Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia


d/c d/p: experience language and reading in the same fashion as h/c h/p ... d/p point to illustrations, connect pictures and later the works to signs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia

Author Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston,
West Virginia
  • Date submitted to April 4, 2006
  • To contact the author for permission to use this
    PowerPoint, please e-mail
  • To use this PowerPoint presentation in its
    entirety, please give credit to the author.

The Art of Reading
  • Chapter 6
  • Scheetz
  • p.138-155

The Art of Reading
  • Reading is a form of communication that evolves
    in infancy and unfolds gradually throughout ones

Learning to Read
  • Begins in early childhood with parents labeling
    pictures with words.
  • Combination of interrelated skills required for
    reading comprehension to occur.
  • The skills must occur simultaneously in order to
    accomplish this task.

Learning to Read
  • Researchers not sure how children acquire all
    these abilities. They agree that it is essential
    that they be able to recognize letters as
    symbols, thus enabling them to attach meaning to

Six Phases while learning to Read
  • Prereading phase (Birth to Age 5)
  • Phase One (ages 5 through 7)
  • Phase Two (ages 8 and 9)
  • Phase Three (ages 10 through 14)
  • Phase Four (ages 15 through 18)
  • Phase Five (ages 18 and above)

Prereading Phase (Birth 5)
  • Parents introduce books, point to pictures and
    name objects
  • Children are exposed to print
  • Entertained through educational tv shows children
    start to recognize some words
  • By age 4, children can identify their names I
    print and a few other words
  • 80 can recognize stop and all probably know
    McDonalds M

Phase One (Ages 5-7)
  • Children continue to concentrate on decoding
    single words through 2nd grade
  • Rely on oral language and metalinguistic skills
    to comprehend the text
  • ½ of kindergarteners and 90 of 1st graders are
    able to segment words into syllables
  • By end of 1st grade about 70 can segment by
  • Have acquired graphemic, syllabic, and word
    knowledge they need to become competent readers

Phase Two (Ages 8-9)
  • Begins to analyze unknown words
  • Use ability to sound out words, inspect
    surrounding text, and scrutinizing accompanying
    pictures, graphs and charts to decipher meaning

Phase Three (Ages 10-14)
  • Major shift in reading process
  • Decoding skills have become entrenched
  • Focuses attention on comprehending written
  • Children develop their abilities to scan written
    material while gleaning important information

Phase Four (ages 15-18)
  • Incorporate higher level reading skills
  • Draw on ability to make references and examine
    varying perspectives and viewpoints found in

Phase Five (Ages 18 and above)
  • Adults are able to read a variety of materials
    and comprehend the meaning.

Three Major Approaches To Reading
  • Bottom Up Models
  • Top Down Models
  • Interactive Models

Bottom Up Models
  • Stress importance of lower level perceptual and
    phonemic processing and their influence on higher
    cognitive functioning
  • Readers analyze letters, decode syllables, and
    are then able to focus o the meaning of text
  • Reading instruction emphasizes phonetics and the
    basic rules for translating written symbols

Bottom Up Model
  • Simplified reading material utilized until
    phonological rules are advanced
  • Identification of letters and words is stressed
  • Emphasis on phonetics in the first three grades
  • According to this theory, children experience
    difficulty reading because they lack the ability
    to make the connection between English speech
    sounds and printed letters.

Top Down Models
  • Known as problem solving models
  • Focus on the cognitive task of deriving meaning
    from what lies in the readers head
  • The reader forms hypotheses and makes assumptions
    about what he or she is reading based on his/her
    knowledge, content of material, and syntactic

Top Down Model
  • The reader comprehends the largest units
    (meaning) and proceeds downward to the smallest
    units (letters and words)
  • Has the philosophy that children do not need to
    be taught to read. They just need to be exposed
    to reading and writing activities for them to
    develop ease in accomplishing both tasks
  • Also known as Whole Language or Language
    Experience Approach

Interactive Models
  • Reflects principles found in several theories
  • Considered to be more accurate in explaining how
    both beginning and mature readers ascertain
  • Instructors implement both Bottom Up and Top Down
  • Both word identification and comprehension are
  • Phonics taught and skills incorporated into the
    Top Down Model for comprehension
  • Stresses using prior experiences of reader and
    semantic maps

The Impact of Deafness on Reading Development
  • d/c d/p experience language and reading in the
    same fashion as h/c h/p
  • d/p continually sign to their children like h/p
    talks to their infant
  • Later, d/p observe and correct signs of child
  • d/p point to illustrations, connect pictures and
    later the works to signs
  • Through a combination of mime, gestures, sign and
    fingerspelling the child begins to develop
    vocabulary, cultivate concepts and grasp the
    meaning of printed materials

Impact of Deafness on Reading Development
  • 12 months hearing child produces 1st work, 18-24
    months acquire rudimentary syntax
  • Deaf Child 12 months producing one word signs,
    18-24 months two-word stage
  • Deaf Child by age 3 capable of developing a
    link between fingerspelled letters and the
    orthographical system of print

  • Most deaf children are born to hearing parents
  • Prereading tasks may take a back burner to
    fundamental communication strategies, thus
    stifling the progression of reading readiness

Impact of Deafness During Phase One
  • d/c of d/p arrive at school knowing ASL but that
    native language is not acceptable or understood
  • d/c of h/p limited English skills and few sign
  • English language skills needed to succeed with
    reading curricula
  • If preliminary skills are not intact, early
    school years will be devoted to mastering these
    skills before they can become active, instead of
    passive readers

Impact of Deafness During Phase Two
  • Most deaf individuals do not find phonological
    recording beneficial
  • Bottom Up Model challenging
  • Will start to lag behind their hearing classmates
    as they struggle to master the new vocabulary and
    uncover meaning found within complex sentences

Impact of Deafness During Phase Three
  • Multi subjects such as history, science and
    advanced math
  • Unable to decipher content in these subjects due
    to nonmastery of English and poor vocabularies
  • Difficulty with both Bottom Up and Top Down
  • The gap between hearing and deaf students widens

Impact of Deafness During Phase Four
  • Need to read for content
  • Majority still paying attention to the details of
    reading and refocusing on reading for the sake of
    reading, not for deriving content
  • Limited vocabularies and weakened grammatical
  • Reading levels low
  • Complete high school with minimal reading

Impact of Deafness During Phase Five
  • Some enter vocational schools or community
    colleges, some workforce
  • The route they take has a bearing on the reading
    materials they will encounter
  • Majority of college age deaf students enroll in
    developmental reading classes

Strategies for Enhancing Reading Through a
Multisensory Approach
  • Some use oral approach
  • Some use simultaneous communication
  • Both approaches beneficial for few students but
    many others struggle

David Schlepers Fifteen Principles Necessary for
Reading Success
  • Principal 1. American Sign Language is used by
    deaf readers to translate stories
  • Principal 2. Both ASL and English are visible to
    the deaf child as books are being read
  • Principal 3. Deaf readers feel free to expand
    sentences found in stories
  • Principal 4. Stories are read repeatedly on a
    storytelling to story reading continuum
  • Principal 5. Deaf children lead deaf readers

Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success
  • Principal 6. Deaf readers take implied meaning
    and make it explicit
  • Principal 7. Deaf readers use spatial signs to
    convey meaning
  • Principal 8. Deaf readers make adjustments in
    their signing style to bring the character to
  • Principal 9. Events that occur in stories are
    connected to the real world
  • Principal 10. Attention maintenance strategies
    are employed while reading books

Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success
  • Principal 11. Eye gaze is used to encourage
  • Principal 12. Role play is utilized to extend
  • Principal 13. Sign variations are used to
    represent repetitive English phrases
  • Principal 14. A positive and reinforcing
    environment is established for deaf readers
  • Principal 15. Deaf children are expected to
    become literate

Applying the principles to the classroom
  • Andrews, Winograd, and Deville (1996) proposed
    prereading instruction be implemented in
  • They did a study to test ASL summary technique
  • Six steps involved in the technique
  • Study showed six steps greatly improved retelling
    skills and comprehending the moral less found in
    reading selections

ASL Summary Techniques
  • designed to build background knowledge in the
    reader, activate old background knowledge, and
    focus the readers attention on information in
    the text before he reads the actual text
    (Andrews, Winograd, Deville, 1996, p.31).

ASL Summary Techniques
  • Step 1. The teacher gives a summary of a short
    fable in ASL.
  • Step 2. The student independently reads the
  • Step 3. The student individually retells all he
    or she can remember about the text.
  • Step 4. The student tells the moral lesson of the
    fable to the teacher.
  • Step 5. The teacher and the student discuss the
    students retelling and moral lesson response.
  • Step 6. The teacher fills in semantic and
    conceptual gaps.