unrest among ethnic groups desirous of independence
Russia Tsar Nicholas II
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
Revolution of 1905
World War I 1914-1918
(Great War or European War)
The worst war in modern history up to that point
June 28 1914 the Austria-Hungary Habsburg heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Sarajevo--capital of the province of Bosnia.
Bosnia claimed by both Austria-Hungary andSerbia.
Serbian terrorist groups organized acts of violence against A-H
One such groups--the Black Hand--succeeded in assassinating Franz Ferdinand.
Gavrilo Princip--Serbian nationalist and member of terrorist group killed the heir to the A-H throne to end Austrian control over Bosnia and seize Bosnia for Serbia
Austria-Hungary issued ultimatum against Serbian government
Serbia refused terms
War between A-H and Serbia
July 28 1914
Within one week all the great powers of Europe will be at war with each other.
Princips bullet would eventually cost 36 million casualties in killed wounded and missing.
Causes of World War I
Long terms causes
tensions within European political system brought about by German and Italian unification--altering traditional balance of power
too many powerful nations too close together
Aggressive nationalism or extreme nationalism
superiority in nation
if any question why we died tell them because our fathers lied.
Imperialist rivalry led to more tension in Europe.
Wars of imperialism
Economic rivalry for limited trade
glory of war combined with accumulation of weapons of war
greatness of war--duty honor country
war as a game test of strength
German naval threat
Britain vs. Germany
HMS Dreadnought--1906 Sir J. Fisher
battleship design--newest features guns
British navy traditionally twice as large as any other rival
Germany wanted to build a larger navy
stole the design for the Dreadnought and began production of their own
British government angry at Germans but could really do nothing but protest.
Tensions building between Germany and Britain
System of Alliances
France in need of allies after 1871 joined with Russia in the Dual Entente.
France and Britain became allies after Boer War
France Russia Britain allies in 1907 to form Triple Entente.
Triple Alliance 1882
Germany Italy and Austria Hungary came together in alliance of central European powers
Both alliances had mutual guarantees of support in time of war. If one goes to war their allies go to war. Only the British held out the option of not going to war.
Germany 1894 Schlieffen Plan
Plan for a two front war against France and Russia
Germans had a 6 week time table to first attack France--take Paris--then use the railroads to cross Germany to take on the Russians
This plan counted on victory and British neutrality
Schlieffen plan scheduled and planned to the last detail
Austria-Hungary and its troubled provinces in a series of wars 1912-1913
Sarajevo June 28 1914--assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Austria-Hungary and Serbia at War
Austria called on ally Germany in Triple Alliance. German government gave the Austrian government a blank check support.
Germans wanting a little war
Serbia called on its ally Russia for aid.
Russia mobilized against A-H and Germany July 25 but waited.
Germany did the same against Russia--
Germany issued ultimatum to France to stay neutral. France had to support Russia as a member of Triple Entente.
Germans had Schlieffen plan that called for war against France and Germany
France and Russia mobilized against Germany August 1914
British government waited until last possible moment --hoping for a diplomatic solution.
Germans began invasion of France by crossing neutral Belgium. This gave the British the opportunity to enter war against Germany.
Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance
Short War Illusion
home by Christmas
great and glorious and short
manliness and strength
destiny of their nation to win
Tragic reality The real war will be more horrible than any of the soldiers could imagine. Horror beyond imagination.
Pray God you may never know the Hell where youth and laughter go.
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