Adjustment the psychological process of adapting to coping with and managing the challenges of everyday life
Dealing with hassles
3 What are contexts
Contexts the historical economic social and cultural factors and settings that influence us
Where you come from
With whom you spend time
What has happened to you
4 What is the ecological theory
Developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner
Made up of five systems
5 What is diversity and how is it related to adjustment
Diversity All the ways in which people are different
culture ethnicity race gender sex sexual orientation age religion social class communication style family background learning style personality etc.
Diversity influences what we do how we think and how we and feel.
6 Diversity (cont)
Myths of diversity
Diversity women minorities
Diversity is to be feared.
Diversity is best when ignored.
The patterns beliefs and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation
8 Cross-cultural Studies
Definition involves the comparison of one culture with another (or others)
Cultural differences in the greeting methods of North American men and Iranian men were studied. Findings North American men generally shake hands or pat one anothers shoulders upon greeting while Iranian men tend to greet one another with a kiss (Huffman 2004).
9 Ethnicity Race
Ethnicity Rooted in cultural heritage nationality race religion and language
(African American Latino Asian American European American Native American Italian American etc.)
Race a controversial classification of people according to real or imagined biological characteristics (e.g. skin color hair texture blood group eye color etc.)included in ones ethnicity (White Black Hispanic etc)
10 Gender Sex
Psychological vs. Biological
11 What is critical thinking
Definition the process of thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence
Three attitudes to stimulate critical thinking (Brooks Brooks 2001)
Be open-minded and curious.
Be intellectually careful.
12 Six Critical Thinking Strategies
Describe and interpret behavior carefully.
Identify values and challenge assumptions about behavior.
Examine the influence of context and culture on behavior.
Seek multiple points of view and alternative explanations.
Appreciate individual and group differences.
Engage in self-reflection to improve self-knowledge.
13 Subjective Well-Being and Adjustment
What is subjective well-being
Definition the scientific term for how people evaluate their lives in terms of their happiness and life satisfaction
14 Characteristics of Happy People
Good social relationships
Cope well with stress
High levels of creativity self-esteem optimism extraversion and self-control
Good work ethics
Spirituality and faith
15 Myths Related to Happiness
Rich people are happier.
Beautiful people are happier.
Younger people are happier.
Couples with children are happier.
Skinny people are happier.
Healthy people are happier.
16 What is psychology
Definition the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Four goals of psychology
17 The Three Aspects of Psychology
1. Behavior everything we do that can be directly observed
inferences conclusions that we draw from behavior
2. Mental processes consist of thoughts feelings and motives that each person experiences privatelythey cannot be observed directly
3. Science scientific methods are used to test inferences
18 What is the scientific method and how is it used to test hypotheses
Definition a four-step process used in conducting research
Identify/conceptualize the problem.
Collect research information/data.
Analyze the data.
19 The Scientific Method (cont..)
Hypothesis a prediction that can be tested
e.g. Children who eat pure sugar become more
hyperactive than children who eat sugar
Theory a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempt to explain certain behaviorsbased on a hypothesis
e.g. Pure sugar causes children to become
20 Two Types of Research Studies
Experiment a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant (cause and effect)
Correlational research research in which the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics (correlation equals relationshipit does not equal causation)
21 Elements of an Experiment
Independent variable the manipulated influential experimental factor in an experiment (e.g. pure sugar)
Dependent variable the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable (e.g. hyperactivity)
The dependent variable (level of hyperactivity) depends on the independent variable (whether or not one is given pure sugar to eat)
22 Elements of an Experiment (cont.)
Experimental group a group whose experience is manipulated in an experiment
e.g. group that receives pure sugar
Control group a group that is as much like the experimental group as possible and is treated the same in every way except for the manipulated factor
e.g. the group that receives the sugar substitute (placebo)
Random assignment when the researcher assigns participants to experimental and control groups by chance
23 Why do correlational studies
Post hoc investigations (i.e. issues investigated after the fact) e.g. effects of childhood experiences on adult behavior
Inability to manipulatee.g. effects of terrorist attacks on survivors
24 Four Types of Resources for Improving Adjustment
1. Mental health professionals
2. National support groups (e.g. for dealing with issues related to alcohol death divorce abuse etc.)
25 Four Types of Resources for Improving Adjustment (cont.)
3. Self-help books
e.g. Youve got to be you Im okay youre okay Get in touch with the real you
4. The Internet
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