1 Chapter 1 Adjusting to Modern Life 2 The Paradox of Progress
Sources of Paradoxical Experience
Gains vs. Losses
Abundance vs. Dissatisfaction
Appeal vs. Regret
Progress vs. Devastation
3 Possible Explanations for The Paradox of Progress
Changes in Value Systems
Alienation due to rapid cultural change
4 The Search for Direction
Popularity of Dr. Talk shows
5 The Search for Direction Self-Help Books
Advice Largely unsupported by research
Lack of explicit directions
6 The Search for DirectionFinding A Self-Help Book
Clarity in communication
Plausible expectations about immediate change
Rooted in Theory Research
Provide explicit directions for changing behaviors
Focus on a particular topic
7 The Search for DirectionApproach of our Textbook
Accuracy in knowledge of psychological principles is valuable
Critical attitude about psychological issues and enhance critical thinking
Provide doorway to other resources
8 Guidelines for Thinking Critically
Ask questions be open to wonder
Define the problem/terminology
Examine the evidence
Analyze biases assumptions in self others
Avoid emotional reasoning
9 Text Definition of The Psychology of Adjustment
the science that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it
the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
10 Text Definition of The Psychology of Adjustment
Adjustment is the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life.
11 The A B Cs of Psychological Processes
A Affect (emotion) or Attitude (an evaluative feeling toward something)
B Behavior (action)
C Cognition (belief)
12 Alternative Definition to The Psychology of Adjustment
Adjustment examines how peoples affect/attitudes behaviors and beliefs influence their coping with the demands and challenges of their everyday life.
13 A B C Connections FREE YOUR MIND 14 A B C Connections Affect
The A B Cs are part of a dynamic system
Adjustment can be thought of in terms of A B C links (e.g. AB AC BC BA CA CB).
Often the links between A B Cs are reciprocal in nature.
Behavior Cognition 15 The Scientific Approach to Behavior
The commitment to empiricism.
Empiricism is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation.
Thus the conclusions of scientific psychology are based on careful systemic observation rather than speculation or common sense.
16 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.)
Advantages of the scientific approach.
Clarity and precision empiricism demands that scientists state exactly what they are referring to in their hypothesis.
Relative intolerance for error.
Scientists ideas are subjected to empirical tests.
Their ideas and research are scrutinized by other scientists.
17 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.)
Experimental research looking for causes.
The experiment is a research method in which the investigator manipulates one (independent) variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second (dependent) variable as a result.
18 Schachter (1959) 19 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.)
A correlation coefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between two variables.
It provides two pieces of information
The direction (positive or negative) of the relationship
The strength of two related variables.
20 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.)
Positive Correlations indicate that two variables covary in the same direction.
High scores on variable x are related to high scores on variable y.
Negative Correlations indicate that two variables covary in the opposite direction.
High scores on variable x are related to low scores on variable y (see Figure 1.3).
21 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.) 22 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.)
Strength of the correlation is indicated by the size of the correlation coefficient.
Correlation coefficients can range from 0 to 1.00 (for positive correlations) and from 0 to -1.00 (for negative correlations).
Coefficient near 0 indicate there is no association or a very weak association between variables.
Coefficients near either 1.00 or -1.00 indicate strong associations (see Figure 1.4).
23 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.) 24 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.)
Advantages of using correlations.
They allow us to explore variables not suitable for experimental research.
(e.g. it may not be ethical to purposely manipulate some variables.)
They allow investigation of a broader array of psychological phenomena than is possible in experimental research.
25 The Scientific Approach to Behavior (cont.)
Disadvantages of using correlations.
Correlations only tell us that two variables are related not how the two variables are related.
x could be causing changes in y
y could be causing changes in x or
z a third variable could be causing changes in x and y (see Figure 1.7).
Thus we cannot determine cause and effect from correlations alone.
26 The 3rd Variable Problem in Establishing Causality Figure 1.7 27 The Roots of Happiness An Empirical Analysis
What makes people happy
What is not very important
Money the correlation between income and happiness is very weak (.13) in U.S.
Age age accounts for less than 1 of variation in reported happiness.
Gender gender also accounts for less than 1 of variation in reported happiness.
28 The Roots of Happiness (cont.)
What is not very important (cont.)
Parenthood good and bad aspects of parenthood offset each other.
Intelligence there is no association between IQ and happiness.
Physical attractiveness attractive people enjoy many advantages in society but the relationship with happiness is very weak.
29 The Roots of Happiness (cont.)
What is somewhat important
Health health and happiness have a positive correlation of .32.
Social activity people who are satisfied with their friendships report above-average levels of happiness.
Religion people with sincere religious convictions are more likely to be happy.
30 The Roots of Happiness (cont.)
What is very important
Love and marriage across cultures for men and women married people are happier than people who are single or divorced.
Work job satisfaction is strongly related to happiness.
Personality extraversion (or positive emotionality) is a strong predictor of happiness.
31 The Roots of Happiness (cont.)
Conclusions regarding roots of happiness
Subjective feelings of happiness are more important than objective measures.
2. Happiness is relative.
We evaluate our happiness relative to what others around us have and
We evaluate our happiness relative to our own expectations.
32 The Roots of Happiness (cont.)
Happiness is affected by hedonic adaptation.
-This occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness-unpleasantnes s of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point or baseline for comparison is changed.
(e.g. when circumstances improve such as income our baseline for happiness increases as well so we dont feel happier.)
34 Subjective vs. Eudaimonic Forms of Well-Being
Subjective Well-Being (e.g. Diener 1984)
Hedonic (Affective) qualities
Ryff (1989) A Multicomponent view
35 Eudaimonic Well-Being
Ryff (1989) proposed that psychological well-being is comprised of 6 components
Positive Relationships with Others
Purpose in Life
36 Relationships Between Eudaimonic Subjective Well-Being
Autonomy (r .38)
Environmental Mastery (r .48)
Personal Growth (r .43)
Positive Relationships (r .36)
Purpose in Life (r .39)
Self-Acceptance (r .65)
Note Findings based on (Goldman Brunnell Kernis Heppner Davis 2005) reported in Kernis and Goldman (2006).
37 Application Improving Academic Performance
Tips for developing sound study habits.
Set up a schedule for studying.
Find a place to study where you can concentrate.
Reward your studying.
38 Improving Academic Performance (cont.)
Improving your reading.
SQ3R is a study system designed to promote effective reading that includes five steps
Survey glance at headings of material.
Question convert these into questions.
Read try to answer the questions.
Recite recite your answers out loud.
Review go back over key points.
39 Improving Academic Performance (cont.)
Tips for getting more out of lectures.
Use active listening.
Prepare for lecture by reading ahead.
Write down lecturers thoughts in your own words.
Ask questions during lecture.
40 Improving Academic Performance (cont.)
Tips for applying memory principles.
Engage in adequate practice.
Use overlearning continued rehearsal of material after you have first appeared to master it.
Use distributed practice breaking up studying is more effective than cramming.
Minimize interference before an exam try not to study material from other classes.
41 Improving Academic Performance (cont.)
Organize information outline material from your text to enhance retention.
Emphasize deep processing try to make material personally meaningful.
Use verbal mnemonics or memory aids.
(e.g. the narrative method see Figure 1.14.)
Use visual mnemonics.
(e.g. the Method of Loci see Figure 1.15.)
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