Title: Philosophical Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
1 Philosophical Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education 2 Philosophy is
A search for meaning and truth
The general beliefs and attitudes of an individual or group The body of principles underlying a branch of learning or major discipline 3 Original Definition
Love of Wisdom
Definition was developed by Socrates
4 Of What Value is theStudy of Philosophy
Provide clarification for what is or has been done by others
Provides a framework for life and our action
Can be useful in solving educational problems
A good mental activity
5 Three Major Areas of Philosophy
Metaphysics - the nature of reality
Axiology - the nature of values
Epistemology - the nature of knowledge
Concerned with theories of the nature of reality.
Why does the earth exist
How did it come into being
Is mankind free
Is there a God
What is real
Common terms used in metaphysics are
Metaphysics is the area many people think of when they hear the term philosophy.
concerned with theories of value
Two major divisions of axiology
What is right and wrong
What is evil and good
What is beautiful and ugly
Some common terms used that relate to axiology are pessimism optimism hedonism egoism and altruism.
Concerned with theories of the nature of knowledge
How do people learn
What knowledge is of utmost value
What are the different types of knowledge
What are the educational goals of agricultural education and extension
10 Philosophical Schools of Thought
12 Idealism (Idea-ism)
Idealist believe that ideas are the only true reality.
The material world is characterized by change instability and uncertainty some ideas are enduring
We should be concerned primarily with the search for truth. Since truth is perfect and eternal it cannot be found in the world of matter that is both imperfect and constantly changing.
14 Methods of Idealism
Study the classics for universal truths
Mathematics (224 is an absolute truth)
Dialectic (critical discussion)
The dialectic looks at both sides of an issue
Lecture is used to transmit known truths and to stimulate thinking.
15 The Dialectic Antithesis War is bad Thesis War is good Synthesis 16 Leaders of Idealism
Socrates (469-399 BC)
Plato (427-347 BC)
St. Augustine (350-4300
Regarded as the father of philosophy
Believed we learned through questioning (the Socratic method)
Wrote nothing what we know of his views were written by his followers most notably Plato
A student of Socrates
Known as the father of idealism
Operated a school named the Academy
19 Platos views toward education
The state must take an active role in educational matters
The curriculum must lead bright students from a concern with concrete data toward abstract thinking
Students with little ability for abstraction should go into the military business and industry.
Those who demonstrate proficiency in the dialectic would continue their education and become philosophers in positions of power to lead the state toward the highest good (the Philosopher-King)
Believed both boys and girls should be educated and girls should be equals.
21 Augustine (354-430)
Born in North Africa (Roman citizen)
Mother - Christian Father - Pagan
Attended Roman Primary School
grammar and literature emphasized
At 16 went to Carthage and studied
rhetoric music geometry grammar mathematics
During his younger days He lied he stole he wenched.
22 Augustine. . .
Became a grammaticus in his native town
Taught rhetoric in Carthage Rome Milan
While in his 30s was converted to Christianity took his holy orders and became a great evangelist and priest.
Found great favor in the church andbecame a great religious leader.
People do not create knowledge God hasalready created it but people can discover it through trying to find God.
24 Augustines Beliefs
Women were held in low regard (this view was incorporated into the church and held for a thousand years)
Only a few people possessed the mental ability to quest for the truth. Therefore most people should rely on the church for knowledge.
25 Augustines Beliefs
Augustine used Greek writings but began to have doubts how people who did not know God could write anything which could be of value to Christians.
In 401 the Church outlawed pagan writings such as Plato and Aristotle (even the church leaders were not allowed to read the ancient literature). This continued for 1000 years.
26 Augustines Beliefs about Teaching
Encouraged the use of summaries
Believed teachers should teach through persuasion and by leading impeccable lives.
Teachers should not expect to increase their worldly stores through teaching.
The stick and fist were needed to keep students in line since people were wicked (because of Adam).
27 The Church and Idealism
Idealism has exerted a great amount of influence on Christianity.
For centuries the Christian church was the creator and protector of schooling.
Generations educated in these schools were indoctrinated with the idealistpoint of view (including early American education).
28 Descartes (1596-1650)
A renown mathematician
Wrestled with the question of what was real and did he really exist (perhaps he was a dream). He finally concluded
I think therefore I am
Thinking and ideas are the ultimate truth.
29 George Berkeley (1685-1753)
Existence is dependent upon some mind to know it and if there are no minds nothing would exist unless it is perceived in the mind of God.
30 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
the greatest and most difficult problem to which a man can devote himself is the problem of education
Education should teach students how to think according to principles - moral laws moral ideals and moral imperatives
Enlightenment is the goal of education
31 Educational Aims of Idealism
Develop the mind
Search for true ideas
32 Educational Aims of Idealism
True education is concerned with ideas rather than matter.
The idealists wants to give students a broad understanding of the world in which they live.
33 The Idealist and the Chair
To an idealist the concept of chair is important. You could destroy all the chairs in the world but they would still exist in the mind. The idea of a chair is the ultimate truth.
34 Realism 35 Realism
Reality knowledge and value exist independent of the human mind. Trees sticks and stones exist whether or not there is a human mind to perceive them.
Ideas must be subject to public verification
must be proven through scientific experimentation
Science for the sake of science
Universal properties of objects remain constant and never change whereas particular components do change
Need to study nature systematically
Deductive reasoning - truth is derived from generalizations
Earth is the center of the universe
39 Leaders of Realism
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
John Locke (1632-1704)
40 Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Ideas may be important but a proper study of matter could lead us to better and more distinct ideas.
41 Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Golden Mean - a path between extremes
Balance is key - body and mind operate together in a balanced whole
42 Aquinas (1225-1274)
God created matter therefore it must be ok to learn about it
This view helped lead civilization out of the dark ages replaced the influence of Augustine
Truth was passed from God to Humans by divine revelation but God alsohas endowed humans withthe reasoning ability toseek out truth.
44 Bacon (1561-1626)
Novum Organum - challenged Aristotelian logic
Science must be concerned with inquiry pure and simple with no preconceived notions
We need to examine all previously accepted knowledge
45 Bacon (1561-1626)
Need to rid our mind of idols
Idol of the Den - we believe things because of limited experience
Idol of the Tribe - we believe things because many people believe them
Idol of the Marketplace - we are mislead by language
Idol of the Theatre - Religion and philosophy may prevent us from see the world objectively
46 Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Known as the father of inductive reasoning
arrive at generalizations from systematic observations of particulars
Died as a result of the only experiment he performed - stuffed a dead chicken with snow to see if it would preserve the flesh caught a cold and died
47 John Locke (1632-1704)
At birth the mind is a blank sheet of paper - a tabla rasa
All ideas are derived from experience by way of sensation and reflection
48 Realism and Education
Promotes the study of science and the scientific method
There are essential ideas and facts to be learned therefore lecture and other formal methods of teaching are useful
49 Realism and Education
Find specialization to be desirable
ringing bells departments daily lesson plans
If something exists it can be measured
IQ Effective teaching
Approve of competencies performance-based teaching accountability
50 Realism and Education
Teacher should present material in a systematic organized way and teach that there are clearly defined criteria for making judgements in art economics politics etc.
51 The Realist and the Chair
To a realist the actuality of chair is important. A realist would measure the chair weight it examine the physical characteristics etc. The fact that the chair exists is the ultimate truth.
52 Pragmatism 53 Pragmatism
The root of the word Pragmatism is a Greek word meaning work.
It is primarily a 20th century philosophy developed by Americans.
Truth is what works in the real world. We must keep the desired end in mind.
Ideas should be applied to solving problems including social problems.
54 Leaders in Pragmatism
Auguste Comte 1798-1857
Not a pragmatist but emphasized using science to solve social problems
55 Leaders in Pragmatism
Charles Darwin 1809-1882
Reality is not found in Being but in Becoming
Reality is open-ended in process with no fixed end.
56 American Pragmatists
Charles Sanders Peirce 1839-1914
Widely acknowledged as the father of pragmatism
Wrote an article on How to make our Ideas Clear in Popular Science Monthly that is regarded as the basis for pragmatism.
True knowledge of anything depends upon verfication of our ideas in actual experience
57 American Pragmatists
William James 1842-1910
The truth of an idea is its workability
Truth is not absolute and immutable rather it is made in actual real-life
James called his philosophy radical empericism
Jamess 1907 book Pragmatism did much to promote pragmatism.
Rufus Stimson a leader in agricultural education studied under James.
58 American Pragmatists
John Dewey 1859-1952
Need to concentrate on real-life problems
Sought practical solutions for practical problems
How We Think
Define the problem
Formulate possible solutions
Examine Evaluate possible solutions
Accept or reject solutions
59 Pragmatism and Education
Education should be preparation for life
Solving problems is important therefore use real-life situations
Teaching methods should be varied and flexible
Education should be action oriented
Needs and interests of students should be considered
60 Pragmatism and Education
Project approach to teaching is desirable
Curriculum is varied
A broad education is more desirable
61 The Pragmatist and the Chair
To a pragmatist the use of the chair is important. What is the purpose of the chair and does it fulfil that purpose The workability of a chair is the ultimate truth.
62 Reconstructionism 63 Reconstructionism
Society is in need of constant reconstruction
Such social change involves both a reconstruction of education and the use of education in reconstructing society
Problems are viewed holistically
Futuristic thinking (utopian thinking)
Do not believe preparing students for the world as it exists today will be sufficient (too much emphasis on the status quo)
65 Reconstuctionists want to
link thought with action
theory with practice
intellect with activism
The goal of education should be to emphasize the need for change
Students should be out in the real world
Technology is valuable in solving problems
67 Noted Reconstructionists
George S. Counts
John Dewey (he is also recognized as a pragmatist)
68 The Reconstructionist and the Chair
To a reconstructionist the redesign of the chair to better serve the needs of society is important. How can the chair be improved to prepare society for the future
69 Existentialism 70 Existentialism
Received new emphasis in the 60s and 70s
curriculum was revamped to meet the needs (more accurately - demands) of individuals
Pass or fail grade policies
extended drop deadlines in college
elimination of core courses
decline of corporal punishment
In extension there was a focus on serving non-traditional clientele
Focus shifted toward the urban environment
Traditional philosophies - consider questions about the nature of knowledge truth and meaning but
Existentialists are concerned with how these things are educationally significant within the lived experiences of individuals.
74 Existentialism and Education
People come first then ideas
People create ideas
Emphasis on self discovery
75 Existentialism and Schools
A good education emphasizes individuality
Students should take a positive role in shaping their schools
76 Existentialism and Schools
Students shouldnt have to
There is no set curriculum
77 Noted Existentialists
78 The Existentialist and the Chair
To an existentialist the individuals use of chair is important. Whatever the individual wants to do with the chair is important. The experience of the individual with the chair is the ultimate truth.
79 Match the philosophyto the image
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