Non-precision approaches supply the pilot with horizontal guidance only. (VOR NDB Localizer Loc. B/C GPS without VNAV)
Precision approaches supply the pilot with horizontal and vertical guidance. (ILS MLS PAR GPS with VNAV)
ILS is the primary international precision approach system approved by ICAO and protected until 2010.
ILS provides an aircraft with precision horizontal and vertical guidance to the runway.
3 TYPICAL ILS INSTALLATION 4 (No Transcript) 5 LOCALIZER
Localizers operate in the VHF range and provide horizontal course guidance to runway centerline. Transmitters are located on the centerline at the opposite end of the runway from the approach threshold.
The signal transmitted consists of two fan shaped patterns that overlap at the centre. The overlap area provides the on-track signal.
The angular width of the beam is between 3and 6. Normally width is 5 resulting in full scale deflection at 2.5. The width of the beam is adjusted to be 700 feet wide at runway threshold.
The localizer may be offset from runway centerline by up to 3. Localizers offset more than 3 will have an identifier beginning with X aligned localizer identifiers begin with I.
A cautionary note will be published in the CAP whenever localizer is offset more than 3.
6 (No Transcript) 7 (No Transcript) 8 (No Transcript) 9
Normal reliable coverage of localizers is 18nm within 10 of either side of course centerline and 10nm within 35.
Localizer installations provide back course information and non-precision localizer back course approaches may be published. (ignore all glide path information on back course) Normally glide path will flag off.
Caution a localizer signal is transmitted differently than a VOR radial. Aircraft receivers are not supplied with azimuth information relative to magnetic or true north. It is simply a beam aligned with the runway centerline. For this reason CDIs will display normal sensing characteristics when flying in the same direction as front course alignment but reverse sensing when traveling in the direction of back course alignment. (HSI will normal sense anytime front course direction is set on head of track bar.)
10 LOCALIZER 11 Glide Path
Glide path information is paired with the associated localizer frequency.
The glide path is normally adjusted to an angle of 3 (may be adjusted 2 to 4.5) and a beam width of 1.4(0.7 for full scale deflection).
The antenna array is located approx. 1000ft from the approach end of the runway and offset approx. 400ft. (if glide path is followed to the pavement touchdown point will be at the 1000ft markers)
In installations with an ILS serving both ends of a runway the systems are interlocked so only one can operate at a time.
Note on a standard 3 glide path 320ft/1nm can be used to verify.
12 FINAL APPROACH FIX
Typical final approach fixes are NDBs in Canada but can also be identified by DME or VOR radial and DME as published.
Fan Markers are commonly used in the US as a means of identifying aircraft location along a localizer. As the marker is reached a fan marker light will illuminate in the flight deck (if equipped).
13 ILS CATEGORIES
CAT I operation down to a minimum of 200ft DH and RVR2600 or ½ sm ground visibility when RVR not available.
CAT II operation down to a minimum of 100ft DH and RVR 1200ft.
CAT III minimums will be prescribed in the carriers operating specifications carriers operations manual or the CAP. (minimums are further broken down into AB or C with a CAT IIIC minimums being zero-zero).
Requirements CAT II/III approaches require specific aircraft and airport capabilities. (ex airport lighting aircraft autoland)
Note when CAT II/III approaches are being conducted the CAT II or CAT III hold line must be adhered to.
14 RUNWAY LIGHTING AND TRANSMISSOMETERS
The following must be fully serviceable to meet CAT II/III standards
runway threshold lights
touchdown zone lights
runway edge lights
runway end lights
all stop bars and lead-on lights
essential taxiway lights
CAT II- two transmissometers- approach end mid-field
CAT III- three transmissometers- approach end mid-field departure end
Airport emergency power as primary power source for all essential system elements.
Commercial power available within one second as a backup.
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