of central and area administration
111 Maintenance System
Planning and scheduling of maintenance work
Inspection for maintenance
Maintenance work order
Building and equipment records
112 Types of Maintenance
Corrective or breakdown maintenance
113 Recent trends in Plant Maintenance
In recent years, there has been a tendency to use a variety of management techniques for plant maintenance. These techniques have led to-
An increase in maintenance efficiency
Reduced maintenance cost
Some of these are mentioned below
Use of computers
114 UNIT-14 TIME, MOTION WORK STUDY
Motion study has been defined by F.B.Gilbreth as The science of elementary wastefulness resulting from using unnecessary, ill-directed inefficient motions.
Motion study consists of dividing work into the most fundamental elements possible, studying these elements separately and in relation to one another and from these studied elements when timed, building methods of least waste.
115 Elements of Motion
Search or find
Rest for overcoming fatigue
116 Rules of Human Motion
Rules pertaining to the use of the human body
Rules pertaining to the arrangement of the work place
117 Micro-Motion Study
Micro-motion study is the sub-division of an operation into motions and their analysis for the improvement of the work cycle. Detailed bodily movements, especially highly skilled motions, are recorded and the time is measured by taking motion pictures at a constant speed with a micrometer from the background.
118 Time Study
The concept of time study was coined by F.W.Taylor. Time study is the analysis and determination of the time necessary to perform a given task. It replaces the old practice of using past performance, judgment or trial as a method of establishing the time allowed for the performance of a task.
Time study has been defined by Alford and Betty as a searching scientific analysis of methods and equipments used or planned in doing a piece of work, development in practical details of the best way of doing it and determination of the time required.
119 Work Study
A management service based on those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead to systematic investigation of all the resources and factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement. Work study is one of the important tools of management which indicates the areas requiring investigation so as to set right the defects in manufacturing.
120 Techniques of Work Study
121 UNIT-15 MATERIALS MANAGEMENT INVENTORY CONTROL
Material Management is a function, which aims for integrated approach towards the management of materials in an industrial undertaking. Its main objects is cost reduction and efficient handling of materials at all stages and in all sections of the undertaking.
The grouping of management functions related to the complete cycle of material of flow, from the purchase and internal control of production materials to the planning and control of work-in-process to the warehousing, shipping and distribution of the finished product.
122 Scope of Materials management
Materials planning and programming
Simplification, codification and standardization in stores
Disposal of scrap and surplus
123 Objectives of Materials Management
Right Quality, Right Material, at the right price, from right source, at the right time, using right mode of transport.
124 Types of Materials
125 Organization of Purchase Department
Records and filling section
Salvaged Materials Disposal Section
Purchase Research section
126 Centralization decentralization of Purchase Department
Centralization Under centralized purchasing one central department makes all purchases for the whole organization.
Decentralization Decentralized purchasing is the reverse of centralized purchasing.
Centralized-Decentralized System Often a combination of these two methods may be adopted where high value materials are brought centrally and materials of low value, and dissimilar materials are left to be bought by the individual departments. But copies of purchase orders are to be sent to the central purchase department to ensure uniformity in the terms and conditions.
127 Purchasing Procedure
Initiation of purchase requisition
Selection of supplier
Placing the purchase order
Receiving inspection of materials
Passing the invoice received on to the account
128 Storage of Material
After efficient purchasing, receipt and inspection of materials, the next important step in materials control system is the storage of materials. It refers to the art of preserving the goods until required in production. Store keeping aims at safeguarding the materials from all kinds of loss and damage and ensuring smooth and continuous flow of materials into the production activities.
129 Functions of Stores Department
Preparing purchase requisitions for general items of stock
Receiving of goods into stores
Avoiding damage and deterioration
Classification and coding of materials
Issue of materials to production and service departments
Maintaining stock records
Maintaining proper stock levels
Verifying stock at regular intervals
130 Types of Stores
Centralized stores with sub stores
131 Inventory Control
It may be defined as the systematic location storage and recording of goods in such a way that desired degree service can be made to the operating shops at minimum ultimate cost.
132 Functions of Inventory Control
To run the stores effectively.
To ensure timely availability of material and avoid built up of stock levels.
Technical responsibility for the state of materials.
Stock control system
Maintenance of specified raw materials, general suppliers, work-in-process and component parts in sufficient quantities to meet the demand of production.
Protecting the inventory from losses due to improper handling and storing of goods and unauthorized rmoval from stores.
Pricing all materials supplied to the shops so as to estimate material cost.